OSA's Digital Library

Energy Express

Energy Express

  • Editor: Christian Seassal
  • Vol. 22, Iss. S2 — Mar. 10, 2014
  • pp: A396–A401

GaN-based light-emitting diodes with graphene/indium tin oxide transparent layer

Wei-Chih Lai, Chih-Nan Lin, Yi-Chun Lai, Peichen Yu, Gou Chung Chi, and Shoou-Jinn Chang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue S2, pp. A396-A401 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.00A396


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3054 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We have demonstrated a gallium nitride (GaN)-based green light-emitting diode (LED) with graphene/indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent contact. The ohmic characteristic of the p-GaN and graphene/ITO contact could be preformed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 min. The specific contact resistance of p-GaN/graphene/ITO (3.72E-3 Ω·cm2) is one order less than that of p-GaN/ITO. In addition, the 20-mA forward voltage of LEDs with graphene/ITO transparent (3.05 V) is 0.09 V lower than that of ITO LEDs (3.14 V). Besides, We have got an output power enhancement of 11% on LEDs with graphene/ITO transparent contact.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics

ToC Category:
Light-Emitting Diodes

History
Original Manuscript: November 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 7, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 10, 2014
Published: February 18, 2014

Citation
Wei-Chih Lai, Chih-Nan Lin, Yi-Chun Lai, Peichen Yu, Gou Chung Chi, and Shoou-Jinn Chang, "GaN-based light-emitting diodes with graphene/indium tin oxide transparent layer," Opt. Express 22, A396-A401 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-S2-A396


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(7A), 3976–3981 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett.37(11B), L1358–L1361 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, “Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.18(14), 1512–1514 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett.52(10), 2346–2349 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, Y. P. Hsu, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, J. C. Ke, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based LEDs with an SPS tunneling contact Layer and an ITO transparent contact,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.16(4), 1002–1004 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, L. C. Peng, C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, J. K. Sheu, and C. J. Tun, “GaN-based LEDs with AZO: Y upper contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 134–139 (2010).
  8. C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B106(1), 69–72 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 274–276 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(1), 323–327 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater.23(28), 3202–3206 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater.23(28), 3202–3206 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Ozyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater.23(13), 1514–1518 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. M. Lee, J. W. Choung, J. Yi, D. H. Lee, M. Samal, D. K. Yi, C.-H. Lee, G.-C. Yi, U. Paik, J. A. Rogers, and W. I. Park, “Vertical pillar-superlattice array and graphene hybrid light emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2783–2788 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Jo, M. Choe, C.-Y. Cho, J. H. Kim, W. Park, S. Lee, W.-K. Hong, T.-W. Kim, S.-J. Park, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Kahng, and T. Lee, “Large-scale patterned multi-layer graphene films as transparent conducting electrodes for GaN light-emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology21(17), 175201 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50, 125103 (2011).
  19. B.-J. Kim, G. Yang, H.-Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl3-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express21(23), 29025–29030 (2013). [CrossRef]
  20. J. M. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, K. J. Choi, and W. I. Park, “Metal/graphene sheets as p-type transparent conducting electrodes in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041115 (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. T. H. Seo, K. J. Lee, T. S. Oh, Y. S. Lee, H. Jeong, A. H. Park, H. Kim, Y. R. Choi, E. K. Suh, T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, J. S. Chung, and E. J. Kim, “Graphene network on indium tin oxide nanodot nodes for transparent and current spreading electrode in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251114 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Choe, C. Y. Cho, J. P. Shim, W. Park, S. K. Lim, W. K. Hong, B. H. Lee, D. S. Lee, S. J. Park, and T. Lee, “Au nanoparticle-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031115 (2012). [CrossRef]
  23. B.-J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031108 (2012). [CrossRef]
  24. C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, “Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers,” IEEE Electron. Dev.52(10), 2346–2349 (2005). [CrossRef]
  25. C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B106(1), 69–72 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited