OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 18 — Sep. 8, 2014
  • pp: 21626–21640

Real-time laser differential confocal microscopy without sample reflectivity effects

Lirong Qiu, Dali Liu, Weiqian Zhao, Han Cui, and Zhong Sheng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 18, pp. 21626-21640 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.021626


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3884 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A new real-time laser differential confocal microscopy (RLDCM) without sample reflectivity difference effects is proposed for imaging height topography of sample surface, which divides the confocal microscopy imaging light path into two confocal microscopy imaging paths before and after focus with the equal axial detector offset oriented in opposite direction. By dividing the difference of the two signals simultaneously detected from these two confocal imaging paths by the higher signal between these two signals, RLDCM separates the signal that comes from reflectivity heterogeneity from the topographic signal in real time for the first time. RLDCM significantly reduces the height topography imaging time by single-layer scanning for the sample surface with reflectivity heterogeneity, and it achieves high axial resolution and lateral resolution similar to CM by optimizing the axial detector offset. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that RLDCM realizes the real-time surface imaging for line structures featuring Silicon Dioxide steps on a Silicon base and achieves 2-nm axial depth resolution without reducing lateral resolution.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
(120.6650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Surface measurements, figure
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy

ToC Category:
Microscopy

History
Original Manuscript: June 25, 2014
Revised Manuscript: August 13, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: August 24, 2014
Published: August 29, 2014

Citation
Lirong Qiu, Dali Liu, Weiqian Zhao, Han Cui, and Zhong Sheng, "Real-time laser differential confocal microscopy without sample reflectivity effects," Opt. Express 22, 21626-21640 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-18-21626


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. Gu, Three-Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, 1996), chap.3.
  2. T. Wilson, Confocal microscopy (Academic, 1990), chap.1.
  3. K. Taehoon, K. Taejoong, L. Seung Woo, G. Dae-Gab, and S. Jungwoo, “Optimum conditions for high-quality 3D reconstruction in confocal scanning microscopy,” Proc. SPIE6090, 181–187 (2006).
  4. A. K. Ruprecht, T. F. Wiesendanger, and H. J. Tiziani, “Signal evaluation for high-speed confocal measurements,” Appl. Opt.41(35), 7410–7415 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, “Superresolution in confocal scanning microscopy,” Opt. Lett.16(14), 1062–1064 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Martinez-Corral, C. Ibáñez-López, G. Saavedra, and M. Caballero, “Axial gain resolution in optical sectioning fluorescence microscopy by shaded-ring filters,” Opt. Express11(15), 1740–1745 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Zhao, L. Qiu, S. Chen, and Z. Feng, “Image Restoration Phase-Filtering Lateral Superresolution Confocal Microscopy,” Chin. Phys. Lett.23(4), 856–859 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Li, K. Herrmann, and F. Pohlenz, “Lateral scanning confocal microscopy for the determination of in-plane displacements of microelectromechanical systems devices,” Opt. Lett.32(12), 1743–1745 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. F. Aguilar, M. Lera, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging of spheres and surface profiling by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt.39(25), 4621–4628 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Yu, T. Chen, and J. Qu, “Improving FRET efficiency measurement in confocal microscopy imaging,” Chin. Opt. Lett.8(10), 947–949 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. C. L. Arrasmith, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “MEMS-based handheld confocal microscope for in-vivo skin imaging,” Opt. Express18(4), 3805–3819 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Visscher and K. G. Struik, “Optical profilometry and its application to mechanically inaccessible surfaces Part I: Principles of focus error detection,” Precis. Eng.16(3), 192–198 (1994). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Lee and J. Wang, “Noninterferometric differential confocal microscopywith 2-nm depth resolution,” Opt. Commun.135(4-6), 233–237 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. C. W. Tsai, C. H. Lee, and J. Wang, “Deconvolution of local surface response from topography in nanometer profilometry with a dual-scan method,” Opt. Lett.24(23), 1732–1734 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Effects of defocus and primary spherical aberration on images of a straight edge in confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt.33(4), 625–630 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Zhao, J. Tan, and L. Qiu, “Bipolar absolute differential confocal approach to higher spatial resolution,” Opt. Express12(21), 5013–5021 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Zhao, C. Liu, and L. Qiu, “Laser divided-aperture differential confocal sensing technology with improved axial resolution,” Opt. Express20(23), 25979–25989 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Kimura and T. Wilson, “Effect of axial pinhole displacement in confocal microscopes,” Appl. Opt.32(13), 2257–2261 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. S. Kino and T. R. Corle, Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy and Related Imaging Systems (Academic, 1996).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited