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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: J. H. Eberly
  • Vol. 7, Iss. 4 — Aug. 14, 2000
  • pp: 178–185

Development of Thermally Formed Glass Optics for Astronomical Hard X-ray Telescopes

William W. Craig, Charles J. Hailey, Mario Jimenez-Garate, David L. Windt, Fiona A. Harrison, Peter H. Mao, Finn E. Christensen, and Ahsen M. Hussain  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 7, Issue 4, pp. 178-185 (2000)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.7.000178


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Abstract

The next major observational advance in hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics will come with the implementation of telescopes capable of focusing 10–200 keV radiation. Focusing allows high signal-to-noise imaging and spectroscopic observations of many sources in this band for the first time. The recent development of depth-graded multilayer coatings has made the design of telescopes for this bandpass practical, however the ability to manufacture inexpensive substrates with appropriate surface quality and figure to achieve sub-arcminute performance has remained an elusive goal. In this paper, we report on new, thermally-formed glass micro-sheet optics capable of meeting the requirements of the next-generation of astronomical hard X-ray telescopes.

© Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics
(340.7440) X-ray optics : X-ray imaging
(340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: June 23, 2000
Published: August 14, 2000

Citation
William Craig, Charles Hailey, Mario Jimenez-Garate, David Windt, Fiona Harrison, Peter Mao, Finn Christensen, and Ahsen Hussain, "Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes," Opt. Express 7, 178-185 (2000)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-7-4-178


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References

  1. H. Tananbaum, N. White, N., P. Sullivan., "Proceedings of the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Workshop," published by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, (1996).
  2. F. A. Harrison, et al., "Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT balloon experiment," to be published in "X-ray Optics, Instruments and Missions," Eds. J. Trumper and B. Aschenbach, Proc SPIE 4012, (2000).
  3. F. Christensen et al., "X-ray scattering measurements from thin foil X-ray mirrors" Proc. SPIE 1546, 160, (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Windt, W. Z. Waskiewicz, "Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography," J. Vac. Sci Technol. B 12, 3826 (1994). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Windt et a.l , "Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics," to appear in J. Appl. Physics, (2000).
  6. F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Hornstrup, H. Schnopper, P. Slane, S. Romaine, "High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces," Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Jimenez-Garate, W. Craig, C. Hailey, "Fast optical metrology of the hard x-ray optics for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT)," Proc. SPIE 3444, 622, (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Mao, F. Harrison, D. Windt, F. Christensen, "Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes," Appl. Optics 38, 4766, (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. F. Christensen et al.,"Hard X-ray characterization of HEFT single-reflection prototype," to appear in Nucl. Inst. Methods, (2000).

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