OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 6 — Mar. 24, 2014
  • pp: 6569–6576

Evolution of branch points for a laser beam propagating through an uplink turbulent atmosphere

Xiao-Lu Ge, Xuan Liu, and Cheng-Shan Guo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 6569-6576 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.006569


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1091 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Evolution of branch points in the distorted optical field is studied when a laser beam propagates through turbulent atmosphere along an uplink path. Two categories of propagation events are mainly explored for the same propagation height: fixed wavelength with change of the turbulence strength and fixed turbulence strength with change of the wavelength. It is shown that, when the beam propagates to a certain height, the density of the branch-points reaches its maximum and such a height changes with the turbulence strength but nearly remains constant with different wavelengths. The relationship between the density of branch-points and the Rytov number is also given. A fitted formula describing the relationship between the density of branch-points and propagation height with different turbulence strength and wavelength is found out. Interestingly, this formula is very similar to the formula used for describing the Blackbody radiation in physics. The results obtained may be helpful for atmospheric optics, astronomy and optical communication.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
(010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
(010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence
(010.7060) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Turbulence

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 7, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 13, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 27, 2014
Published: March 13, 2014

Citation
Xiao-Lu Ge, Xuan Liu, and Cheng-Shan Guo, "Evolution of branch points for a laser beam propagating through an uplink turbulent atmosphere," Opt. Express 22, 6569-6576 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-6-6569


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. F. Nye, M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. London A Math. Phys. Sci. 336(1605), 165–190 (1974). [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Nye, “The motion and structure of dislocation in wavefronts,” Proc. R. Soc. London A Math. Phys. Sci. 378(1773), 219–239 (1981). [CrossRef]
  3. N. B. Baranova, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, B. Y. Zel’dovich, “Wave-front dislocations: topological limitations for adaptive systems with phase conjugation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 73(5), 525–528 (1983). [CrossRef]
  4. V. A. Tartakovski, N. N. Mayer, “Phase dislocation and minimal phase representation of the wave function,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 8, 231–235 (1995).
  5. B. V. Fortes, V. Lukin, “The effects of wavefront dislocations on the atmospheric adaptive optical systems performance,” Proc. SPIE 2778, 1002–1003 (1996).
  6. I. Freund, N. Shvartsman, “Wave-field phase singularities: The sign principle,” Phys. Rev. A 50(6), 5164–5172 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Rao, “Statistics of the fractal structure and phase singularity of a plane light wave propagation in atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 47(2), 269–276 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. L. Fried, J. L. Vaughn, “Branch cuts in the phase function,” Appl. Opt. 31(15), 2865–2882 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. L. Fried, “Branch point problem in adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(10), 2759–2768 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Fan, Y. Wang, Z. Gong, “Effect of branch points on adaptive optics,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 15, 435–438 (2003).
  11. C. Fan, Y. Wang, Z. Gong, “Effects of different beacon wavelengths on atmospheric compensation in strong scintillation,” Appl. Opt. 43(22), 4334–4338 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Li, “Branch point effect on adaptive correction,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1064–1070 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. C. A. Primmerman, T. R. Price, R. A. Humphreys, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, J. H. Herrmann, “Atmospheric-compensation experiments in strong-scintillation conditions,” Appl. Opt. 34(12), 2081–2088 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (John Wiley, 1998).
  15. E.-O. Le Bigot, W. J. Wild, E. J. Kibblewhite, “Branch point reconstructors for discontinuous light phase functions,” Proc. SPIE 3381, 76–87 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Wang, A. C. Koivunen, M. C. Roggemann, “Comparison of branch point and least squares reconstructors for laser beam transmission through the atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 3763, 41–49 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. D. L. Fried, “Adaptive optics wave function reconstruction and phase unwrapping when branch points are present,” Opt. Commun. 200(1–6), 43–72 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. V. V. Voitsekhovich, D. Kouznetsov, D. K. Morozov, “Density of turbulence-induced phase dislocations,” Appl. Opt. 37(21), 4525–4535 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Chen, F. S. Roux, “Accelerating the annihilation of an optical vortex dipole in a Gaussian beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(6), 1279–1286 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. S. Roux, “Anomalous transient behavior from an inhomogeneous initial optical vortex density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(4), 621–626 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. S. Roux, “How to distinguish between the annihilation and the creation of optical vortices,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3895–3898 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. J. Sanchez, D. W. Oesch, “The aggregate behavior of branch points - the creation and evolution of branch points,” Proc. SPIE 7466, 746605 (2009). [CrossRef]
  23. D. W. Oesch, D. J. Sanchez, C. M. Tewksbury-Christle, P. R. Kelly, “The aggregate behavior of branch points - branch point density as a characteristic of an atmospheric turbulence simulator,” Proc. SPIE 7466, 746606 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. D. W. Oesch, D. J. Sanchez, C. M. Tewksbury-Christle, P. R. Kelly, “The aggregate behavior of branch points - altitude and strength of atmospheric turbulence layers,” Proc. SPIE 7816, 781605 (2010). [CrossRef]
  25. D. W. Oesch, D. J. Sanchez, C. L. Matson, “The aggregate behavior of branch points--measuring the number and velocity of atmospheric turbulence layers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22377–22392 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. J. Sanchez, D. W. Oesch, P. R. Kelly, “The aggregate behavior of branch points - theoretical calculation of branch point velocity,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 83800P (2012). [CrossRef]
  27. D. W. Oesch, D. J. Sanchez, C. M. Tewksbury-Christle, “Aggregate behavior of branch points--persistent pairs,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1046–1059 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. W. Oesch, D. J. Sanchez, and P. R. Kelly, “Optical vortex density in Rytov saturated atmospheric turbulence,” in FiO (2012), FW3A. 3.
  29. D. J. Sanchez, D. W. Oesch, “Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25388–25396 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. J. Sanchez, D. W. Oesch, “Orbital angular momentum in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24596–24608 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. X. Qian, W. Zhu, R. Rao, “Phase screen distribution for simulating laser propagation along an inhomogeneous atmospheric path,” Acta Phys. Sin. 58, 6633–6638 (2009).
  32. D. L. Fried, “Scaling laws for propagation through turbulence,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 11, 982–990 (1998).
  33. R. J. Sasiela, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Turbulence: Evaluation and Application of Mellin Transforms, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2007).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited