OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: J. H. Eberly
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 10 — May. 7, 2001
  • pp: 561–570

Self-shading correction for upwelling sea-surface radiance measurements made with buoyed instruments

Robert A. Leathers, T. Valerie Downes, and Curtis D. Mobley  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 8, Issue 10, pp. 561-570 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (201 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Upwelling radiance measurements made with instruments designed to float at the sea surface are shaded both by the instrument housing and by the buoy that holds the instrument. The amount of shading is wavelength dependent and is affected by the local marine and atmospheric conditions. Radiance measurements made with such instruments should be corrected for this self-shading error before being applied to remote sensing calibrations or remote sensing algorithm validation. Here we use Monte Carlo simulations to compute the self-shading error of a commercially available buoyed radiometer so that measurements made with this instrument can be improved. This approach can be easily adapted to the dimensions of other instruments.

© Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(120.5630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Radiometry
(290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: April 17, 2001
Published: May 7, 2001

Robert Leathers, T. Valerie Downes, and Curtis Mobley, "Self-shading correction for upwelling sea-surface radiance measurements made with buoyed instruments," Opt. Express 8, 561-570 (2001)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992). [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Lyzenga, "Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data," Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 71-82 (1981). [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988). [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. O'Reilley, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Lyzenga, "Passive remote sensing techniques for mapping water depth and bottom features," Appl. Opt. 17, 379-383 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Zibordi and G. M. Ferrari, "Instrument self-shading in underwater optical measurements: experimental data," Appl. Opt. 34, 2750-2754 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Aas and B. Korsbo , "Self-shading effect by radiance meters on upward radiance observed in coastal waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 968-974 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Piskozub, A. R. Weeks, J. N. Schwarz, and I. S. Robinson, "Self-shading of upwelling irradiance for an instrument with sensors on a sidearm," Appl. Opt. 39, 1872-1878 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, Ocean optics protocols for satellite ocean color sensor validation, revision 2 (NASA Tech. Memo. 209966, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000).
  10. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties, http://www.psicorp.com/cobop/cobop.html.
  11. H. R. Gordon, "Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1. Monte-Carlo simulations," Appl. Opt. 24, 4172-4182 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water. Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters, (Academic Press, New York, 1994).
  13. G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, "Analytic phase function for ocean water," in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 194-201 (1994).
  14. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, "Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields," Appl. Opt. 32, 7484-7504 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).
  16. S. Mc Lean, Satlantic Incorporated, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Personal correspondence.
  17. A. Ariew, "Are probabilities necessary for evolutionary explanations?," Biol. Phil. 13, 245-253 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, "An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance," Solar Energy 41, 387-392 (1988). [CrossRef]
  19. C. S. Roesler, "Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1649-1660 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, "Analysis of a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter," Appl. Opt. 39, 6118-6127 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, "An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671-689 (1981). [CrossRef]
  22. R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723, (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, "Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200-800 nm)," Appl. Opt. 20, 177-184 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, "A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres," Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657-1675 (1990). [CrossRef]
  25. H. R. Gordon, "Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the sun angle," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484-1489 (1989). [CrossRef]
  26. K. S. Baker and R. C. Smith, "Irradiance transmittance through the air-water interface," in Ocean Optics X , R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE 1302, 556-565 (1990).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited