OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 4 — Feb. 24, 2014
  • pp: 4021–4028

Sparse sampling for fast hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging

Francesco Masia, Paola Borri, and Wolfgang Langbein  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 4021-4028 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1230 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate a method to increase the acquisition speed in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) hyperspectral imaging while retaining the relevant spectral information. The method first determines the important spectral components of a sample from a hyper-spectral image over a small number of spatial points but a large number of spectral points covering the accessible spectral range and sampling the instrument spectral resolution at the Nyquist limit. From these components we determine a small set of frequencies needed to retrieve the weights of the components with minimum error for a given measurement noise. Hyperspectral images with a large number of spatial points, for example covering a large spatial region, are then measured at this small set of frequencies, and a reconstruction algorithm is applied to generate the full spectral range and resolution. The resulting spectra are suited to retrieve from the CARS intensity the CARS susceptibility which is linear in the concentration, and apply unsupervised quantitative analysis methods such as FSC3 [1]. We demonstrate the method on CARS hyperspectral images of human osteosarcoma U2OS cell, with a reduction in the acquisition time by a factor of 25. This method is suited also for other coherent vibrational microscopy techniques such as stimulated Raman scattering, and in general for hyperspectral imaging techniques with sequential spectral acquisition.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(300.6230) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering
(180.4315) Microscopy : Nonlinear microscopy

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: November 22, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 3, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 3, 2014
Published: February 13, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Francesco Masia, Paola Borri, and Wolfgang Langbein, "Sparse sampling for fast hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging," Opt. Express 22, 4021-4028 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. Masia, A. Glen, P. Stephens, P. Borri, W. Langbein, “Quantitative chemical imaging using hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. (2013). DOI. [CrossRef]
  2. C. L. Evans, X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883–909 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. J. P. Pezacki, J. A. Blake, D. C. Danielson, D. C. Kennedy, R. K. Lyn, R. Singaravelu, “Chemical contrast for imaging living systems: molecular vibrations drive CARS microscopy,” Nat. Chem. Biol. 7, 137–145 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Zumbusch, W. Langbein, P. Borri, “Nonlinear vibrational microscopy applied to lipid biology,” Progress in Lipid Research 52, 615–632 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102, 16807–16812 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322, 1857–1861 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Ozeki, F. Dake, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, K. Itoh, “Analysis and experimental assessment of the sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 3651–3658 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330, 1368–1370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 134, 3623–3626 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. Pope, W. Langbein, P. Watson, P. Borri, “Simultaneous hyperspectral differential-CARS, TPF and SHG microscopy with a single 5 fs Ti:Sa laser,” Opt. Express 21, 7096–7106 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Kong, M. Ji, G. R. Holtom, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a rapidly tunable optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 145–147 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Liu, Y. J. Lee, M. T. Cicerone, “Broadband CARS spectral phase retrieval using a time-domain Kramers-Kronig transform,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1363–1365 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. M. Vartiainen, H. A. Rinia, M. Müller, M. Bonn, “Direct extraction of Raman line-shapes from congested CARS spectra,” Opt. Express 14, 3622–3630 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, J.-X. Cheng, “Spectrally modulated stimulated Raman scattering imaging with an angle-to-wavelength pulse shaper,” Opt. Express 21, 13864–13874 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nature Photon. 6, 845–851 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Qaisar, R.M. Bilal, W. Iqbal, M. Naureen, S. Lee, “Compressive sensing: from theory to applications, a survey,” J. Communications and Network 15, 443–456 (2013).
  17. T. Hellerer, A. M. Enejder, A. Zumbusch, “Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25–27 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. I. Rocha-Mendoza, W. Langbein, P. Borri, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman microspectroscopy using spectral focusing with glass dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 201103 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. W. Langbein, I. Rocha-Mendoza, P. Borri, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman micro-spectroscopy using spectral focusing: Theory and Experiment,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40, 800–808 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: AVI (2981 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (4263 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited