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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: J. H. Eberly
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 10 — May. 7, 2001
  • pp: 571–584

Cationic two-photon induced polymerization with high dynamic range

Yuri Boiko, Joannes M. Costa, Mark Wang, and Sadik Esener  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 8, Issue 10, pp. 571-584 (2001)

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Cationic-induced two-photon photo-polymerization is demonstrated at 710 nm, using an isopropylthioxanthone/diarylidonium salt initiating system for the cationic polymerization of an epoxide. In-situ monitoring of the polymer conversion using interferometry allows for determination of the polymerization threshold J2th, polymerization rate R and its dependence of initiator’s concentration z. Best J2th achieved is 1 GW/cm2, with a dynamic range of > 100, i.e. the material can be fully polymerized at intensities > 100 times the threshold level without damage. The R is found to be proportional to the m=1.7 power of the intensity, or R=[C (J-J2th)]m=[C (J-J2th)]1.7, which implies a significantly stronger localization of the photochemical response than that of free radical photoinitiators. Both R and J2th significantly improve when the concentration z of the initiator (onium salt) increases, reduction of J2th exhibiting z-m trend.

© Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: March 9, 2001
Published: May 7, 2001

Yuri Boiko, Joannes Costa, Mark M. Wang, and Sadik Esener, "Cationic two-photon induced polymerization with high dynamic range," Opt. Express 8, 571-584 (2001)

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  1. B.H. Cumpston, S.P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D.L. Dyer, J.E. Ehrlich, L.L. Erskine, A.A. Heikal, S.M. Kuebler, I-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, Jinqui Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, Xiang-Li Wu, S.R. Marder, J.W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature, 398 (6722), 51-54 (1999). [CrossRef]
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  14. Y. Boiko, M. Bowen, M. Wang, J. Costa and S. Esener, 'Threshold enhancement in two-photon photo-polymerization," Complex Mediums, Proc. SPIE 4097, 254-263 (2000).
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