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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 11, Iss. 20 — Oct. 6, 2003
  • pp: 2589–2596
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Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres

Thomas Tanggaard Larsen, Anders Bjarklev, David Sparre Hermann, and Jes Broeng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 20, pp. 2589-2596 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.11.002589


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Abstract

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) have appeared as a new class of optical waveguides, which have attracted large scientific and commercial interest during the last years. PCFs are microstructured waveguides, usually in silica, with a large number of air holes located in the cladding region of the fiber. The size and location of these air holes opens up for a large degree of design freedom within optical waveguide design. Further, the existence of air holes in the PCF gives access close to the fiber core and by introducing new materials into the air holes, a high interaction between light and hole material can be obtained, while maintaining the microstructure of the waveguide. In this paper, we describe what we call Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers, which are PCFs infiltrated with Liquid Crystals (LCs) in order to obtain increased fiber functionality. We describe a thermo-optic fiber switch with an extinction ratio of 60dB and tunable PBGs using thermo-optic tuning of the LC. These devices operate by the PBG effect and are therefore highly sensitive to the refractive index distributions in the holes.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Introduction

Standard optical waveguides guide light by total internal reflection, which requires that the refractive index of the waveguide core is larger than that of the surrounding (often homogeneous) cladding. Such waveguides have been extremely successful as transmission fibres [1

1. D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, and P. C. Schultz, “On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1973). [CrossRef]

] in world-spanning telecommunication systems or in the emerging field of integrated optics [2

2. R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill Book Company England, 1992).

]. With the appearance of photonic crystal fibres [3

3. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 283, 1476–1478 (1998). [CrossRef]

] (PCFs) and, more generally, three-dimensional periodic structures for control of electromagnetic waves [4

4. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], a more diverse field of optical waveguides has appeared, relying on the properties of structural repeatable index contrasts often in air-solid combinations [5

5. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

]. The waveguiding properties of photonic crystal structures may (depending on structure) either be explained as modified total internal reflection [6

6. P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or as Photonic BandGap (PBG) guiding, in which a periodic cladding structure exhibit strong reflection through a two-dimensional destructive interference process. PCFs have shown numerous unique properties, e.g., as non-linear fibres with highly extended dispersion control [7

7. K. P. Hansen, et al., “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55µm,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) PDFA9.

], as air-guiding fibres [8

8. R.F. Creganet al., “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or Bragg fibres [9

9. B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] allowing for transmission of light at new wavelengths, or as fibres with very high numerical apertures, which are specifically attractive in very-high-power cladding-pumped fibre lasers [10

10. J. Limpert, et al., “High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11, 818 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-818 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Photonic crystal structures have also opened for a highly extended access to the guided light through the hollow voids in or around the core region of the waveguide.

Important examples include the demonstration of large waveguide dispersion in a PCF with high-index liquid [11

11. J. Jasapara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of Mode Cut-Off on Dispersion in Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference ThI3 (2003).

] filled holes, or as devices combining Bragg grating technology and Microstructured Optical Fibres (MOFs) with polymer-filled air holes [12

12. P. S. Westbrook, et al., “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The work by Kerbage and Eggleton [13

13. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices”, Optics Express 9, 698–713 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is particularly interesting, because it shows the possibility of realising active waveguide control, by dynamic positioning of a microfluid inside a MOF. Further, Yablonovitch [14

14. E. Yablonovitch, “Liquid versus photonics crystals,” Nature 401, 539–541 (1999). [CrossRef]

] states that a combination of liquid and photonic crystals may hold new potential also for 3-dimensional waveguide structures.

The perspectives of design and active control of optical waveguides are further widened, if we bring the idea of self-organised material components into action. A very interesting candidate is the use of Liquid Crystals (LCs), which according to theoretical work by Busch and John [15

15. K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tuneable Electromagnetic Vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999). [CrossRef]

] may be used in three-dimensional photonic crystals to obtain tuneable light localization, or to allow mirrorless lasing through the formation of a self-assembled PBG material [16

16. C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Materials 1, 111–113 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. It is, therefore, fundamentally interesting to study the potential application of LCs as means of introducing enhanced periodicity and controllability, and in a further sense make the two-dimensional PCF a three-dimensional structure. Even more, it is relevant to consider the fundamental differences between optical waveguiding resulting from total internal reflection in contrast to the PBG effect, because enhanced active waveguide control must be expected, if e.g., switching between these two waveguiding principles is brought in action.

Here we report the first liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fibres, which guide light by the photonic bandgap effect as shown on Fig. 1. We demonstrate the first use of an actively controlled photonic bandgap fibre device, and describe how liquid-crystal-filled PCFs can serve as a highly sensitive, tuneable signal-processing element operating by the photonic bandgap effect. We demonstrate a tuneable filter function and low-voltage controlled broadband optical switching with an extinction ratio of as much as 60 dB, and an insertion loss of only 1dB.

Fig. 1. Micrograph of the end facet of a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fibre. The periodic structure, consisting of silica and liquid crystal, gives rise to a cladding with photonic bandgaps, and the fibre supports only guided modes at certain wavelength bands. In this case, a blue mode is supported in the visible region of the spectrum.

Mesophases of liquid crystals

Liquid crystals are organic materials consisting of geometrically anisotropic molecules, leading to long-range orientational [17

17. P. G. de Gennes and J. ProstJ. The Physics of liquid crystals, 2nd edition, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).

], [18

18. S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid crystals, (Cambridge University Press, 1977).

] order and a number of mesophases, which are thermodynamic phases with physical properties intermediate between those of pure liquids and pure solids. Phase transitions occur either when temperature is varied (thermotropics) or when the concentration of solute molecules is varied (lyotropics). Thermotropics are mainly used for electro-optic applications, such as flat-panel laptop displays. Lyotropics occur abundantly in nature, such as in DNA and cell membranes. We are presently concerned with thermotropic, rodlike (calamitic) LCs and examples of mesophases within this class are shown in Fig. 2. Nematics have only long-range orientational order, while smectics A and C in addition have long-range positional order in one dimension, resulting in a structure of thin (2–5 nm) layers; several hundred smectic layers thus average up to determine the local optical properties. In case of chiral molecules, all phases become noncentrosymmetric, leading to a helical superstructure in chiral nematic (N*=cholesteric) and chiral smectic C (SmC*), but not in chiral smectic A (SmA*). The helical structures are self-organized PBG materials, provided the helical pitch p is on the same order of magnitude as the wavelength of the light.

Fig. 2. Examples of phases of thermotropic liquid crystals: Nematic, Smectic A and Smectic C phases (non-chiral molecules), appearing in that order upon cooling, if the same material possesses all of these phases. If the molecules are chiral, we instead have N* (=cholesteric), SmA* and SmC*. These phases all lack mirror planes. A helical superstructure due to the molecular chirality appears in the N* and SmC* phases (shown), but not in the SmA* phase (not shown).

Liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres

In this work, we have filled LCs into the circular voids of a triangular structured PCF, with inter-hole distance of 7µm and hole size of 3.5µm. We examined the alignment of the LC by polarizing microscopy observations of a single hole. We have used two different types of LCs: MDA-00-1445 from Merck and TM216 from BDH. The first is a short-pitch cholesteric having a N* to isotropic phase transition at 94°C, a reflection wavelength of 470nm and extra-ordinary and ordinary refractive indices of ne,589nm=1.6844 and no,589nm=1.5070, respectively. The latter has both a chiral Smectic A and a cholesteric phase, with the phase transition temperatures SmA* 26.2°C N* 42.3°C Isotropic. TM216 is a short-pitch LC with a highly temperature sensitive pitch around the SmA* to N* phase transition [19

19. P. Rudquist, M. Buivydas, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, (1994). [CrossRef]

].

Alignment study

Polarized microscopy observations of MDA-00-1445 in its cholesteric phase indicated that the helix axis of the cholesteric was aligned in a radial symmetry and perpendicular to the fibre axis. These observations are consistent with the ones found by Kitzerow et al. [20

20. H. -S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. P. Crooker, “Effect on chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575, (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Similar observations of TM216 in the SmA* phase indicated a homeotropic alignment of the director in a region extending from the inner walls of the holes and in towards the central region of the holes. This central region had no or little transmission dependence in the polarized microscope. These observations suggest that the LC is aligned radially within the PCF holes equivalent to a smectic layer structure forming concentric cylinders along the axis of the PCF holes, and wrapped around an optically isotropic core region. This alignment is consistent with observations by Lo et al. [21

21. S. K. Lo, L. M. Galarneau, D. J. Rogers, and S. R. Flom, “Smectic Liquid Crystal Waveguides with cylindrical Geometry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 137–145 (1991). [CrossRef]

] and by Mang et al. [22

22. J. T. Mang, K. Sakamoto, and S. Kumar, “Smectic Layer Orientation in Confined Geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 133–142 (1992). [CrossRef]

] and is further substantiated by a theoretical study by Kralj and Zumer [23

23. S. Kralj and S. Zumer, “Smectic-A structures in submicrometer cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. E , 54(2), 1610–1617 (1996). [CrossRef]

].

Device description

After the alignment study, all voids of a PCF were filled with LCs, where the relatively high and controllable refractive index of the LC, together with the periodic arrangement of holes in the PCF, gives rise to a fibre cladding with photonic bandgaps [24

24. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides,” Opt. Express 10, 1320–1333 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1320 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The spectral characteristics of the filled fibre, thereby, depend on the original PCF structure and on the alignment and optical properties of the LC.

To access the potential of controllability, we coated the filled section of the fibre with a thin conducting layer-forming a resistive microheater. By applying a small current through the microheater, the temperature of the LC and, thereby, the photonic bandgaps of the cladding structure could be controlled. The device-principle is illustrated in Fig. 3(a). The inset in Fig. 3(a) shows a polarized micrograph of the SmA* phase of TM216 inside a PCF hole.

Waveguiding principle

While accurate simulation of fibre operation is difficult for the exact LC composition in the holes, Fig. 3(b) qualitatively illustrates the bandgap effects that are in play. The figure illustrates mode indices of allowed states of the fibre as function of wavelength. We have made the approximation of a uniform refractive index material filling the holes. The rods were simulated for a refractive index of 1.59(chosen to be approximately equal to the average value of the ordinary and extra-ordinary refractive indices). Although this is an approximation it serve to explain the basic waveguiding mechanism, but cannot be used for accurate simulation of cladding modes and bandgap edges, since it is expected that the actual alignment of the LC will have a significant influence on these solutions. The fibre has LC-filled holes of diameter, d, equal to 3.5µm, and pitch, Λ, of 7.0 µm. Intuitively, the operation of the LC-filled fibre may be explained as individual rods (the LC-filled holes) forming isolated waveguides at short wavelengths, whereas, for increasing wavelength, the rods become resonant and finally strongly coupled waveguides. Most importantly, forbidden regions with mode index below the low-index background material (n=1.45) appear for narrow spectral ranges. Within these spectral ranges, the fibre is capable of confining and guiding light in the core, despite its lower refractive index compared to the surrounding rods. The spectral position and extend of these ‘light-guide’ ranges are highly dependent on the exact composition of the rod material. Hence, the strong sensitivity of LCs makes them ideal candidates for control of light guidance by very small external influences.

Fig. 3. (a) Device principle. The voids of a triangular structured PCF is filled with a liquid crystal and coated with a thin conducting layer, which forms a resistive microheater. Upper left inset shows a polarized micrograph of a liquid crystal inside a PCF void. (b) Mode index simulation of rod-type photonic crystal. At short wavelengths, the individual rods form isolated waveguides, for increasing wavelength the rods become resonant and finally strongly coupled waveguides. A forbidden region with mode index below the low-index background material (blue line) appears for narrow spectral ranges. These spectral ranges are utilized to guide light in the core and they are highly dependent on the exact composition of the rod material. Liquid crystals provide a very high sensitivity to the spectral location of these ‘light-guide’ ranges, thereby opening up the possibilities of low-voltage driven all-optical functional devices. Field distributions of a high-index cladding mode (left), a defect mode guided by the core (middle), and a low-index cladding mode (right) are shown in the top panel.

Device Characterization

Due to phase transitions, the LC shows large thermo-optical effects, whereby the photonic bandgaps of the cladding may be shifted spectrally. We found bandgap location sensitivities of 3nm/°C and 1nm/°C at infrared and visible wavelengths, respectively. However, when operating the LC around the phase transition temperatures, significantly stronger effects were observed - thereby causing large modifications of the refractive index distribution. This is demonstrated in Fig. 4, where a 20mm length of PCF is filled with a cholesteric LC (MDA-00-1445) and heated from 77°C to 94°C. The dominant bandgap changes from green to yellow, into an off state, and then to blue. The off-state is attributed to a highly scattering behavior of the LC at the phase transition, where the molecules tend to dis-align from their cholesteric phase.

Fig. 4. Micrographs of the guided modes in a PCF filled with a short-pitch cholesteric LC.(MDA-00-1445). Well below the N* to Isotropic phase transition temperature (Tc=94°C), the bandgap location sensitivity is approximately 1nm/°C and 3 nm/°C in the visible and infrared region, respectively. Closer to Tc, the transmission characteristics changes more rapidly, and the color of the guided modes changes from a) green@T=77°C to b) yellow@T=89°C and then into an c) off state@T=91°C for thereafter to change to d) blue@T=94°C

The experimental observation of this effect encouraged us to investigate other LC phase transitions at lower temperatures to explore the potential of low-voltage controlled fibre functionalities. For this purpose, we filled 10mm of the PCF voids with TM216 and examined the characteristics of the photonic bandgaps at the SmA* to N* phase transition. Figure 5(a) shows the transmission spectrum of the filled fibre, when the LC is in its SmA* and N* phase. In the SmA*, case there are 3 bandgaps around 670nm, 1000nm and 1600nm, with the 670nm and 1000nm bandgap having insertion loss as low as 1dB. When slightly heated to above the SmA* phase, which only required a voltage of 5mV, all the transmission bands disappear due to a highly scattering dis-alignment of the LC in the N* phase. Figure 5(b) shows the spectrum of a 974nm pump laser coupled to the fibre, where a 60dB extinction ratio occurs for a temperature interval of only 0.4°C. Further experiments have shown a 60dB extinction ratio, where the required temperature interval only was 0.1°C, but this was difficult to maintain due to thermal fluctuation in the laboratory.

Fig. 5. (a) Transmission spectrum for a triangular structured PCF filled with a liquid crystal (TM216). Spectrum is shown for 3 temperatures around the SmA* to N* phase transition temperature: 26.1°C, 26.5°C and 26.9°C. (b) Spectrum of a 974nm pump laser beam coupled into the fiber and shows an extinction ratio of 60dB with a switching temperature difference of 0.4°C.

Conclusion

These results indicate that small, high-performance optical devices may be designed that requires a minimum of external influence to obtain tuneability, and allow for in-fibre functionalities with a minimum of insertion loss. Further, the high optical nonlinarity of LCs makes them an ideal candidate for all-optical signal processing devices and by using the self-organizing PBG effect of the LC, the possibility of designing more advanced signal processing devices may open up. Combining this with the knowledge of LCs in biological system, such as DNA and cell membranes, could open up for a new class of PBG fibre based biosensors with sub-microliter sample volume [25

25. J. B. Jensen, et al. “Photonic Crystal Fibre based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of aqueous solutions,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

]. Further, it has been shown that LCs could act as an optical amplifier of protein-ligand bindings [26

26. V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrowsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical Amplification of Ligand-Receptor Binding Using Liquid Crystals,” Science 278, 2077–2080 (1998). [CrossRef]

], which further strengthens the possibility of using liquid crystal PBG fibres as biosensors for detection of receptor binding of certain molecules, e.g., proteins.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the NKT Academy in Denmark.

References and Links

1.

D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, and P. C. Schultz, “On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1973). [CrossRef]

2.

R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill Book Company England, 1992).

3.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 283, 1476–1478 (1998). [CrossRef]

4.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

6.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

K. P. Hansen, et al., “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55µm,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) PDFA9.

8.

R.F. Creganet al., “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. Limpert, et al., “High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11, 818 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-818 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. Jasapara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of Mode Cut-Off on Dispersion in Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference ThI3 (2003).

12.

P. S. Westbrook, et al., “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, (2000). [CrossRef]

13.

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices”, Optics Express 9, 698–713 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

E. Yablonovitch, “Liquid versus photonics crystals,” Nature 401, 539–541 (1999). [CrossRef]

15.

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tuneable Electromagnetic Vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Materials 1, 111–113 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

P. G. de Gennes and J. ProstJ. The Physics of liquid crystals, 2nd edition, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).

18.

S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid crystals, (Cambridge University Press, 1977).

19.

P. Rudquist, M. Buivydas, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, (1994). [CrossRef]

20.

H. -S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. P. Crooker, “Effect on chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575, (1996). [CrossRef]

21.

S. K. Lo, L. M. Galarneau, D. J. Rogers, and S. R. Flom, “Smectic Liquid Crystal Waveguides with cylindrical Geometry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 137–145 (1991). [CrossRef]

22.

J. T. Mang, K. Sakamoto, and S. Kumar, “Smectic Layer Orientation in Confined Geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 133–142 (1992). [CrossRef]

23.

S. Kralj and S. Zumer, “Smectic-A structures in submicrometer cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. E , 54(2), 1610–1617 (1996). [CrossRef]

24.

K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides,” Opt. Express 10, 1320–1333 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1320 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. B. Jensen, et al. “Photonic Crystal Fibre based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of aqueous solutions,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

26.

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrowsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical Amplification of Ligand-Receptor Binding Using Liquid Crystals,” Science 278, 2077–2080 (1998). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: August 7, 2003
Revised Manuscript: September 29, 2003
Published: October 6, 2003

Citation
Thomas Larsen, Anders Bjarklev, David Hermann, and Jes Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 11, 2589-2596 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-20-2589


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References

  1. D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, and P. C. Schultz, �??On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307-309 (1973). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill Book Company England 1992).
  3. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, �??Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers, Science 283, 1476-1478 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. E. Yablonovitch, �??Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).
  6. P. Russell, �??Photonic crystal fibers,�?? Science 299, 358-362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. P. Hansen, et al., �??Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55µm,�?? Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society, of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) PDFA9.
  8. R.F. Cregan et al., �??Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,�?? Science 285, 1537-153 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, �??Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,�?? Nature 420, 650-653 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Limpert, et al., �??High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser,�??Opt. Express 11, 818 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-818">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-818</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Jasapara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, �??Effect of Mode Cut-Off on Dispersion in Photonic Bandgap Fibers,�?? Optical Fiber Communication Conference ThI3 (2003).
  12. P. S. Westbrook, et al., �??Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, �??Microstructured optical fiber devices�??, Optics Express 9, 698-713 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Yablonovitch, �??Liquid versus photonics crystals,�?? Nature 401, 539-541 (1999) [CrossRef]
  15. K. Busch and S. John, �??Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tuneable Electromagnetic Vacuum,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, �??Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,�?? Nature Materials 1, 111-113 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, J. The Physics of liquid crystals, 2nd edition, (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1993).
  18. S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid crystals, (Cambridge University Press, 1977).
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