OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 10, Iss. 16 — Aug. 12, 2002
  • pp: 818–823
« Show journal navigation

Laser assisted jacket removal and writing of fiber Bragg gratings using a single laser source

Benjamin F. Johnston, Andrew J. Lee, Michael J. Withford, and James A. Piper  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 10, Issue 16, pp. 818-823 (2002)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.10.000818


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (365 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The 289 and 255nm outputs of a frequency doubled copper laser are used to remove the polymer jacket of optic fiber and write fiber Bragg gratings respectively. Our studies show that 289nm laser light is ideal for stripping the polymer jacket in a well defined manner without interacting significantly with the core of photosensitive fibers.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Fiber Bragg gratings are key elements in high speed optical networks and fiber sensors. These devices are fabricated by photo-inducing periodic variations in the refractive index of the core of optic fiber via exposure to an UV interferometric pattern. The fibers used for this application are photosensitive over most of the UV spectrum, although they are generally only weakly photosensitive at wavelengths >270nm [1

1. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings: fundamentals and applications in telecommunications and sensing (Artech House, Norwood, 1999) Chap. 2.

]. Consequently, ArF (193nm) [2

2. J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193nm light from a ArF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 387–389 (1994). [PubMed]

] and KrF excimers (248nm) [3

3. C. G. Askins, T. -E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, M. Bashkansky, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber Bragg reflectors prepared by a single excimer pulse,” Opt. Lett. 17, 833–836 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], frequency doubled argon ion (244nm) [4

4. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and copper lasers (255nm) [5

5. C. J. Paddison, J. M. Dawes, D. J. W. Brown, M. J. Withford, R. I. Trickett, and P. A. Krug, “Multiple fiber gratings fabricated using frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2407–2408 (1998). [CrossRef]

], and frequency quadrupled Nd:YLF (262nm) [6

6. J. R. Armitage, “Fiber Bragg Reflectors written at 262nm using a frequency quadrupled diode pumped Nd3+:YLF laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1181–1183 (1993). [CrossRef]

] and Nd:YAG lasers (266nm) [7

7. S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, “Photoinduced polarisation couplers in elliptical core optical fibers written using 535 and 266nm sources,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1558–1560 (1992). [CrossRef]

] are all effective sources for fabricating fiber Bragg gratings. Unfortunately, the protective polymer jacket of standard fiber is generally highly absorbing at wavelengths <300nm and therefore, must be removed.

There are two main techniques for removing the fiber jacket. The most common of these is mechanical stripping, however, process repeatability can be a problem as the blade in these systems wears with time and commercial devices are not suited to removing the jacket from the centre of a length of fiber. Another commonly used method for jacket removal is chemical stripping using solutions of dichloromethane, however, volatile chemicals such as this are undesirable for clean room environments. Perhaps the predominant problem associated with these methods is that they both depend on a degree of physical contact with the fiber, which ultimately weakens the fiber and reduces its longevity [8

8. W. Griffioen, “Strippability of optical fibers,” in Proceedings of 11th Annual Conference on European Fiber Optic Communications and Networks, (European Institute of Communications and Networks, Geneva) 239–244 (1993).

]. In the former case the fiber must be clamped in position while the jacket is forcibly removed, while in the latter the fiber must be physically cleaned in a secondary process to remove any chemical residue.

Although novel fiber Bragg grating writing techniques have been demonstrated which obviate the need to remove the outer coating, such as writing at near UV wavelengths [9

9. D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “Efficient Bragg grating fabrication in a fiber through its polymer jacket using near-UV light,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1331–1333 (1997). [CrossRef]

,10

10. D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “Ultrastrong fiber gratings and their applications,” in Optical Fiber Reliability and Testing, Proc. SPIE3848, 178–185 (1999). [CrossRef]

] or in fibers with UV transmissible outer coatings [11

11. R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, “Highly reflective fiber Bragg gratings written through a vinyl ether coating,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 833–835 (1999). [CrossRef]

], it is still necessary to remove small sections of the coating when packaging these devices into athermal protective cases. This is because mounting via the soft outer polymer jacket causes excessive drift of the central wavelength. As a result, there is significant interest in developing non-contact methods of polymer jacket removal. One example is chemical stripping using hot sulphuric acid, which has been shown to result in a similar tensile strength to pristine fiber [12

12. D. C. Psaila and H. G. Inglis, “Packaging of optical fiber Bragg gratings,” in Proceedings of 51st Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 439–443.

]. The disadvantage of this method (shared by other “wet” processing methods) is that it is difficult to accurately control the region to be stripped. Another method generating significant interest is polymer jacket removal via laser ablation, which as well as being a “dry” processing technique also permits better control of the region of jacket to be removed. Fiber jacket removal has already been successfully demonstrated using short wavelength ArF and KrF excimer lasers, and long wavelength CO2 lasers (10.6μm) [13

13. F. Barnier, P. E. Dyer, P. Monk, H. V. Snelling, and H. Rourke, “Fiber optic jacket removal by pulsed laser ablation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 33, 757–759 (2000). [CrossRef]

], however, there are a number of problems associated with using these wavelengths for this purpose. Firstly, laser ablation using CO2 laser radiation is a pyrolytic process thus it is difficult to produce well defined features within the polymer jacket using this source. Furthermore, glass is highly absorbing at 10.6μm [14

14. T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Carbon dioxide laser fabrication of fused fiber couplers and tapers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6845–6848 (1999). [CrossRef]

], therefore, exposure to CO2 radiation causes heating of the fiber which increases the potential for destructive damage, and accelerates outgassing of the hydrogen load resulting in a loss of fiber photosensitivity. UV laser radiation is better suited to polymer ablation because material removal occurs largely via photolytic mechanisms. In particular, polymers are highly absorbing in the UV and UV photons often have sufficient energy to directly break molecular bonds, resulting in less thermal loading of the substrate and cleaner ablation. The down side in this case is that the standard fibers used in the fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings are very photosensitive to the ArF and KrF excimer wavelengths of 193 and 248nm respectively. Pre-exposure to intense light at these wavelengths can result in bleaching of the fiber core making the fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings more difficult.

Laser ablation of fiber polymer jackets is best achieved using high peak power, UV laser sources with wavelengths between 270-300nm for which these fibers are only weakly photosensitive yet polymer absorption is high. One such source is the frequency doubled copper laser or UV-CVL that produces 255, 271 or 289nm pulsed output. In this paper we present results of a study demonstrating the efficacy of UV-CVLs as sources for both removing the polymer jacket and writing fiber Bragg gratings. Moreover, both steps are achieved without extra handling of the fiber.

2. Experiment

The copper vapour laser used in these studies was nominally a 20W device (tube diameter 25mm, length 1m) operating at a pulse rate of 10kHz. The output beam was reduced in size to ~4mm using a mirror telescope and a 1mm diameter aperture placed at the focus of telescope removed the low beam quality amplified spontaneous emission. The remaining 10W of HBQ (~6W of green and ~4W of yellow) was line focussed (using an f=63mm cylindrical lens) into a non-linear crystal, a technique that has been shown to reduce the chance of crystal damage and minimise the effects of walk-off [15

15. D. W. Coutts and J. A. Piper, “One watt average power by second harmonic and sum frequency generation from a single medium scale copper vapour laser,” IEEE. Quantum Electron. 28, 1761–1764 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. The non-linear crystal was beta barium borate (BBO) with dimensions 6mm × 4mm × 8mm and was cut for type 1 second harmonic generation (θpm = 47°, ϕ=90°). For these experiments we varied the tuning angle to frequency double either the 511 or 578nm fundamental, producing 255 and 289nm light respectively; note however, that two non-linear crystals could be used to generate 255 and 289nm output simultaneously. The UV output was separated from the fundamental using a Pellin Broca prism. Output powers of ~500mW were available at both UV wavelengths.

Nufern photosensitive fiber (GF1) was used throughout these experiments. The fiber was also hydrogenated to increase its photosensitivity. The fiber was fixed in position on top of a y-z-tilt positioning stage, which in turn was mounted upon a motorised translation stage (Physik Instrumente) allowing computer controlled movement in the x direction (parallel to the fiber axis/perpendicular to the beam path). During polymer jacket removal the UV beam was focussed to a spot ~10um in diameter using a 10x microscope objective. Alignment of the focal spot with the centre of the fiber was facilitated by an on-line imaging system. Fiber Bragg gratings were written using standard phase mask techniques which in our case included a cylindrical lens (f=75mm) to focus the light onto the fiber via the phase mask (aligned parallel to and approximately 0.5mm in front of the fiber). Note that the phase mask used in these experiments was optimised for a frequency doubled argon ion laser (244nm) and had a significant zero order component, effects which contribute to an overall reduction in the peak rejection levels of the gratings written with this system. Both the cylindrical lens/phase mask pair used during grating writing, and the microscope objective used during jacket removal were mounted upon standard kinematic plates, which allowed for easy interchange between the two processes. The fiber Bragg gratings written with this system were monitored using a laboratory built broadband light source and an Anritsu Optical Spectrum Analyser (MS9710c).

3. Results and Discussion

In order to gauge the response of photosensitive fiber to 289nm radiation we first investigated the growth rates of fiber Bragg gratings written with both 255nm and 289nm light, as shown in Figure 1. Note that in this experiment the polymer jackets were removed using mechanically strippers. Other than the differing wavelengths each grating was written under identical conditions, namely, exposure of a 3-4mm length of fiber to 50mW of UV focussed onto the fiber with the cylindrical lens (fluence = 60W/cm2). Figure 2 shows the corresponding shift in the Bragg wavelength with time for these two gratings. The grating written with 255nm light took ~5 minutes to grow to a maximum depth of 11dB after which the grating started to erase [16

16. P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, “Behaviour of spectral transmissions of Bragg gratings written in germania-doped fibers: writing and erasing experiments using pulsed or cw uv exposure,” Opt. Commun. 113, 176–192 (1994). [CrossRef]

,17

17. A. Lee, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dawes, “Optical fiber photosensitivity and the dynamics of fiber Bragg grating growth,” in Proceedings of Australasian Conference on Optics and Laser Spectroscopy, (Australian Optical Society) 87 (2001).

]. The Bragg wavelength shifted by ~2 nm during this time.

Figs. 1 and 2. Comparison of the growth dynamics and spectral shift of Bragg gratings written with 255 and 289nm laser light. Note that these fibers were prepared using mechanical stripping.

By comparison, even after 20 minutes exposure the grating written with 289nm light still measured <2dB and showed no signs of erasure. Furthermore, the Bragg wavelength shifted by <1nm during this period. These results highlight the low photosensitivity of this fiber to 289nm light. In particular, the average refractive index increased by 2.4 × 10-3 after 5 minutes exposure to 255nm light, and by only 4.8 × 10-4 after 20 minutes exposure to 289nm light. In effect the photosensitivity of this fiber to 289nm light is a factor of 20 smaller than that to 255nm light at the same power densities.

Detailed characterisation of polymer jacket ablation at 289nm was undertaken to identify the best set of operating parameters for coating removal. Briefly, it was found that damage to the fiber occurred when output powers >200mW were used while slow translation speeds resulted in additional heat deposition within the polymer jacket and poor edge definition. The best results were achieved using output powers from 100 to 150mW, and several translations at the fastest speed possible from our motorised stages (ie. 12.5mm/s) rather than a single pass at a slow translation speed [18

18. E. K. Illy, D. J. W. Brown, M. J. Withford, and J. A. Piper, “Optimisation of trepanning strategies for micromachining polymers with high pulse rate UV lasers,” Proc. Of SPIE: High power lasers in manufacturing, X. Chen et al (eds)3888 , 608–616 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 3 shows a scanning electron micrograph of a 20μm wide transverse scribe machined at an output power of 150mW, and 9 translations at a speed of 12.5mm/s. The edge definition of the scribe wall is high pointing to the photolytic nature of the material removal under these conditions. Indeed, upon close inspection the junction between the inner and outer acrylate coatings used in this type of fiber can be seen. Most importantly, the surface of the fiber cladding is fully exposed and free of surface contaminants and tensile strength tests of fibers machined under these conditions showed them to have comparable strength to pristine fiber. The final point to make is that although the fiber core is exposed to very high UV power densities (eg ~200kW/cm2) during the stripping process the total amount of time any particular point is irradiated by UV light is only 1/100 of a second. This equates to a total energy per unit area of 2kJ/cm2, well below the value of 75kJ/cm2 the fiber experienced during 20 minutes of exposure to 289nm light in the photosensitivity experiment discussed above.

Fig. 3. A 20 μm wide transverse scribe machined into the polymer jacket of an optical fiber using 289nm laser radiation.
Fig. 4. A longitudinal “window” machined into the polymer jacket prior to writing a fiber Bragg grating.

Figure 4 shows a “window” machined through the polymer jacket and parallel to the fiber axis using 150mW of 289nm laser light, and 10 translations at a speed of 12.5mm/s. The ripple seen in the walls of this scribe is the result of chatter in the motorised positioning stages. The transmission spectrum for a 20dB fiber Bragg grating written in 3 minutes through one of these windows in the polymer jacket is shown in Figure 5. Although it is possible to engineer a system that rotates the laser beam around the fiber and completely removes the polymer jacket [19

19. G. Ogura, “Laser stripping of optical fibers opens up new applications,” Laser Focus World (Penwell Publishing) 37 , 169–176 (2001).

,20

20. See for example Resostrip© at http://www.resonetics.com/Telecom/reso.htm.

] for simplicity’s sake we chose to only remove small longitudinal sections (60μm wide and 25mm long) of the polymer jacket via laser ablation. This did however compound the difficulties associated with aligning the line focus with the fiber core and placed additional constraints on the operating parameters for writing fiber Bragg gratings. For example, tight focussing geometries had to be used to fit the UV beam within the boundaries set by the “window” machined in the side of the fiber jacket, and the output power from the UV-CVL had to be reduced to 50mW to avoid ablating the remaining acrylate coating and damaging the phase mask. Despite these constraints, the gratings written in this fashion were similar to those written using the same 255nm source and mechanically stripped fiber in conjunction with conventional focussing geometries and standard UV output powers [5

5. C. J. Paddison, J. M. Dawes, D. J. W. Brown, M. J. Withford, R. I. Trickett, and P. A. Krug, “Multiple fiber gratings fabricated using frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2407–2408 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. In particular, we saw no evidence that the fiber photosensitivity had been lessened when removing the polymer jacket with 289nm laser light. Indeed, the grating shown in Figure 5 grew at a faster rate and to a greater depth that those gratings written with this system after mechanical or chemical stripping. However, further studies are required to determine if the faster growth rates in this case are due to increased photosensitivity, a cleaner fiber surface, a reduction in the stresses induced in the fiber during jacket removal, or some other cause.

Fig. 5. Fibre Bragg grating written with 255nm laser radiation after stripping of the polymer jacket using 289nm light.

4. Summary

We have demonstrated that the 289nm and 255nm outputs from a frequency doubled copper laser can be used to both strip the outer polymer jacket and write fiber Bragg gratings respectively. Tensile strength tests showed that fibers stripped in this fashion have comparable strength to pristine fiber. The fibers used in study are only weakly photosensitive to 289nm light, thus, strong gratings could still be fabricated after the stripping process.

Acknowledgment

This work was funded by Macquarie University and JDS Uniphase Pty. Ltd., North Ryde, Australia.

References and Links

1.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings: fundamentals and applications in telecommunications and sensing (Artech House, Norwood, 1999) Chap. 2.

2.

J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Kawachi, “Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193nm light from a ArF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 387–389 (1994). [PubMed]

3.

C. G. Askins, T. -E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, M. Bashkansky, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber Bragg reflectors prepared by a single excimer pulse,” Opt. Lett. 17, 833–836 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

C. J. Paddison, J. M. Dawes, D. J. W. Brown, M. J. Withford, R. I. Trickett, and P. A. Krug, “Multiple fiber gratings fabricated using frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2407–2408 (1998). [CrossRef]

6.

J. R. Armitage, “Fiber Bragg Reflectors written at 262nm using a frequency quadrupled diode pumped Nd3+:YLF laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1181–1183 (1993). [CrossRef]

7.

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, “Photoinduced polarisation couplers in elliptical core optical fibers written using 535 and 266nm sources,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1558–1560 (1992). [CrossRef]

8.

W. Griffioen, “Strippability of optical fibers,” in Proceedings of 11th Annual Conference on European Fiber Optic Communications and Networks, (European Institute of Communications and Networks, Geneva) 239–244 (1993).

9.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “Efficient Bragg grating fabrication in a fiber through its polymer jacket using near-UV light,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1331–1333 (1997). [CrossRef]

10.

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “Ultrastrong fiber gratings and their applications,” in Optical Fiber Reliability and Testing, Proc. SPIE3848, 178–185 (1999). [CrossRef]

11.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco, and P. J. Chandonnet, “Highly reflective fiber Bragg gratings written through a vinyl ether coating,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 833–835 (1999). [CrossRef]

12.

D. C. Psaila and H. G. Inglis, “Packaging of optical fiber Bragg gratings,” in Proceedings of 51st Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 439–443.

13.

F. Barnier, P. E. Dyer, P. Monk, H. V. Snelling, and H. Rourke, “Fiber optic jacket removal by pulsed laser ablation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 33, 757–759 (2000). [CrossRef]

14.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Carbon dioxide laser fabrication of fused fiber couplers and tapers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6845–6848 (1999). [CrossRef]

15.

D. W. Coutts and J. A. Piper, “One watt average power by second harmonic and sum frequency generation from a single medium scale copper vapour laser,” IEEE. Quantum Electron. 28, 1761–1764 (1992). [CrossRef]

16.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, “Behaviour of spectral transmissions of Bragg gratings written in germania-doped fibers: writing and erasing experiments using pulsed or cw uv exposure,” Opt. Commun. 113, 176–192 (1994). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Lee, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dawes, “Optical fiber photosensitivity and the dynamics of fiber Bragg grating growth,” in Proceedings of Australasian Conference on Optics and Laser Spectroscopy, (Australian Optical Society) 87 (2001).

18.

E. K. Illy, D. J. W. Brown, M. J. Withford, and J. A. Piper, “Optimisation of trepanning strategies for micromachining polymers with high pulse rate UV lasers,” Proc. Of SPIE: High power lasers in manufacturing, X. Chen et al (eds)3888 , 608–616 (2000). [CrossRef]

19.

G. Ogura, “Laser stripping of optical fibers opens up new applications,” Laser Focus World (Penwell Publishing) 37 , 169–176 (2001).

20.

See for example Resostrip© at http://www.resonetics.com/Telecom/reso.htm.

OCIS Codes
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(140.3610) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ultraviolet

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: June 20, 2002
Revised Manuscript: August 2, 2002
Published: August 12, 2002

Citation
Benjamin Johnston, Andrew Lee, Michael Withford, and James Piper, "Laser assisted jacket removal and writing of fiber Bragg gratings using a single laser source," Opt. Express 10, 818-823 (2002)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-16-818


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg gratings: fundamentals and applications in telecommunications and sensing (Artech House, Norwood, 1999) Chap. 2.
  2. J. Albert, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino and M. Kawachi, �??Photosensitivity in Ge-doped silica optical waveguides and fibers with 193nm light from a ArF excimer laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 19, 387-389 (1994). [PubMed]
  3. C. G. Askins, T. -E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, M. Bashkansky and E. J. Friebele, �??Fiber Bragg reflectors prepared by a single excimer pulse,�?? Opt. Lett. 17, 833-836 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey andW. H. Glenn, �??Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,�?? Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. J. Paddison, J. M. Dawes, D. J. W. Brown, M. J. Withford, R. I. Trickett and P. A. Krug, �??Multiple fiber gratings fabricated using frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,�?? Electron. Lett. 34, 2407-2408 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Armitage, �??Fiber Bragg Reflectors written at 262nm using a frequency quadrupled diode pumped Nd3+:YLF laser,�?? Electron. Lett. 29, 1181-1183 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek and A. J. Rogers, �??Photoinduced polarisation couplers in elliptical core optical fibers written using 535 and 266nm sources,�?? Electron. Lett. 28, 1558-1560 (1992). [CrossRef]
  8. W. Griffioen, �??Strippability of optical fibers,�?? in Proceedings of 11th Annual Conference on European Fiber Optic Communications and Networks, (European Institute of Communications and Networks, Geneva) 239-244 (1993).
  9. D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, �??Efficient Bragg grating fabrication in a fiber through its polymer jacket using near-UV light,�?? Electron. Lett. 33, 1331-1333 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, �??Ultrastrong fiber gratings and their applications,�?? in Optical Fiber Reliability and Testing, Proc. SPIE 3848, 178-185 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, N. P. Wang, D. A. Simoff, M. A. Paczkowski, R. S. Windeler, D. L. Brownlow, D. S. Shenk, P. A. Glodis, T. A. Strasser, J. J. DeMarco and P. J. Chandonnet, �??Highly reflective fiber Bragg gratings written through a vinyl ether coating,�?? IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 833-835 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. D. C. Psaila and H. G. Inglis, �??Packaging of optical fiber Bragg gratings,�?? in Proceedings of 51st Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 439-443.
  13. F. Barnier, P. E. Dyer, P. Monk, H. V. Snelling and H. Rourke, �??Fiber optic jacket removal by pulsed laser ablation,�?? J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 33, 757-759 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks and P. St. J. Russell, �??Carbon dioxide laser fabrication of fused fiber couplers and tapers,�?? Appl. Opt. 38, 6845-6848 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. D. W. Coutts and J. A. Piper, �??One watt average power by second harmonic and sum frequency generation from a single medium scale copper vapour laser,�?? IEEE. Quantum Electron. 28, 1761-1764 (1992). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie and B. Poumellec, �??Behaviour of spectral transmissions of Bragg gratings written in germania-doped fibers: writing and erasing experiments using pulsed or cw uv exposure,�?? Opt. Commun. 113, 176-192 (1994). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Lee, M. J. Withford, J. M. Dawes, �??Optical fiber photosensitivity and the dynamics of fiber Bragg grating growth,�?? in Proceedings of Australasian Conference on Optics and Laser Spectroscopy, (Australian Optical Society) 87 (2001).
  18. E. K. Illy, D. J. W. Brown, M. J. Withford and J. A. Piper, �??Optimisation of trepanning strategies for micromachining polymers with high pulse rate UV lasers,�?? Proc. Of SPIE: High power lasers in manufacturing, X. Chen et al (eds) 3888, 608-616 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. G. Ogura, �??Laser stripping of optical fibers opens up new applications,�?? Laser Focus World (Penwell Publishing) 37, 169-176 (2001).
  20. See for example Resostrip_ at <a href="http://www.resonetics.com/Telecom/reso.htm">http://www.resonetics.com/Telecom/reso.htm</a>.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited