OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 18 — Sep. 8, 2014
  • pp: 21679–21689

High quality micro liquid crystal phase lenses for full resolution image steering in auto-stereoscopic displays

Kun Li, Brian Robertson, Mike Pivnenko, Yuanbo Deng, Daping Chu, Jiong Zhou, and Jun Yao  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 18, pp. 21679-21689 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2304 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The use of pixel-level tunable liquid crystal (LC) lenses to steer the images shown on a flat panel display in full resolution for auto-stereoscopic applications was proposed. Micro lenticular LC lenses of different full widths ranging from 40 to 140 µm were designed and fabricated with laser patterned transparent ITO electrodes as narrow as 10 µm in width and two LC materials of high birefringence. Optical characterization of the lenses showed consistent parabolic phase profiles closely matched to that of ideal lenses. A proof-of-concept device with an array of tunable micro LC lenses each covers two sub-pixels of different colors was fabricated and applied on a standard computer monitor to confirm its capability of sub-pixel-level image steering.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
(120.2040) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Displays
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(220.3620) Optical design and fabrication : Lens system design
(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: June 6, 2014
Revised Manuscript: July 14, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: July 16, 2014
Published: August 29, 2014

Kun Li, Brian Robertson, Mike Pivnenko, Yuanbo Deng, Daping Chu, Jiong Zhou, and Jun Yao, "High quality micro liquid crystal phase lenses for full resolution image steering in auto-stereoscopic displays," Opt. Express 22, 21679-21689 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Gotchev, G. B. Akar, T. Capin, D. Strohmeier, and A. Boev, “Three-dimensional media for mobile devices,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 708–741 (2011). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Harrold and G. Woodgate, “Autostereoscopic display technology for mobile 3DTV applications,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 6490 (2007).
  3. A. Boev and A. Gotchev, “Comparative study of autostereoscopic displays for mobile devices,” Proc. SPIE 7881, 78810B (2011).
  4. L. Hill and A. Jacobs, “3-D liquid crystal displays and their applications,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 575–590 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. N. A. Dodgson, “Optical devices: 3D without the glasses,” Nature 495(7441), 316–317 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
  7. Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Liquid Crystal based adaptive optics system to compensate both low and high order aberrations in a model eye,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1946–1953 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep. 471(5), 221–267 (2009).
  9. A. F. Naumov, M. Y. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, “Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 992–994 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Ren, D. W. Fox, B. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11328–11335 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Bagwell and D. Wick, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908 (2006).
  12. M. Reznikov, Y. Reznikov, K. Slyusarenko, J. Varshal, and M. Manevich, “Adaptive properties of a liquid crystal cell with a microlens-profiled aligning surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(10), 103118 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. V. V. Presnyakov and T. V. Galstian, “Electrically tunable polymer stabilized liquid-crystal lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. H.-C. Lin, M.-S. Chen, and Y.-H. Lin, “A review of electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lenses,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 12(6), 234–240 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(2A), 480–484 (2000).
  16. K. Won, R. Rajasekharan, P. Hands, Q. Dai, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Adaptive lenticular lens array using a hybrid liquid crystal–carbon nanotube nanophotonic device,” Opt. Eng. 50(5), 054002 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. S.-C. Liu, C.-L. Tsou, and C.-W. Chang, “Autostereoscopic 2D/3D display using liquid crystal lens and its applications for tablet PC,” Proc. SPIE 8043, 80430P (2011).
  18. D. Liang, J. Luo, W. Zhao, D.-H. Li, and Q.-H. Wang, “2D/3D switchable autostereoscopic display based on polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal lens,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(10), 609–612 (2012). [CrossRef]
  19. Y.-P. Huang, C.-W. Chen, T.-C. Shen, and J.-F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal (MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Res. 1(1), 39–42 (2010).
  20. D. Chu, B. Robertson, J. Yao, and J. Zhou, “Apparatus, methods and display for stereo imaging,” 201310307101.9, China (2013).
  21. Z. Zhang, H. Yang, B. Robertson, M. Redmond, M. Pivnenko, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, and D. Chu, “Diffraction based phase compensation method for phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices in operation,” Appl. Opt. 51(17), 3837–3846 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Kleman and O. D. Lavrentovich, Soft Matter Physics: An Introduction (Springer New York, NY, 2003) pp. 388–399.
  24. E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, UK, 2002) pp. 273–276.
  25. K. Li, B. Robertson, M. Pivnenko, D. Chu, J. Zhou, and J. Yao, “Pixel-level tunable liquid crystal lenses for auto-stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 9005, 900505 (2014). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited