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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 5 — Mar. 10, 2014
  • pp: 5252–5259

Electro-optic light modulation and THz generation in locally plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic devices

Christopher Matheisen, Michael Waldow, Bartos Chmielak, Simon Sawallich, Thorsten Wahlbrink, Jens Bolten, Michael Nagel, and Heinrich Kurz  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 5, pp. 5252-5259 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.005252


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Abstract

Silicon is not an electro-optic material by itself but the required second-order optical nonlinearity can be induced by breaking the inversion symmetry of the crystal lattice. Recently, an attractive approach has been demonstrated based on a surface-activation in a CMOS-compatible HBr dry etching process. In this work, we further investigate and quantify the second-order nonlinearity induced by this process. Using THz near-field probing we demonstrate that this simple and versatile process can be applied to locally equip silicon nanophotonic chips with micro-scale areas of electro-optic activity. The realization of a first fully integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator device – based on this process – is applied to quantify the nonlinearity to an effective χ(2) of 9 ± 1 pm/V. Analysis of the thermal stability of the induced nonlinearity reveals post-processing limitations and paths for further efficiency improvements.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(250.7360) Optoelectronics : Waveguide modulators
(190.4223) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear wave mixing
(110.6795) Imaging systems : Terahertz imaging

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: December 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 13, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 17, 2014
Published: February 27, 2014

Citation
Christopher Matheisen, Michael Waldow, Bartos Chmielak, Simon Sawallich, Thorsten Wahlbrink, Jens Bolten, Michael Nagel, and Heinrich Kurz, "Electro-optic light modulation and THz generation in locally plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic devices," Opt. Express 22, 5252-5259 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-5-5252


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