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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: J. H. Eberly
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 6 — Sep. 15, 1997
  • pp: 133–133
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Focus Issue: Local Field Effects

Charles M. Bowden and Mark J. Bloemer  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 1, Issue 6, pp. 133-133 (1997)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.1.000133


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Abstract

Local field effects that occur due to dipole-dipole interactions have been vigorously investigated since the initial works of Lorentz[1] and Lorenz[2]. Linear interactions of light in condensed matter and dense gases are manifest in the Clausius-Mossotti relations[3], and nonlinear effects have been known for some time[4]. Generalized Maxwell-Bloch formulation incorporating local field effects[5, 6] has stimulated considerable theoretical development and predictions, but to date few experiments have been performed. Several experiments, however, have addressed key issues stemming from various theoretical developments. Boyd and coworkers have observed local field induced spectral red shifts in rubidium vapor[7], and Rand and coworkers have observed intrinsic bistability due to local field effects in a crystal lattice highly doped with rare earth ions[8]. Most recently, Eliel and coworkers have studied local field effects in very high density metal vapors[9], and find novel cooperative effects and excitation dependent line narrowing. The papers presented in this Focus Issue are indicative of the currently increasing interest and activity in this field.

© Optical Society of America

Introduction

Local field effects that occur due to dipole-dipole interactions have been vigorously investigated since the initial works of Lorentz[1

1. H. A. Lorentz, Wiedem. Ann . 9, 641 (1880).

] and Lorenz[2

2. L. Lorenz, Wiedem. Ann . 11, 70 (1881).

]. Linear interactions of light in condensed matter and dense gases are manifest in the Clausius-Mossotti relations[3

3. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Wiley, New York, (1975).

], and nonlinear effects have been known for some time[4

4. N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics, (Benjanin, New York, 1965).

]. Generalized Maxwell-Bloch formulation incorporating local field effects[5

5. C. M. Bowden and J. P. Dowling, “Near-Dipole-Dipole Effects in Dense Media: Generalized Maxwell-Bloch Equations,”Phys. Rev. A 47, 1247 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. R. Friedberg, S. R. Hartmann, and J. T. Manassah, “Frequency Shifts in Emission and Absorption by Resonant Systems of Two-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rep. C 7, 101 (1973). [CrossRef]

] has stimulated considerable theoretical development and predictions, but to date few experiments have been performed. Several experiments, however, have addressed key issues stemming from various theoretical developments. Boyd and coworkers have observed local field induced spectral red shifts in rubidium vapor[7

7. J. J. Maki, M. S. Malcuit, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, “Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and Rand and coworkers have observed intrinsic bistability due to local field effects in a crystal lattice highly doped with rare earth ions[8

8. M. P. Hehlen, H. U. Gudel, Q. Shu, J. Rai, S. Rai, and S. C. Rand, “Cooperative Bistability in Dense, Excited Atomic Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1103 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Most recently, Eliel and coworkers have studied local field effects in very high density metal vapors[9

9. V. A. Sautenkov, H. van Kampen, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, “Dipole-Dipole Broadened Lineshape in a Partially Excited Dense Atomic Gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3327 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and find novel cooperative effects and excitation dependent line narrowing. The papers presented in this Focus Issue are indicative of the currently increasing interest and activity in this field.

The paper by Yelin and Fleishhauer treats, for the first time, near dipole-dipole interaction effects from the framework of a fully quantum mechanical Greenís function and evolution operator approach. They predict macroscopic quantum contributions which give rise to atomic excitation dependent incoherent pumping-like contributions and spectral shifts. The work of Crenshaw, Sullivan, and Bowden predicts atomic excitation dependent line narrowing due to combined dipole-dipole interactions among a dense collection of two-level atoms, and their reciprocal interactions with a dielectric host medium. These coherence effects, as well as the quantum incoherent effects predicted by Yelin and Fleischhauer may serve direct interpretation in relation to results of the university of Leiden experiments[9

9. V. A. Sautenkov, H. van Kampen, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, “Dipole-Dipole Broadened Lineshape in a Partially Excited Dense Atomic Gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3327 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The collection of papers compiled in this focus issue address a broad range of topics in relation to the nonlinear and quantum optics and dynamics of atoms involving local field interactions. It is anticipated that this collection of theoretical contributions will manifest significance in stimulating further theoretical and experimental investigations, and facilitate crucial interpretation of recent and current experimental investigations.

We, as Special Focus Issue Coordinators, take this opportunity to express much appreciation to the authors of the papers that constitute this Special Focus Section. Each of the solicitations for papers was made consistent with recent contributions to the field by the respective authors. It has been our pleasure to serve this effort.

References and links

1.

H. A. Lorentz, Wiedem. Ann . 9, 641 (1880).

2.

L. Lorenz, Wiedem. Ann . 11, 70 (1881).

3.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Wiley, New York, (1975).

4.

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics, (Benjanin, New York, 1965).

5.

C. M. Bowden and J. P. Dowling, “Near-Dipole-Dipole Effects in Dense Media: Generalized Maxwell-Bloch Equations,”Phys. Rev. A 47, 1247 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

R. Friedberg, S. R. Hartmann, and J. T. Manassah, “Frequency Shifts in Emission and Absorption by Resonant Systems of Two-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rep. C 7, 101 (1973). [CrossRef]

7.

J. J. Maki, M. S. Malcuit, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, “Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. P. Hehlen, H. U. Gudel, Q. Shu, J. Rai, S. Rai, and S. C. Rand, “Cooperative Bistability in Dense, Excited Atomic Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1103 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

V. A. Sautenkov, H. van Kampen, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, “Dipole-Dipole Broadened Lineshape in a Partially Excited Dense Atomic Gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3327 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

ToC Category:
Focus Issue: Local field effects

History
Original Manuscript: September 15, 1997
Published: September 15, 1997

Citation
Charles Bowden and Mark Bloemer, "Introduction," Opt. Express 1, 133-133 (1997)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-1-6-133


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References

  1. H. A. Lorentz, Wiedem. Ann. 9, 641 (1880).
  2. L. Lorenz, Wiedem. Ann. 11, 70 (1881).
  3. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  4. N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics, (Benjanin, New York, 1965).
  5. C. M. Bowden, and J. P. Dowling, "Near-Dipole-Dipole Effects in Dense Media: Generalized Maxwell-Bloch Equations,"Phys. Rev. A 47, 1247 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Friedberg, S. R. Hartmann, and J. T. Manassah, "Frequency Shifts in Emission and Absorption by Resonant Systems of Two-Level Atoms", Phys. Rep. C7, 101 (1973). [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Maki, M. S. Malcuit, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, "Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. P. Hehlen, H. U. Gudel, Q. Shu, J. Rai, S. Rai, and S. C. Rand, "Cooperative Bistability in Dense, Excited Atomic Systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1103 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. A. Sautenkov, H. van Kampen, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Dipole-Dipole Broadened Lineshape in a Partially Excited Dense Atomic Gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3327 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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