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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: J. H. Eberly
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 12 — Dec. 7, 1998
  • pp: 512–523

Image watermarking using block site selection and DCT domain constraints

Adrian G. Borş and Ioannis Pitas  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 3, Issue 12, pp. 512-523 (1998)

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In this paper we propose an image watermarking algorithm based on constraints in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. An image watermarking algorithm has two stages: signature casting (embedding) and signature detection. In the first stage it embeds an identifying label in the image. This is recognized in the second stage. The proposed algorithm has two processing steps. In the first step certain pixel blocks are selected using a set of parameters while in the second step a DCT coefficient constraint is embedded in the selected blocks. Two different constraint rules are suggested for the parametric modification of the DCT frequency coefficients. The first one embeds a linear constraint among certain selected DCT coefficients and the second defines circular detection regions according to the given parameters. The watermarks cast by the proposed algorithm are resistant to JPEG compression and filtering.

© Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.0100) Image processing : Image processing

ToC Category:
Focus Issue: Digital watermarking

Original Manuscript: November 2, 1998
Published: December 7, 1998

Adrian Bors and Ioannis Pitas, "Image watermarking using block site selection and DCT domain constraints," Opt. Express 3, 512-523 (1998)

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