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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 4 — Feb. 24, 2014
  • pp: 4202–4213

Measurement and modeling of microlenses fabricated on single-photon avalanche diode arrays for fill factor recovery

Juan Mata Pavia, Martin Wolf, and Edoardo Charbon  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 4202-4213 (2014)

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Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imagers typically have a relatively low fill factor, i.e. a low proportion of the pixel’s surface is light sensitive, due to in-pixel circuitry. We present a microlens array fabricated on a 128×128 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imager to enhance its sensitivity. The benefits and limitations of these light concentrators are studied for low light imaging applications. We present a new simulation software that can be used to simulate microlenses’ performance under different conditions and a new non-destructive contact-less method to estimate the height of the microlenses. Results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement, indicating that a gain >10 can be achieved for this particular sensor.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
(080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(220.1770) Optical design and fabrication : Concentrators
(230.5160) Optical devices : Photodetectors
(240.3990) Optics at surfaces : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Geometric Optics

Original Manuscript: October 16, 2013
Revised Manuscript: November 22, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: November 22, 2014
Published: February 18, 2014

Juan Mata Pavia, Martin Wolf, and Edoardo Charbon, "Measurement and modeling of microlenses fabricated on single-photon avalanche diode arrays for fill factor recovery," Opt. Express 22, 4202-4213 (2014)

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  1. A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. Popovic, T. Lasser, R. Rigler, “First fully integrated 2-d array of single-photon detectors in standard cmos technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 15, 963–965 (2003). [CrossRef]
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