OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 3 — Feb. 10, 2014
  • pp: 3145–3150

Dimensional variation tolerant silicon-on-insulator directional couplers

Jared C. Mikkelsen, Wesley D. Sacher, and Joyce K. S. Poon  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 3145-3150 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2417 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We design silicon ridge/rib waveguide directional couplers which are simultaneously tolerant to width, height, coupling gap, and etch depth variations. Using wafer-scale measurements of structures fabricated in the IMEC Standard Passives process, we demonstrate the normalized standard deviation in the per-length coupling coefficient (a metric for the splitting ratio variation) of the variation-tolerant directional couplers is up to 4 times smaller than that of strip waveguide designs. The variation-tolerant couplers are also the most broadband and the deviation in the coupling coefficient shows the lowest spectral dependence.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: December 17, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 19, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 21, 2014
Published: February 3, 2014

Jared C. Mikkelsen, Wesley D. Sacher, and Joyce K. S. Poon, "Dimensional variation tolerant silicon-on-insulator directional couplers," Opt. Express 22, 3145-3150 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J.-M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, “Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: silicon photonics platform ePIXfab,” Electron. Lett. 45, 581–582 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. “Simply silicon,” Nat. Photonics4, 491 (2008).
  3. T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, G.-Q. Lo, S. Danziger, D. Prather, M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 206–208 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, M. R. Watts, “Silicon photonics manufacturing,” Opt. Express 18, 23598–23607 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, “Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 567–579 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 316–324 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Selvaraja, E. Rosseel, L. Fernandez, M. Tabat, W. Bogaerts, J. Hautala, P. Absil, “SOI thickness uniformity improvement using corrective etching for silicon nano-photonic device,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP)(2011), pp. 71–73. [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, G. Li, J. Yao, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Highly-efficient thermally-tuned resonant optical filters,” Opt. Express 18, 19055–19063 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, “Fabrication-tolerant four-channel wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on collectively tuned Si microrings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2785–2792 (2013). [CrossRef]
  11. C. K. Madesen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (John Wiley, 1999). [CrossRef]
  12. B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, P. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21, 9722–9733 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. R. Ong, R. Kumar, S. Mookherjea, “Ultra-high-contrast and tunable-bandwidth filter using cascaded high-order silicon microring filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1543–1546 (2013). [CrossRef]
  16. D. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. Reed, J. M. Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance mzi modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22, 1485–1487 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 47–73 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited