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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 11, Iss. 22 — Nov. 3, 2003
  • pp: 2793–2798
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Dispersion of group and phase modal birefringence in elliptical-core fiber measured by white-light spectral interferometry

Petr Hlubina, Tadeusz Martynkien, and Waclaw Urbańczyk  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 22, pp. 2793-2798 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.11.002793


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Abstract

We present a white-light spectral interferometric technique employing a low-resolution spectrometer for measurement of the dispersion of the group and phase modal birefringence in an elliptical-core optical fiber over a wide spectral range. The technique utilizes a tandem configuration of a Michelson interferometer and the optical fiber to record a series of spectral interferograms and to measure the equalization wavelengths as a function of the optical path difference in the Michelson interferometer, or equivalently, the wavelength dependence of the group modal birefringence in the optical fiber. Applying a polynomial fit to the measured data, the wavelength dependence of the phase modal birefringence can also be determined.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Recently, a new measurement technique employing a low-resolution spectrometer at the output of a tandem configuration of a Michelson interferometer and a two-mode optical fiber has been used to measure the intermodal dispersion in circular-core [7

7. P. Hlubina, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbańczyk, “Measurements of intermodal dispersion in few-mode optical fibers using a spectral-domain white-light interferometric method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 784–789 (2003). [CrossRef]

] and elliptical-core [8

8. P. Hlubina, “White-light spectral interferometry to measure intermodal dispersion in two-mode elliptical-core optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 218, 283–289 (2003). [CrossRef]

] optical fibers. In comparison with the standard time-domain tandem interferometry our technique of spectral-domain tandem interferometry [9

9. P. Hlubina, “Spectral-domain intermodal interference under general measurement conditions,” Opt. Commun. 210, 225–232 (2002). [CrossRef]

] uses a series of the recorded spectral interferograms to resolve the so-called equalization wavelengths [7

7. P. Hlubina, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbańczyk, “Measurements of intermodal dispersion in few-mode optical fibers using a spectral-domain white-light interferometric method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 784–789 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. P. Hlubina, “White-light spectral interferometry to measure intermodal dispersion in two-mode elliptical-core optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 218, 283–289 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. P. Hlubina, “Spectral-domain intermodal interference under general measurement conditions,” Opt. Commun. 210, 225–232 (2002). [CrossRef]

] at which the overall group optical path difference (OPD) is zero and finally to obtain the wavelength dependence of the intermodal group OPD in a two-mode optical fiber.

2. Experimental method

Consider a tandem configuration of a nondispersive Michelson interferometer and an optical fiber under test of length z (see Fig. 1), which supports a guiding of the slow and fast polarization eigenmodes characterized by the wavelength-dependent propagation constants βs (λ) and βf (λ). The spectral intensity I(R,Δ M; λ) recorded by a spectrometer at the output of the tandem configuration at the position vector R in the transverse observation plane can be expressed in the following way [9

9. P. Hlubina, “Spectral-domain intermodal interference under general measurement conditions,” Opt. Commun. 210, 225–232 (2002). [CrossRef]

]:

I(R,ΔM;λ)=I0(R;λ){1+(12)V(R;λ)exp{(π22)[(Δsfg(z;λ)±ΔM)ΔλRλ2]2}
×cos[Δβsf(λ)z±(2πλ)ΔM]},
(1)
Fig. 1. Experimental setup with a nondispersive Michelson interferometer and a low-resolution spectrometer to measure the dispersion of birefringence in an optical fiber under test.

3. Experimental configuration

Fig. 2. Example of the spectral interferogram recorded for the OPD Δ M=2376 µm together with the theoretical spectral interferogram (solid line).

4. Experimental results and discussion

After optimizing excitation and detection conditions to assure the highest visibility of spectral interference fringes, the spectral interferograms were recorded for the OPDs Δ M in the Michelson interferometer adjusted with a step of 20 µm. We have revealed that the equalization wavelengths can be resolved over the spectral range approximately from 525 to 805 nm when the OPD Δ M in the Michelson interferometer varies from 1876 to 2796 µm. An example of the recorded spectrum (markers) obtained for the OPD Δ M=2376 µm is shown Fig. 2. We can clearly resolve the spectral interference fringes in the vicinity of the equalization wavelength λ0=686.55 nm.

Fig. 3. Measured group modal birefringence as a function of wavelength together with a polynomial fit (solid line).

Fig. 4. Phase modal birefringence determined as a function of wavelength.

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

This research was partially supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (project No. 202/01/0077).

References and links

1.

S. C. Rashleigh, “Wavelength dependence of birefringence in highly birefringent fibers,” Opt. Lett. 7, 294–296 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. G. Shlyagin, A. V. Khomenko, and D. Tentori, “Birefringence dispersion measurement in optical fibers by wavelength scanning,” Opt. Lett. 20, 869–871 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7981–999 (1996). [CrossRef]

4.

D. A. Flavin, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dispersion of birefringence and differential group delay in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1010–1012 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

W. J. Bock and W. Urbańczyk, “Measurements of polarization mode dispersion and modal birefringence in highly birefringent fibers by means of ellectronically scanned shearing type interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5841–5848 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

W. Urbańczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1911–1920 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

P. Hlubina, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbańczyk, “Measurements of intermodal dispersion in few-mode optical fibers using a spectral-domain white-light interferometric method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 784–789 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

P. Hlubina, “White-light spectral interferometry to measure intermodal dispersion in two-mode elliptical-core optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 218, 283–289 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

P. Hlubina, “Spectral-domain intermodal interference under general measurement conditions,” Opt. Commun. 210, 225–232 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2300) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber measurements
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: September 29, 2003
Revised Manuscript: October 16, 2003
Published: November 3, 2003

Citation
Petr Hlubina, Tadeusz Martynkien, and Waclaw Urba�?czyk, "Dispersion of group and phase modal birefringence in elliptical-core fiber measured by white-light spectral interferometry," Opt. Express 11, 2793-2798 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2793


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References

  1. S. C. Rashleigh, �??Wavelength dependence of birefringence in highly birefringent fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 7, 294�??296 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. G. Shlyagin, A. V. Khomenko, and D. Tentori, �??Birefringence dispersion measurement in optical fibers by wavelength scanning,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 869�??871 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, �??Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,�?? Meas. Sci. Technol. 7 981�??999 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Flavin, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, �??Dispersion of birefringence and differential group delay in polarization-maintaining fiber,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 1010�??1012 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. W. J. Bock and W. Urba�?czyk, �??Measurements of polarization mode dispersion and modal birefringence in highly birefringent fibers by means of ellectronically scanned shearing type interferometry,�?? Appl. Opt. 32, 5841�??5848 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Urba�?czyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, �??Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 1911�??1920 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. P. Hlubina, T. Martynkien, and W. Urba�?czyk, �??Measurements of intermodal dispersion in few-mode optical fibers using a spectral-domain white-light interferometric method,�?? Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 784�??789 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Hlubina, �??White-light spectral interferometry to measure intermodal dispersion in two-mode elliptical-core optical fibers,�?? Opt. Commun. 218, 283�??289 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Hlubina, �??Spectral-domain intermodal interference under general measurement conditions,�?? Opt. Commun. 210, 225�??232 (2002). [CrossRef]

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