OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 3 — Feb. 10, 2014
  • pp: 2536–2544

Stimulated emission in GaN-based laser diodes far below the threshold region

Ding Li, Hua Zong, Wei Yang, Liefeng Feng, Juan He, Weimin Du, Cunda Wang, Ya-Hong Xie, Zhijian Yang, Bo Shen, Guoyi Zhang, and Xiaodong Hu  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 2536-2544 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1546 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We identify that the stimulated emission of GaN laser diodes (LDs) emerges far below the traditionally recognized threshold from both optical and electrical experiments. Below the threshold, the linear-polarized stimulated emission has been the dominating part of overall emission and closely related to resonant cavity. Its intensity increases super linearly with current while that of spontaneous emission increases almost linearly. Moreover, the separation of quasi-Fermi levels of electrons and holes across the active region has already exceeded the photon emission energy, namely, realized the population-inversion.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.2020) Lasers and laser optics : Diode lasers
(140.3430) Lasers and laser optics : Laser theory
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(140.3295) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam characterization

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: December 2, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 17, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 19, 2014
Published: January 29, 2014

Ding Li, Hua Zong, Wei Yang, Liefeng Feng, Juan He, Weimin Du, Cunda Wang, Ya-Hong Xie, Zhijian Yang, Bo Shen, Guoyi Zhang, and Xiaodong Hu, "Stimulated emission in GaN-based laser diodes far below the threshold region," Opt. Express 22, 2536-2544 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in ingan-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012). [CrossRef]
  3. C. S. Kim, Y. D. Jang, D. M. Shin, J. H. Kim, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, M. S. Noh, K. J. Yee, “Estimation of relative defect densities in InGaN laser diodes by induced absorption of photoexcited carriers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27136–27141 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Scholz, H. Braun, U. T. Schwarz, S. Brüninghoff, D. Queren, A. Lell, U. Strauss, “Measurement and simulation of filamentation in (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 16(10), 6846–6859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Meyer, H. Braun, U. T. Schwarz, S. Tautz, M. Schillgalies, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “Spectral dynamics of 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes grown on GaN and SiC substrate,” Opt. Express 16(10), 6833–6845 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. C. Sasaoka, K. Fukuda, M. Ohya, K. Shiba, M. Sumino, S. Kohmoto, K. Naniwae, M. Matsudate, E. Mizuki, I. Masumoto, R. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Sasaki, K. Nishi, “Over 1000 mW single mode operation of planar inner stripe blue-violet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203(7), 1824–1828 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Nakamura, “High-power InGaN-based blue laser diodes with a long lifetime,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1-4), 242–247 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Khan, “Semiconductor photonics: Laser diodes go green,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 432–434 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, “510–515 nm InGaN-Based Green Laser Diodes on c -Plane GaN Substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, U. Strauß, “InGaN laser diodes with 50 mW output power emitting at 515 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071103 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, K. Torii, H. Yoshida, “A 340-nm-band ultraviolet laser diode composed of GaN well layers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3133–3137 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. L. Chuang, “Physics of Optoelectronic Devices,” in Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley-Intescience Publication, New York, 1995), pp. 399.
  16. P. Barnes, T. Paoli, “Derivative measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of double-heterostructure injection lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(10), 633–639 (1976). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Paoli, P. Barnes, “Saturation of the junction voltage in stripe-geometry (AlGa)As double-heterostructure junction lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(12), 714 (1976). [CrossRef]
  18. C. D. Wang, C. Y. Zhu, G. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, L. Li, “Accurate electrical characterization of forward AC behavior of real semiconductor diode: giant negative capacitance and nonlinear interfacial layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(4), 1145–1148 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, X. S. Xie, C. Z. Lu, “Simultaneous sudden changes of electrical behavior at the threshold in laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063102 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, W. M. Du, “Deep saturation of junction voltage at large forward current of light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 094511 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013). [CrossRef]
  22. E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009). [CrossRef]
  23. K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Ling, T. Lu, S. Chang, J. Chen, H. Kuo, S. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010). [CrossRef]
  25. T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010). [CrossRef]
  26. K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 125 (2007).
  27. S. E. Brinkley, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011). [CrossRef]
  28. O. Brandt, P. Misra, T. Flissikowski, H. T. Grahn, “Excitation polarization anisotropy of the spontaneous emission from an M-plane GaN film: Competition between hole relaxation and exciton recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165308 (2013). [CrossRef]
  29. T. Flissikowski, K. Omae, P. Misra, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, “Ultrafast behavior of the polarization filtering in anisotropically strained M-plane GaN films: A time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(8), 085323 (2006). [CrossRef]
  30. N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  31. H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited