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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 10, Iss. 2 — Jan. 28, 2002
  • pp: 104–107
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Promising version of the three-objective multipass matrix system

Semen M. Chernin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 10, Issue 2, pp. 104-107 (2002)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.10.000104


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Abstract

Since they were described in Refs. [1, 2], multipass matrix systems have found extensive application in various areas of science and engineering. They provide the longest optical path lengths within a small volume with linear control of the number of beam passages. In the present paper a modified three-objective multipass matrix system is considered. The system is used equally successfully both in high-resolution spectroscopy and in metrology as well-controlled delay lines of pulse optical signals. New potential applications offered by the system that favorably distinguish it from its known analogs are also discussed.

© Optical Society of America

Contemporary advances in high-resolution spectroscopy are based to a great extent on the use of multipass cells with long optical pathways to enhance instrument sensitivity. Some multipass matrix systems [1

1. S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–58 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] (MMSs) were designed to solve problems relevant to diode laser spectroscopy. MMSs proved to be among the best systems, in terms of their optical and operation characteristics, to be applied in absorption laser spectroscopy. Matrix systems derive their name from a compact rectangular matrix of images produced on field mirrors. They enable extremely long optical pathways to be achieved in devices with large relative apertures. These devices are distinguished by simple design, image stability, very low aberration distortions [2

2. S. M. Chernin, S. B. Mikhailov, and E. G. Barskaya, “Aberration of a multipass matrix system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 765–769 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], linear control of the number of beam passages, reproducibility, and reliability of operation.

As was done for the previously described multipass systems [1–10

1. S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–58 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the present author developed the new devices as a result of close cooperation with researchers working in various areas of modern science. This cooperation gave rise to multipass devices applied in various areas. Newly arising problems necessitated modification of MMS devices. Further development of MMSs was reported in the author’s recent publication [11

11. S. M. Chernin, “Development of optical multipass matrix systems,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 619–632 (2001).

]. However, some matrix systems already have uses beyond molecular and analytical spectroscopy. They help to solve various problems that arise in metrology, for instance, as controlled delay lines for optical signals in the nanosecond range. In contrast to the four-objective matrix system the three-objective matrix system is particularly convenient for delay lines owing to its single-image array formed at the focal matrix points. Light pulses in this system are recorded by photodetectors with appropriate time delays. The photodetectors were mounted upon the rear sides of translucent field mirrors. The aforesaid matrix system was used as an optical delay line in instruments that record fast processes, namely, in calibrating the sweep velocity in optoelectronic cameras, in instruments designed to study the kinetics of fast elementary processes involving shortlived radicals, and also in kinetic investigations of the fluorescence processes that take place in complex organic molecules, including dyes. Having great number of focalmatrix points enables one to take snapshots of fast processes.

Running the system for several years has shown that an essential drawback of MMSs of the first generation [1

1. S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–58 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] arises because the entrance and exit openings are positioned close together (positions 1 and 2 in Fig.1 for a three-objective system), which makes separation of the light beams and alignment of the radiation source and detector in the device difficult. The close proximity of the entrance and exit openings is particularly inconvenient when the device is matched to instruments with a large angular beam divergence, such as diode lasers. It may seem strange but, as far as I know, in the decade following the first publication on matrix systems [1

1. S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–58 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] no experimentalists have attempted to increase the distance between those openings. However, to implement this modification, one has to understand clearly the geometric scheme of the rays in space. Changes were made only in the field mirror block, at the expense of correction of the design and beam pattern. Figure 2 shows the newly modified three-objective MMS viewed from the side of objectives toward the field mirrors with 60 beam passages. Components of the system are located in the same places as in Fig. 1. For better illustration the entrance 1 and exit 2 openings are positioned to the left of the main field mirror 8. The widely separated entrance 1 and exit 2 openings are positioned above and below the auxiliary field mirror 9 which makes separation of the light beams and mounting of the source and detector much easier. The centers of curvature of the mirror objectives 3 and 4 are situated in the horizontal axis of the field mirror 8. These centers are indicated in Fig. 2 by half-filled circles; the distance between these circles is constant. An open circle below the auxiliary field mirror 9 in Fig. 2 shows the position of the center of curvature of the additional mirror objective 10 in Fig. 1. The numbers in the dashed circles indicate the order of formation of intermediate images on the two field mirrors 8 and 9. As the centers of curvature move in the direction indicated by the arrow, the field mirror 8 keeps being filled with images, and the number of passages increases.

Fig. 1. Three-objective MMS: 1, entrance opening; 2, exit opening; 3, 4, paired mirror objectives; 5, turning plate; 6, movable holder; 7, vertical axis; 8, field mirror; 9, auxiliary field mirror; 10, additional mirror objective; 11, horizontal axis.
Fig. 2. Modification of the three-objective MMS. View of field mirrors: 1, entrance opening; 2, exit opening; 8, field mirror; 9, auxiliary field mirror.

It should be emphasized that the modified system features only onefold alignment of images. When the system is used as an optical delay line and its mounting in a tubular cell is unnecessary, it is advisable to mount the mirror objectives along a single straight line. Basic approaches to mutual arrangement of the objectives of matrix systems were discussed in Ref. [1

1. S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–58 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The number of passages N in the modified three-objective matrix system is determined by the formula:

N=2mn,
(1)

where m is the number of rows that make up a series of even numbers 4, 6, 8, 10… and n is the number of columns that form a series of natural numbers 3, 4, 5, 6…

The present publication is a continuation of the cycle of publications on the development of new multipass systems [1–11

1. S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–58 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] intended to solve many contemporary scientific problems.

References and links

1.

S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–58 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

S. M. Chernin, S. B. Mikhailov, and E. G. Barskaya, “Aberration of a multipass matrix system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 765–769 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S. M. Chernin, “Multipass system with large relative aperture,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525–532 (1992). [CrossRef]

4.

S. M. Chernin, “Laser multipass collimator,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 533–542 (1992). [CrossRef]

5.

S. M. Chernin, “Multimirror scanning spectropyrometer,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 471–479 (1994). [CrossRef]

6.

S. M. Chernin, “New generation of multipass systems,” in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D.K. Killinger, and H. L. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE 2112, 99–108 (1994). [CrossRef]

7.

S. M. Chernin, “Multipass V-shaped system with a large relative aperture: stages of development,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7857–7863 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. M. Chernin, “Multipass matrix systems for diode laser spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 87–93 (1996). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Nadezhdinskii, A. Berezin, S. Chernin, O. Ershov, and V. Kutnyak, “High sensitivity methane multipass analyzer based on tuned near infrared diode laser,” Spectrochim. Acta 55A, 2083–2089 (1999).

10.

S. M. Chernin, A. G. Berezin, O. V. Ershov, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, D. B. Stavrovskii, and T. A. Shubenkina, “Multipass large-aperture mirror system for high-resolution spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Technol. 67, 900–904 (2000). [CrossRef]

11.

S. M. Chernin, “Development of optical multipass matrix systems,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 619–632 (2001).

12.

E. O. Schulz-DuBois, “Generation of square lattice of focal points by a modified White cell,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1391–1393 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. U. White, “Long optical paths of large aperture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 285–291(1942). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(220.4830) Optical design and fabrication : Systems design

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: November 1, 2001
Revised Manuscript: November 1, 2001
Published: January 28, 2002

Citation
Semen Chernin, "Promising version of the three-objective multipass matrix system," Opt. Express 10, 104-107 (2002)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-2-104


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References

  1. S. M. Chernin and E. G. Barskaya, "Optical multipass matrix systems," Appl. Opt. 30, 51-58 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. M. Chernin, S. B. Mikhailov, and E. G. Barskaya, "Aberration of a multipass matrix system," Appl. Opt. 31, 765-769 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. M. Chernin, "Multipass system with large relative aperture," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525-532 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. S. M. Chernin, "Laser multipass collimator," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 533-542 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. S. M. Chernin, "Multimirror scanning spectropyrometer," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 471-479 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. S. M. Chernin, "New generation of multipass systems," in Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Lidar, and DIAL Techniques for Environmental and Industrial Measurements, A. Fried, D.K. Killinger, and H. L. Schiff, eds., Proc. SPIE 2112, 99-108 (1994). [CrossRef]
  7. S. M. Chernin, "Multipass V-shaped system with a large relative aperture: stages of development," Appl. Opt. 34, 7857-7863 (1995) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. M. Chernin, "Multipass matrix systems for diode laser spectroscopy," Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 87-93 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Nadezhdinskii, A. Berezin, S. Chernin, O. Ershov, and V. Kutnyak, "High sensitivity methane multipass analyzer based on tuned near infrared diode laser," Spectrochim. Acta 55A, 2083-2089 (1999).
  10. S. M. Chernin, A. G. Berezin, O. V. Ershov, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, D. B. Stavrovskii, and T. A. Shubenkina, "Multipass large-aperture mirror system for high-resolution spectroscopy," J. Opt. Technol. 67, 900-904 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. S. M. Chernin, "Development of optical multipass matrix systems," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 619-632 (2001).
  12. E. O. Schulz-DuBois, "Generation of square lattice of focal points by a modified White cell," Appl. Opt. 12, 1391-1393 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. U. White, "Long optical paths of large aperture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 285-291 (1942). [CrossRef]

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