OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 9 — May. 5, 2014
  • pp: 10882–10897

Design of DPSS based fiber bragg gratings and their application in all-optical encryption, OCDMA, optical steganography, and orthogonal-division multiplexing

Ivan B. Djordjevic, Alaa H. Saleh, and Franko Küppers  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 9, pp. 10882-10897 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1216 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The future information infrastructure will be affected by limited bandwidth of optical networks, high energy consumption, heterogeneity of network segments, and security issues. As a solution to all problems, we advocate the use of both electrical basis functions (orthogonal prolate spheroidal basis functions) and optical basis functions, implemented as FBGs with orthogonal impulse response in addition to spatial modes. We design the Bragg gratings with orthogonal impulse responses by means of discrete layer peeling algorithm. The target impulse responses belong to the class of discrete prolate spheroidal sequences, which are mutually orthogonal regardless of the sequence order, while occupying the fixed bandwidth. We then design the corresponding encoders and decoders suitable for all-optical encryption, optical CDMA, optical steganography, and orthogonal-division multiplexing (ODM). Finally, we propose the spectral multiplexing-ODM-spatial multiplexing scheme enabling beyond 10 Pb/s serial optical transport networks.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation
(060.4230) Fiber optics and optical communications : Multiplexing
(060.3735) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings
(060.4785) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical security and encryption

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics

Original Manuscript: February 3, 2014
Revised Manuscript: April 23, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: April 23, 2014
Published: April 29, 2014

Ivan B. Djordjevic, Alaa H. Saleh, and Franko Küppers, "Design of DPSS based fiber bragg gratings and their application in all-optical encryption, OCDMA, optical steganography, and orthogonal-division multiplexing," Opt. Express 22, 10882-10897 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Cvijetic, and I. B. Djordjevic, Advanced optical communications and networks (Artech House, 2013).
  2. I. B. Djordjevic, “On the irregular nonbinary QC-LDPC-coded hybrid multidimensional OSCD-modulation enabling beyond 100 Tb/s optical transport,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 2969–2975 (2013). [CrossRef]
  3. I. B. Djordjevic, Quantum informationpProcessing and quantum error correction: an engineering approach (Elsevier/Academic Press, 2012).
  4. V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, A. Scire, “Synchronization of chaotic injected-laser systems and its application to optical cryptography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 953–959 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, M. C. R. Carvalho, “Security system for optical communication signals with fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(1), 13–16 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Castro, I. B. Djordjevic, D. Geraghty, “Novel super-structured Bragg gratings for optical encryption,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1875–1885 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Slepian, “Prolate spheroidal wave functions, Fourier analysis, and uncertainty V: the discrete case,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57(5), 1371–1430 (1978). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Skaar, L. Wang, T. Erdogan, “On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 165–173 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Ouyang, Y. Sheng, M. Bernier, G. Paul-Hus, “Iterative layer-peeling algorithm for designing fiber Bragg gratings with fabrication constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3924–3930 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Tian, M. P. Fok, B. J. Shastri, D. R. Kanoff, P. R. Prucnal, “Optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2065–2071 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Pintus, F. Di Pasquale, J. E. Bowers, “Integrated TE and TM optical circulators on ultra-low-loss silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5041–5052 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. P. Fok, P. R. Prucnal, “All-optical encryption based on interleaved waveband switching modulation for optical network security,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1315–1317 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. R. Prucnal, M. P. Fok, Y. Deng, and Z. Wang, “Physical layer security in fiber-optic networks using optical signal processing,” in Proc. SPIE-OSA-IEEE Asia Communications and Photonics 7632, 6321M–1− 76321M–10 (2009), Shanghai, China. [CrossRef]
  14. A. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, V. J. Hernandez, C. V. Bennett, W. J. Lennon, “High-performance optical CDMA system based on 2-D optical orthogonal codes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(11), 2409–2419 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. V V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, “A 320-Gb/s capacity (32-user× 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed with enhanced spectral efficiency through forward error correction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 79–86 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. P. L. L. Bertarini, A. L. Sanches, B.-H. V. Borges, “Optimal code set selection and security issues in spectral phase-encoded time spreading (SPECTS) OCDMA systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(12), 1882–1890 (2012). [CrossRef]
  17. T. H. Shake, “Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 655–670 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. I. B. Djordjevic, A. Jovanovic, M. Cvijetic, Z. H. Peric, “Multidimensional vector quantization-based signal constellation design enabling beyond 1 Pb/s serial optical transport networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(4), 7901312 (2013). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited