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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: J. H. Eberly
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 4 — Feb. 15, 1999
  • pp: 151–160

Performance of GaAs smart pixel components before and after monolithic integration of InGaP LEDs using Epitaxy-on-Electronics technology

Dirk A. Hall, Barry L. Shoop, James R. Loy, Eugene K. Ressler, Joseph F. Ahadian, and Clifton G. Fonstad, Jr.  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 4, Issue 4, pp. 151-160 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.4.000151


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Abstract

Smart pixel technology provides the ability to integrate complex electronic circuitry with optoelectronic devices to produce signal processing capabilities previously unattainable with a single technology. Epitaxy-on-Electronics (EoE) is a process by which optoelectronic devices are monolithically integrated with electronic circuitry in a common semiconductor material. Here, InGaP LEDs are integrated with GaAs electronic circuitry to produce smart pixel arrays. In this paper, the architecture and experimental characterization of the optical devices of a novel smart pixel implementation of an neural network are presented. Measured performance characteristics are presented for the detectors and LEDs, before and after the EoE process. The experimental results demonstrate limitations in the performance of the detectors and LEDs for use in a full-scale implementation, however, current ongoing improvements in the EoE technology show promise to eliminate these limitations.

© Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.1160) Image processing : Analog optical image processing
(100.2810) Image processing : Halftone image reproduction
(250.3140) Optoelectronics : Integrated optoelectronic circuits
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: January 12, 1999
Published: February 15, 1999

Citation
Dirk Hall, Barry Shoop, James Loy, Eugene Ressler, Joseph Ahadian, and Clifton Fonstad, Jr., "Performance of GaAs smart pixel components before and after monolithic integration of InGaP LEDs using Epitaxy-on-Electronics technology," Opt. Express 4, 151-160 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-4-4-151


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References

  1. R. Floyd and L. Steinberg, "An adaptive algorithm for spatial gray scale," SID 75 Digest 35-36, (1975).
  2. B. L. Shoop and E. K. Ressler, "An error diffusion neural network for digital image halftoning," Proc. of the IEEE Workshop on Neural Networks, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Signal Processing Society and Neural Networks Council, Boston, Massachusetts) 427-436 (1995).
  3. E. K. Ressler and B. L. Shoop, "High quality digital halftones from error diffusion networks, " Proc. of the Society for Information Display, (San Diego, California) 506-509 (1996).
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  9. J. F. Ahadian and C .G. Fonstad, Jr., "The Epitaxy-on-Electronics technology for monolithic optoelectronic integration: foundations, development, and status," Opt. Eng. 37, 3161-3174 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. E. K. Braun, K. V. Shenoy, C. G. Fonstad and J. M. Mikkelson, "Elevated Temperature Stability of GaAs Digital Integrated Circuits," IEEE Electron Device Let. 17, 37-39, (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. Photonics Research Center, U.S. Military Academy, http://www.eecs.usma.edu/photonic/default.html
  12. Compound Semiconductor Materials and Devices Research Group, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, http://web.mit.edu/fonstad/www/group.html

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