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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: J. H. Eberly
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 4 — Aug. 16, 1999
  • pp: 64–74

Simulation of inferior mirages observed at the Halligen Sea

Eberhard Tränkle  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 64-74 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.5.000064


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Abstract

Two unusual forms of inferior mirage are observed and photographed at the Halligen Sea. With heuristic analytic functions for the temperature profiles, numerical integration of the refraction differential equation on a flat earth is performed. The simulation shows that a double inferior mirage can appear if a light wind carries hot air from above dry sandbanks in the mud flats. Horizontal stripes can appear in the mirage image if a water channel crosses the line of sight between the observer and the object.

© Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(010.4030) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Mirages and refraction
(120.6780) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Temperature

ToC Category:
Focus Issue: Light and Color

History
Original Manuscript: July 29, 1999
Published: August 16, 1999

Citation
Eberhard Tränkle, "Simulation of inferior mirages observed at the Halligen Sea," Opt. Express 5, 64-74 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-5-4-64


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References

  1. M. Engler, "Luftspiegelungen WATT'N DAT?" Geo 5, 144-162 (1992); Television film "Fata Morganen-Zauberspiegel am Horizont," first broadcast 8 March 1996, M. Engler, producer, ARTE (1996).
  2. A. Wegener, "Elementare Theorie der atmospharischen Spiege-lungen," Annalen der Phys. 4. Folge, Band 57, 203-230 (1918).
  3. W. H. Lehn, "A simple parabolic model for the optics of the atmospheric surface layer," Appl. Math. Model. 9, 447-453 (1985). [CrossRef]
  4. A. B. Fraser, "Simple solution for obtaining a temperature pro-file from the inferior mirage," Appl. Opt. 18, 1724-1731 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. H. Lehn and J. S. Morrish, "A three-parameter inferior mirage model for optical sensing of surface layer temperature profiles," IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sensing, GE-24, 940- 964 (1986). [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Pertner and F. M. Exner, Meteorologische Optik, 2nd ed. (Braumuller, Vienna, 1922).

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