OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 3 — Feb. 10, 2014
  • pp: 3675–3683

Influence of Raman scattering on the light field in natural waters: a simple assessment

Howard R. Gordon  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 3675-3683 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (853 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A simple, surprisingly accurate, method for estimating the influence of Raman scattering on the upwelling light field in natural waters is developed. The method is based on the single (or quasi-single) scattering solution of the radiative transfer equation with the Raman source function. Given the light field at the excitation wavelength, accurate estimates (~1-10%) of the contribution of Raman scattering to the light field at the emission wavelength are obtained. The accuracy is only slightly degraded when typically measured aspects of the light field at the excitation are available.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(010.5620) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Radiative transfer

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: November 12, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 16, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 17, 2014
Published: February 7, 2014

Howard R. Gordon, "Influence of Raman scattering on the light field in natural waters: a simple assessment," Opt. Express 22, 3675-3683 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. R. Gordon and A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer, 1983) .
  2. S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn 40(6), 397–404 (1984). [CrossRef]
  3. R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27(19), 4002–4011 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29(1), 71–84 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. W. Kattawar, X. Xu, “Filling in of Fraunhofer lines in the ocean by Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 31(30), 6491–6500 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. I. Haltrin, G. W. Kattawar, “Self-consistent solutions to the equation of transfer with elastic and inelastic scattering in oceanic optics: I. model,” Appl. Opt. 32(27), 5356–5367 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Ge, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, “Simulation of inelastic-scattering contributions to the irradiance field in the ocean: variation in Fraunhofer line depths,” Appl. Opt. 32(21), 4028–4036 (1993). [PubMed]
  8. R. H. Stavn, “Effects of Raman scattering across the visible spectrum in clear ocean water: a Monte Carlo study,” Appl. Opt. 32(33), 6853–6863 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Ge, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “In situ measurements of inelastic light scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13,227–13,236 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman scattering on water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13151–13161 (1995). [CrossRef]
  11. J. S. Bartlett, “The influence of Raman scattering by seawater and fluorescence by phytoplankton on ocean color,” 1996, M.S. Thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  12. J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37(15), 3324–3332 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Ocean-color model incorporating transspectral processes,” Appl. Opt. 37(12), 2216–2227 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38(15), 3166–3174 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water; Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).
  16. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. R. Gordon, “Simple calculation of the diffuse reflectance of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 12(12), 2803–2804 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14(2), 417–427 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. J. Voss, “Use of the radiance distribution to measure the optical absorption coefficient in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1614–1622 (1989). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Wei, R. Van Dommelen, M. R. Lewis, S. McLean, K. J. Voss, “A new instrument for measuring the high dynamic range radiance distribution in near-surface sea water,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27024–27038 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013). [CrossRef]
  24. M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005). [CrossRef]
  25. T. K. Westberry, E. Boss, Z. Lee, “Influence of Raman scattering on ocean color inversion models,” Appl. Opt. 52(22), 5552–5561 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: the theory of its augmentation by chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18(8), 1161–1166 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7484–7504 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited