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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 11, Iss. 13 — Jun. 30, 2003
  • pp: 1537–1540
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Supercontinuum generation at 1.55 µm in a dispersion-flattened polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber

T. Yamamoto, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 13, pp. 1537-1540 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.11.001537


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Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of symmetrical supercontinuum of over 40 nm in the 1.55 µm region (1540 – 1580 nm) by injecting 1562 nm, 2.2 ps, 40 GHz optical pulses into a 200 m-long, dispersion-flattened polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber. The chromatic dispersion and dispersion slope of the fiber at 1.55 µm are -0.23 ps/km/nm and 0.01 ps/km/nm2, respectively. This is the first report of 1.55 µm band supercontinuum generation in a dispersion-flattened and polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are attracting considerable interest as transmission media and optical functional devices [1

1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Framoton, R. C. Moore, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Soliton-self-frequency-shift effects and pulse compression in an anomalously dispersive high nonlinearity lead silicate holey fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD3.

]. Since the first realization of a PCF [1

1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], intense research has been conducted to determine the propagation mode characteristics [4

4. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element schme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and dispersion characteristics [7

7. W. Reeves, J. Knight, P. Russell, P. Roberts, and B. Mangan, “Dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers at 1550 nm,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), FI3.

,9

9. K. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, C. Peucheret, and A. Bjarklev, “Fully dispersion controlled triangular-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD2.

], as well as to reduce the propagation loss [2

2. H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2-km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001, Vol. 56 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2001), postdeadline paper CPD3.

,3

3. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “High-speed bi-directional polarization division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1399–1401 (2001). [CrossRef]

,8

8. K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultra low loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD1.

], and realize polarization maintaining characteristics [3

3. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “High-speed bi-directional polarization division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1399–1401 (2001). [CrossRef]

] and highly nonlinear characteristics [5

5. K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002, Vol. 70 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2002), postdeadline paper FA9.

,6

6. Z. Yusoff, P. Teh, P. Petropoulos, K. Furusawa, W. Belardi, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, “24 channel×10 GHz spectrally spliced pulse source based on spectral broadening in a highly nonlinear holy fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), FH3.

,10

10. P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Framoton, R. C. Moore, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Soliton-self-frequency-shift effects and pulse compression in an anomalously dispersive high nonlinearity lead silicate holey fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD3.

]. One of the promising applications of PCF is supercontinuum generation [6

6. Z. Yusoff, P. Teh, P. Petropoulos, K. Furusawa, W. Belardi, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, “24 channel×10 GHz spectrally spliced pulse source based on spectral broadening in a highly nonlinear holy fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), FH3.

]. For efficient and symmetric supercontinuum generation, the PCF must offer low dispersion and low dispersion slope characteristics [7

7. W. Reeves, J. Knight, P. Russell, P. Roberts, and B. Mangan, “Dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers at 1550 nm,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), FI3.

]. In addition, polarization-maintainability [3

3. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “High-speed bi-directional polarization division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1399–1401 (2001). [CrossRef]

] is indispensable for stable operation.

This paper is the first to experimentally verify 1.55 µm band supercontinuum generation in a dispersion-flattened and polarization-maintaining (PM) PCF. Symmetric supercontinuum with a spectral width of over 40 nm is generated in a 200 m-long PM-PCF.

2. Design of the PM-PCF

Figure 1 shows a micrograph of the center of the PM-PCF. The four central air holes with large diameter provide high birefringence, which realizes polarization-maintaining operation. The parameters such as center core diameter, air hole diameter, and air hole pitch were designed to achieve low dispersion, low dispersion slope, and high nonlinearity. The fiber has a silica core with an elliptical Ge-doped center core. The Ge-doping enables us to not only reduce the confinement loss [5

5. K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002, Vol. 70 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2002), postdeadline paper FA9.

] but also control the dispersion characteristics of the PM-PCF. The dimensions of the Ge-doped elliptical core are 1.4 µm×1.1 µm. The ratio of large air hole diameter (d2) to air hole pitch size (Λ) is 0.77, while the ratio of small air hole diameter (d1) to Λ is 0.40.

Fig. 1. Micrograph of the center of the PM-PCF.

3. Characteristics of the PM-PCF

Fig. 2. Chromatic dispersion characteristics of the PM-PCF.

4. Supercontinuum generation

Symmetric supercontinuum generation in a dispersion-flattened PM-PCF was achieved by injecting 40 GHz optical pulses into the fiber. This is the first demonstration of the supercontinuum generation in a PM-PCF with dispersion-flattened characteristics. The optical pulse source was a mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser with center wavelength of 1562 nm and pulse width of 2.2 ps. The optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at the laser output was more than 35 dB. The pulses were amplified with an EDFA and coupled into the PM-PCF. Figures 3(a)(d) show the measured optical spectra. Figure 3(a) shows the 40 GHz fiber laser output spectrum. Figures 3(b) and (c) show the whole profile of the generated supercontinuum spectra at the output of PM-PCF where average coupled powers into the PM-PCF were set at 25 and 28 dBm, which correspond to the peak powers of 3.2 and 6.3 W, respectively. Figure 3(d) shows the magnified structure of the supercontinuum spectrum in Fig. 3(c) near the center wavelength. In Fig. 3(c), we can see that the optical spectrum was broadened symmetrically over 40 nm. Although the peak level decreased as the spectrum broadened, no increase in the noise level was observed. By reducing the optical loss of the PM-PCF, supercontinuum generation with less pumping power, around 20 dBm, is expected. This fiber is applicable to a multi channel optical source for WDM communication and photonic network systems.

Fig. 3. Optical spectra. (a) shows 40 GHz fiber laser output. (b) and (c) show the supercontinuum spectra at the output of PM-PCF with average coupled powers of 25 dBm and 28 dBm, respectively. (d) Longitudinal mode structure around the center wavelength in (c).

5. Conclusions

Efficient and symmetric supercontinuum generation was achieved for the first time using a polarization maintaining PCF with dispersion-flattened characteristics (dispersion; -0.23 ps/km/nm, dispersion slope; 0.01 ps/km/nm2 at 1.55 µm). Broadened optical spectrum with spectral width of over 40 nm was obtained from a 200 m-long PM-PCF and 28 dBm average coupled power.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Dr. M. Kawachi and Dr. K. Sato for their constant encouragement.

References and links

1.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2-km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001, Vol. 56 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2001), postdeadline paper CPD3.

3.

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “High-speed bi-directional polarization division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1399–1401 (2001). [CrossRef]

4.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element schme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 µm,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002, Vol. 70 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2002), postdeadline paper FA9.

6.

Z. Yusoff, P. Teh, P. Petropoulos, K. Furusawa, W. Belardi, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, “24 channel×10 GHz spectrally spliced pulse source based on spectral broadening in a highly nonlinear holy fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), FH3.

7.

W. Reeves, J. Knight, P. Russell, P. Roberts, and B. Mangan, “Dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers at 1550 nm,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), FI3.

8.

K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultra low loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD1.

9.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, C. Peucheret, and A. Bjarklev, “Fully dispersion controlled triangular-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD2.

10.

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Framoton, R. C. Moore, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “Soliton-self-frequency-shift effects and pulse compression in an anomalously dispersive high nonlinearity lead silicate holey fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD3.

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: May 29, 2003
Revised Manuscript: June 19, 2003
Published: June 30, 2003

Citation
T. Yamamoto, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi, "Supercontinuum generation at 1.55 m in a dispersion-flattened polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 1537-1540 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-13-1537


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References

  1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, �??All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, �??Low-loss, 2-km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,�?? in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2001, Vol. 56 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2001), postdeadline paper CPD3.
  3. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, �??High-speed bi-directional polarization division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fibre,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 1399-1401 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, �??Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element schme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, �??Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55 m,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2002, Vol. 70 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2002), postdeadline paper FA9.
  6. Z. Yusoff, P. Teh, P. Petropoulos, K. Furusawa, W. Belardi, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, �??24 channel x 10 GHz spectrally spliced pulse source based on spectral broadening in a highly nonlinear holy fiber,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), FH3.
  7. W. Reeves, J. Knight, P. Russell, P. Roberts, and B. Mangan, �??Dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers at 1550 nm,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), FI3.
  8. K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, �??Ultra low loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD1.
  9. K. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, C. Peucheret, and A. Bjarklev, �??Fully dispersion controlled triangular-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD2.
  10. P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Framoton, R. C. Moore, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, �??Soliton-self-frequency-shift effects and pulse compression in an anomalously dispersive high nonlinearity lead silicate holey fiber,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2003, OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD3.

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