OSA's Digital Library

Energy Express

Energy Express

  • Editor: Christian Seassal
  • Vol. 22, Iss. S4 — Jun. 30, 2014
  • pp: A1093–A1100

Efficiency enhancement of homoepitaxial InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrate with double embedded SiO2 photonic crystals

Tongbo Wei, Ziqiang Huo, Yonghui Zhang, Haiyang Zheng, Yu Chen, Jiankun Yang, Qiang Hu, Ruifei Duan, Junxi Wang, Yiping Zeng, and Jinmin Li  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue S4, pp. A1093-A1100 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3465 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Homoepitaxially grown InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with SiO2 nanodisks embedded in n-GaN and p-GaN as photonic crystal (PhC) structures by nanospherical-lens photolithography are presented and investigated. The introduction of SiO2 nanodisks doesn’t produce the new dislocations and doesn’t also result in the electrical deterioration of PhC LEDs. The light output power of homoepitaxial LEDs with embedded PhC and double PhC at 350 mA current is increased by 29.9% and 47.2%, respectively, compared to that without PhC. The corresponding light radiation patterns in PhC LEDs on GaN substrate show a narrow beam shape due to strong guided light extraction, with a view angle reduction of about 30°. The PhC LEDs are also analyzed in detail by finite-difference time-domain simulation (FDTD) to further reveal the emission characteristics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(160.5298) Materials : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Light-Emitting Diodes

Original Manuscript: April 4, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 23, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 26, 2014
Published: June 2, 2014

Tongbo Wei, Ziqiang Huo, Yonghui Zhang, Haiyang Zheng, Yu Chen, Jiankun Yang, Qiang Hu, Ruifei Duan, Junxi Wang, Yiping Zeng, and Jinmin Li, "Efficiency enhancement of homoepitaxial InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrate with double embedded SiO2 photonic crystals," Opt. Express 22, A1093-A1100 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. C.-L. Chao, R. Xuan, H.-H. Yen, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-H. Fang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-C. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-D. Guo, J.-F. Chen, and S.-J. Cheng, “Reduction of Efficiency Droop in InGaN Light-Emitting Diode Grown on Self-Separated Freestanding GaN Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 798–800 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012). [CrossRef]
  7. X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. J. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-class high-power and high-efficiency blue (101¯1¯) semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes obtained by backside roughening technique,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102101 (2010).
  9. Y.-K. Fu, B.-C. Chen, Y.-H. Fang, R.-H. Jiang, Y.-H. Lu, R. Xuan, K.-F. Huang, C.-F. Lin, Y.-K. Su, J.-F. Chen, and C.-Y. Chang, “Study of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on a roughened backside GaN substrate by a chemical wet-etching process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1373–1375 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. S. E. Brinkley, C. L. Keraly, J. Sonoda, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Chip Shaping for Light Extraction Enhancement of Bulk c-Plane Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032104 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Sun, L. X. Zhao, T. B. Wei, X. Y. Yi, Z. Q. Liu, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Shape designing for light extraction enhancement bulk-GaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(24), 243104 (2013). [CrossRef]
  12. T. B. Wei, K. Wu, Y. Chen, J. Yu, Q. Yan, Y. Y. Zhang, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Improving light output of vertical-stand-type InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a free-standing GaN substrate with self-assembled conical arrays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(6), 857–859 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. Y.-J. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, K.-S. Lee, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, K. Y. Lee, C. F. Lin, and H. C. Guo, “Light-output-power enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on an n-GaN layer using a SiO2 photonic quasi-crystal overgrowth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 573–575 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053104 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012). [CrossRef]
  18. A. David, B. Moran, K. McGroddy, E. Matioli, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and C. Weisbuch, “GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes with embedded photonic crystal obtained by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113514 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012). [CrossRef]
  20. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. Q. Shan, D. S. Meyaard, Q. Dai, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, J. K. Son, and C. Sone, “Transport-mechanism analysis of the reverse leakage current in GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 253506 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited