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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 5 — Mar. 10, 2014
  • pp: 6025–6039

Axial scanning in confocal microscopy employing adaptive lenses (CAL)

Nektarios Koukourakis, Markus Finkeldey, Moritz Stürmer, Christoph Leithold, Nils C. Gerhardt, Martin R. Hofmann, Ulrike Wallrabe, Jürgen W. Czarske, and Andreas Fischer  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 5, pp. 6025-6039 (2014)

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In this paper we analyze the capability of adaptive lenses to replace mechanical axial scanning in confocal microscopy. The adaptive approach promises to achieve high scan rates in a rather simple implementation. This may open up new applications in biomedical imaging or surface analysis in micro- and nanoelectronics, where currently the axial scan rates and the flexibility at the scan process are the limiting factors. The results show that fast and adaptive axial scanning is possible using electrically tunable lenses but the performance degrades during the scan. This is due to defocus and spherical aberrations introduced to the system by tuning of the adaptive lens. These detune the observation plane away from the best focus which strongly deteriorates the axial resolution by a factor of ~2.4. Introducing balancing aberrations allows addressing these influences. The presented approach is based on the employment of a second adaptive lens, located in the detection path. It enables shifting the observation plane back to the best focus position and thus creating axial scans with homogeneous axial resolution. We present simulated and experimental proof-of-principle results.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy
(220.1000) Optical design and fabrication : Aberration compensation
(110.1085) Imaging systems : Adaptive imaging

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: January 23, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 27, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 27, 2014
Published: March 6, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Nektarios Koukourakis, Markus Finkeldey, Moritz Stürmer, Christoph Leithold, Nils C. Gerhardt, Martin R. Hofmann, Ulrike Wallrabe, Jürgen W. Czarske, and Andreas Fischer, "Axial scanning in confocal microscopy employing adaptive lenses (CAL)," Opt. Express 22, 6025-6039 (2014)

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