OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 4 — Feb. 24, 2014
  • pp: 4849–4860

Optical image encryption and hiding based on a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer

Jun Li, Jiaosheng Li, Lina Shen, Yangyang Pan, and Rong Li  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 4849-4860 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (10447 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A method for optical image hiding and for optical image encryption and hiding in the Fresnel domain via completely optical means is proposed, which encodes original object image into the encrypted image and then embeds it into host image in our modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer architecture. The modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer not only provides phase shifts to record complex amplitude of final encrypted object image on CCD plane but also introduces host image into reference path of the interferometer to hide it. The final encrypted object image is registered as interference patterns, which resemble a Fresnel diffraction pattern of the host image, and thus the secure information is imperceptible to unauthorized receivers. The method can simultaneously realize image encryption and image hiding at a high speed in pure optical system. The validity of the method and its robustness against some common attacks are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(090.2880) Holography : Holographic interferometry
(100.1160) Image processing : Analog optical image processing
(110.1650) Imaging systems : Coherence imaging
(100.4998) Image processing : Pattern recognition, optical security and encryption

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: January 13, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 7, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 11, 2014
Published: February 21, 2014

Jun Li, Jiaosheng Li, Lina Shen, Yangyang Pan, and Rong Li, "Optical image encryption and hiding based on a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Express 22, 4849-4860 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Refregier, B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20(7), 767–769 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Javidi, T. Nomura, “Securing information by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 28–30 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, K. Singh, “Optical encryption by double-random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain,” Opt. Lett. 25(12), 887–889 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. F. Xu, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, G. Y. Dong, Y. R. Wang, “Two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application in image encryption,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1414–1416 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Singh, A. Sinha, “Optical image encryption using fractional Fourier transform and chaos,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46(2), 117–123 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. W. Chen, X. D. Chen, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3817–3819 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Kumar, J. Joseph, K. Singh, “Optical image encryption using a jigsaw transform for silhouette removal in interference-based methods and decryption with a single spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 50(13), 1805–1811 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Zhang, B. Wang, “Optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2443–2445 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Li, T. Zheng, Q. Z. Liu, R. Li, “Double-image encryption on joint transform correlator using two-step-only quadrature phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Commun. 285(7), 1704–1709 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. S. Zhang, D. Xiao, “Double optical image encryption using discrete Chirikov standard map and chaos- based fractional random transform,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51(4), 472–480 (2013). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Shi, T. Li, Y. Wang, Q. Gao, S. Zhang, H. Li, “Optical image encryption via ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1425–1427 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Zang, Z. Xie, Y. Zhang, “Optical image encryption with spatially incoherent illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1289–1291 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, “Optical image compression and encryption methods,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 589–636 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, N. Abdallah, M. Jridi, “Assessing the performance of a method of simultaneous compression and encryption of multiple images and its resistance against various attacks,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8025–8043 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, N. Abdallah, M. Jridi, “Simultaneous fusion, compression, and encryption of multiple images,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24023–24029 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Liu, Z. Liu, S. Liu, “Asymmetric cryptosystem using random binary phase modulation based on mixture retrieval type of Yang-Gu algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1651–1653 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. Liu, J. H. Xie, H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on interference of polarized light,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13418–13424 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Tao, Y. Xin, Y. Wang, “Double image encryption based on random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16067–16079 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, “Exploiting root-mean-square time-frequency structure for multiple-image optical compression and encryption,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1914–1916 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Chen, X. Chen, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Optical color-image encryption and synthesis using coherent diffractive imaging in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3853–3865 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson, M. G. Kuhn, “Information hiding - a survey,” Proc. IEEE 87(7), 1062–1078 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and J. A. Bloom, Digital Watermarking (Academic, 2001).
  23. S. Kishk, B. Javidi, “Information hiding technique with double phase encoding,” Appl. Opt. 41(26), 5462–5470 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. N. Takai, Y. Mifune, “Digital watermarking by a holographic technique,” Appl. Opt. 41(5), 865–873 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Kishk, B. Javidi, “Watermarking of three-dimensional objects by digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 28(3), 167–169 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. T. Chang, C. L. Tsan, “Image watermarking by use of digital holography embedded in the discrete-cosine-transform domain,” Appl. Opt. 44(29), 6211–6219 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Z. He, L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, X. L. Yang, “Phase-only encryption and watermarking based on phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2600–2606 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. F. Ge, L. F. Chen, D. M. Zhao, “A half-blind color image hiding and encryption method in fractional Fourier domains,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4254–4260 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. X. P. Zhang, Reversible data hiding in encrypted image,” IEEE Signal Proc. Let. 18, 255–258 (2011). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165168413002417 - item1#item1
  30. C. H. Chuang, Y. L. Chen, “Steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 028201 (2013). [CrossRef]
  31. W. M. Zhang, K. Ma, N. Yu, “Reversibility improved data hiding in encrypted images,” Signal Process. 94, 118–127 (2014). [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Shi, G. Situ, J. Zhang, “Optical image hiding in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(6), 569–577 (2006). [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Shi, G. Situ, J. Zhang, “Multiple-image hiding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1914–1916 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited