OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 6 — Mar. 24, 2014
  • pp: 6391–6399

Simultaneous dispersion measurements of multiple fiber modes using virtual reference interferometry

Michael A. Galle, Simarjeet S. Saini, Waleed S. Mohammed, Pierre Sillard, and Li Qian  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 6391-6399 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1241 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present the simultaneous measurement of first and second order dispersion in short length (< 1 m) few mode fibers (polarization and transverse) using virtual reference interferometry. This technique generates results equivalent to balanced spectral interferometry, without the complexity associated with physical balancing. This is achieved by simulating a virtual reference with a group delay equal to that of the physical interferometer. The amplitude modulation that results from mixing the interferograms, generated in both the unbalanced interferometer and the virtual reference, is equivalent to the first order interference that would be produced by physical balancing. The advantages of the technique include speed, simplicity, convenience and the capability for simultaneous measurement of multiple modes. The theoretical framework is first developed and then verified experimentally.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2420) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, polarization-maintaining
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: January 16, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 20, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 21, 2014
Published: March 11, 2014

Michael A. Galle, Simarjeet S. Saini, Waleed S. Mohammed, Pierre Sillard, and Li Qian, "Simultaneous dispersion measurements of multiple fiber modes using virtual reference interferometry," Opt. Express 22, 6391-6399 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. Yaman, N. Bai, B. Zhu, T. Wang, G. Li, “Long distance transmission in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13250–13257 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Sillard, M. Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-Mode Fiber for Uncoupled Mode-Division Multiplexing Transmissions,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Tu.5.LeCervin.7. [CrossRef]
  3. S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R. J. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, R. Lingle., “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16697–16707 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16593–16600 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Yaman, N. Bai, Y. K. Huang, M. F. Huang, B. Zhu, T. Wang, G. Li, “10 x 112Gb/s PDM-QPSK transmission over 5032 km in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21342–21349 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano, T. Tambosso, “Single-End Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement Using Backreflected Spectra Through a Linear Polarizer,” J. Lightw. Tech. 17(10), 1835–1842 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. B. L. Heffner, “Automated Measurement of Polarization Mode Dispersion Using Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 1066–1069 (1992). [CrossRef]
  8. B. L. Heffner, “Accurate, Automated Measurement of Differential Group Delay Dispersion and Principle State Variation Using Jones Matrix Eigenanlysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 814–817 (1993). [CrossRef]
  9. F. Tang, X. Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Jing, “Distributed measurement of birefringence dispersion in polarization-maintaining fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3411–3413 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Tang, X. Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Jing, “Characterization of birefringence dispersion in polarization-maintaining fibers by use of white-light interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(19), 4073–4080 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. A. Flavin, R. McBride, J. D. Jones, “Dispersion of birefringence and differential group delay in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27(12), 1010–1012 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. G. Shlyagin, A. V. Khomenko, D. Tentori, “Birefringence dispersion measurement in optical fibers by wavelength scanning,” Opt. Lett. 20(8), 869–871 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Posey, L. Phillips, D. Diggs, A. Sharma, “LP01-LP02 interference using a spectrally extended light source: measurement of the non-step-refractive-index profile of optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1357–1359 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Hlubina, “Measuring intermodal dispersion in optical fibres using white-light spectral interferometry with the compensated Michelson interferometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 48(14), 2087–2096 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. P. Hlubina, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of intermodal dispersion in few-mode optical fibres using a spectral-domain white-light interferometric method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(6), 784–789 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, “Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging of modal content in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7233–7243 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Jespersen, Z. Li, L. Gruner-Nielson, B. Palsdottir, F. Poletti, and J. W. Nicholson, “Measuring Distributed Mode Scattering in Long, Few-Moded Fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3I.4. [CrossRef]
  18. J. Cheng, M. E. V. Pedersen, K. Wang, C. Xu, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, “Time-domain multimode dispersion measurement in a higher-order-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 347–349 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Z. Ma, Y. Sych, G. Onishchukov, S. Ramachandran, U. Peschel, B. Schmauss, G. Leuchs, “Fiber-modes and fiber-anisotropy characterization using low-coherence interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 345–353 (2009). [CrossRef]
  20. W. Mohammed, J. Meier, M. A. Galle, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. E. Smith, “Linear and quadratic dispersion characterization of millimeter-length fibers and waveguides using common-path interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3312–3314 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Takeda, H. Ina, S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(1), 156–160 (1982). [CrossRef]
  22. P. Merrit, R. P. Tatum, D. A. Jackson, “Interferometric chromatic dispersion measurements on short lengths of monomode optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(4), 703–716 (1989). [CrossRef]
  23. P. Hlubina, D. Ciprian, M. Kadulova, T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, W. Urbanczyk, “Spectral interferometry-based dispersion characterization of microstructured and specialty optical fibers using a supercontinuum source,” Proc. SPIE8426, 84260N (2012).
  24. M. A. Galle, S. S. Saini, W. S. Mohammed, L. Qian, “Chromatic dispersion measurements using a virtually referenced interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1598–1600 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. A. Galle, S. S. Saini, W. S. Mohammed, L. Qian, “Virtual reference interferometry: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(11), 3201–3210 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited