OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 4 — Feb. 24, 2014
  • pp: 4202–4213

Measurement and modeling of microlenses fabricated on single-photon avalanche diode arrays for fill factor recovery

Juan Mata Pavia, Martin Wolf, and Edoardo Charbon  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 4202-4213 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.004202


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (4790 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imagers typically have a relatively low fill factor, i.e. a low proportion of the pixel’s surface is light sensitive, due to in-pixel circuitry. We present a microlens array fabricated on a 128×128 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imager to enhance its sensitivity. The benefits and limitations of these light concentrators are studied for low light imaging applications. We present a new simulation software that can be used to simulate microlenses’ performance under different conditions and a new non-destructive contact-less method to estimate the height of the microlenses. Results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement, indicating that a gain >10 can be achieved for this particular sensor.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
(080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(220.1770) Optical design and fabrication : Concentrators
(230.5160) Optical devices : Photodetectors
(240.3990) Optics at surfaces : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Geometric Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 16, 2013
Revised Manuscript: November 22, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: November 22, 2014
Published: February 18, 2014

Citation
Juan Mata Pavia, Martin Wolf, and Edoardo Charbon, "Measurement and modeling of microlenses fabricated on single-photon avalanche diode arrays for fill factor recovery," Opt. Express 22, 4202-4213 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-4-4202


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. Popovic, T. Lasser, R. Rigler, “First fully integrated 2-d array of single-photon detectors in standard cmos technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 15, 963–965 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. E. Charbon, S. Donati, “Spad sensors come of age,” Opt. Photon. News 21, 34–41 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Mata Pavia, E. Charbon, M. Wolf, “3D near-infrared imaging based on a single-photon avalanche diode array sensor,” Proc. SPIE 8088, Diffuse Optical Imaging III, 808811 (2011).
  4. D.-U. Li, J. Arlt, J. Richardson, R. Walker, A. Buts, D. Stoppa, E. Charbon, R. Henderson, “Real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging system with a 32×32 0.13μ cmos low dark-count single-photon avalanche diode array,” Opt. Express 18, 10257–10269 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. R. Meijlink, C. Veerappan, S. Seifert, D. Stoppa, R. Henderson, E. Charbon, D. Schaart, “First measurement of scintillation photon arrival statistics using a high-granularity solid-state photosensor enabling timestamping of up to 20,480 single photons,” IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Med. Imag. Conf. Rec., pp. 2254–2257 (2011).
  6. S. Mandai, E. Charbon, “Timing optimization of a h-tree based digital silicon photomultiplier,” J. Instrum. 8, P09016 (2013). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, E. Charbon, “A 1024×8 700ps time-gated spad line sensor for laser raman spectroscopy and libs in space and rover-based planetary exploration,”Dig. Tech. Pap. IEEE Int. Solid State Circuits Conf., pp. 110–111 (2013).
  8. C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D.-U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, E. Charbon, “A 160× 128 single-photon image sensor with on-pixel 55ps 10b time-to-digital converter,”Dig. Tech. Pap. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., pp. 312–314 (2011).
  9. L. Pancheri, N. Massari, F. Borghetti, D. Stoppa, “A 32×32 spad pixel array with nanosecond gating and analog readout,” Proc. Intl. Image Sensor Workshop, R40 (2011).
  10. C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, F. Monnier, E. Charbon, “Single-photon synchronous detection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 1977–1989 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Deguchi, T. Maruyama, F. Yamasaki, T. Hamamoto, A. Izumi, “Microlens design using simulation program for ccd image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 38, 583–589 (1992). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Donati, G. Martini, M. Norgia, “Microconcentrators to recover fill-factor inimage photodetectors with pixel on-boardprocessing circuits,” Opt. Express 15, 18066–18075 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Donati, G. Martini, E. Randone, “Improving photodetector performance by means of microoptics concentrators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 661–665 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Niclass, C. Favi, T. Kluter, M. Gersbach, E. Charbon, “A 128×128 single-photon image sensor with column-level 10-bit time-to-digital converter array,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2977–2989 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited