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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 11, Iss. 22 — Nov. 3, 2003
  • pp: 2911–2916
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Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser

A. Shirakawa, K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J-F. Bisson, J. Lu, M. Musha, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, T. S. Petrov, and A. A. Kaminskii  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 22, pp. 2911-2916 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.11.002911


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Abstract

A diode-pumped femtosecond ytterbium laser with a host material of Y2O3 ceramics is reported. Passive mode locking by a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror generates 98-MHz, 615-fs pulses at a center wavelength of 1076.5 nm. The average power is 420 mW and the pulse energy is 4.3 nJ with a 2.6-W absorbed pump power. To our knowledge, this is the first continuous-wave mode-locked ceramic laser.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Femtosecond mode-locked lasers are widespread to various scientific and engineering fields such as ultrafast spectroscopy, metrology, superfine material processing and microscopy, and so on. High average power femtosecond lasers are required for many of those applications. Yb3+ is an active ion promising both high power and high efficiency due to its small quantum defect and usability of laser-diode (LD) pumping [1

1. W. F. Krupke, “Ytterbium solid-state lasers - the first decade,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 1287–1296 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Various host materials have been progressively investigated for ultrashort pulse lasers [2

2. C. Höninger, G. Zhang, U. Keller, and A. Giesen, “Femtosecond Yb:YAG laser using semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2402–2404 (1995). [CrossRef]

11

11. J. Kawanaka, K. Yamakawa, H. Nishioka, and K. Ueda, “30-mJ, diode-pumped, chirped-pulse Yb:YLF regenerative amplifier,” appearing in Opt. Lett. 28, 2121–2123 (2003). [CrossRef]

] and Yb3+:Y3Al5O12 (Yb:YAG) laser is currently scaled up to a 60-W average power with a 810-fs duration [12

12. E. Innerhofer, T. Südmeyer, F. Brunner, R. Häring, A. Aschwanden, R. Paschotta, C. Höninger, M. Kumkar, and U. Keller, “60-W average power in 810-fs pulses from a thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 367–369 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Yb-doped sesquioxides (RE2O3, RE=Y, Sc, and Lu) have been the potential alternatives to Yb:YAG for power scaling because of their desirable thermal properties. The reported thermal conductivities of undoped Y2O3 crystals are as high as 27 W/mK [13

13. K. K. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer, Berlin, 1990).

] and 14 W/mK [14

14. L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Czochoralski growth and laser parameters of RE3+ -doped Y2O3 and Sc2O3,” Cer. Int. 26, 589–592 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The thermal conductivities drops by doping Yb3+ but are considered to be still higher than those of the YAG with the same doping level. In addition, the strong electron-phonon interaction causes characteristic spectral broadening, especially in the case of Y2O3, with moderate values of cross sections. The absorption and emission spectra of 4 at.% Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramics are shown in Fig. 1. From these natures Yb-doped sesquioxides are expected to be the promising laser material for high power and ultrashort pulse lasers. However, the difficulty of crystal growth of such materials due to their high melting temperatures (2430°C in the case of Y2O3) has limited their application as laser materials, in which high optical quality and large sizes are required. Recently laser operation have been demonstrated with sesquioxide crystals fabricated by melt-growth methods [14

14. L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Czochoralski growth and laser parameters of RE3+ -doped Y2O3 and Sc2O3,” Cer. Int. 26, 589–592 (2002). [CrossRef]

16

16. K. Petermann, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, and V. Peters, “High melting sesquioxides: crystal growth, spectroscopy, and laser experiments,” Opt. Mat. 19, 67–71 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and mode-locked Yb3+:Sc2O3 crystalline laser with a 230-fs pulse width was also reported [17

17. P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, K. Petermann, and V. Peters, “Highly-efficient mode-locked Yb:Sc2O3 laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. x of 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CWG1.

]. However, the crystal growth by conventional methods is quite difficult yet.

Fig. 1. Absorption coefficient (blue) and effective emission cross section (red) of 4 at.% Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramics at room temperature. Arrows indicate the pump and lasing wavelengths.

Novel fabrication method of laser ceramics based on nanocrystalline technology [18

18. T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and M. Ichikawa, Japanese Patent No. 10-101333 (1998).

,19

19. T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and Y. Yamasaki, Japanese Patent No. 10-101411 (1998).

] recently enables growth of rare-earth-doped Y2O3, Sc2O3 and Lu2O3 ceramics with sufficient optical quality. Highly efficient laser oscillations of neodymium [20

20. J. Lu, J. Lu, T. Murai, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Nd3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1277–L1279 (2001). [CrossRef]

,21

21. J. Lu, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, A. Shirakawa, M. Musha, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii,“Promising ceramic laser material: Highly transparent Nd3+:Lu2O3 ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 4324–4326 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and ytterbium [22

22. J. Lu, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, A. Shirakawa, M. Musha, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii,“Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramics - a novel solid-state laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1373–L1375 (2002). [CrossRef]

,23

23. K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J. Lu, J-F. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Highly efficient Yb3+-doped Y2O3 ceramic lasers at 1030 nm and 1075 nm,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2003).

] doped ceramics have been demonstrated. As high as 72% extraction efficiency was obtained in LD-pumped Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic lasers [23

23. K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J. Lu, J-F. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Highly efficient Yb3+-doped Y2O3 ceramic lasers at 1030 nm and 1075 nm,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2003).

]. In this paper we report a passively mode-locked Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser generating 615-fs pulses with a 420-mW average power. Future prospects for power scaling and shorter pulse generation are discussed. As far as we know, cw mode locking of a laser with a ceramic gain material is the first time.

2. Experiments

The experimental setup is schematically shown in Fig. 2. A z-fold cavity configuration was used. The pump source is a broad-stripe laser diode (Axcel Photonics Inc.) with the emission area of 1×100 µm2 and the maximum output power of 4.5 W. The wavelength was temperature-tuned to 950 nm for pumping an absorption peak of Yb3+:Y2O3 below the zero-line at 976.5 nm (Fig. 1). After passing through the beam shaping optics and a cavity folding mirror, the pump beam was focused in the ceramic with 1/e2 diameters of 31 µm×165 µm in air. The 1.5-mm-thick Yb3+:Y2O3 (CYb=8 at.%) ceramic was arranged with a Brewster angle and absorbed ~80% of pump power. The copper holder was cooled with flowing water at 18°C. This ceramic was placed between two high-reflecting mirrors (M1, M2) with 100-mm radius of curvature (ROC). Their transmittance at pump wavelength is 95% and the maximum launched pump power was 4 W. The z-fold angle was 8.5° and astigmatism was not fully compensated. The diameters of the laser mode waist in two configurations for cw and mode-locked operations are calculated by ABCD matrix formalism to be 41 µm×50 µm and 44 µm×44 µm, respectively (in air).

The cw laser for a reference operated along the dashed lines in Fig. 2. The two arms were slightly imbalanced with 70 and 60-cm lengths. A 5% output coupler was used. For passive mode locking, a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) [24

24. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Höninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM‘s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996). [CrossRef]

] was placed in one of the arms. Our SESAM is commercially available one (BATOP GmbH), which has a 2% saturable absorption at 1064 nm, 70-µJ/cm2 saturation fluence, and 20-ps carrier lifetime. The laser beam was focused onto the SESAM by a concave mirror (M3, ROC=300 mm) with the fold angle of 3°. The calculated beam diameters on the SESAM are 131 µm×133 µm. A SF10 Brewster prism pair with a 63-cm separation was inserted in another arm for dispersion compensation. A 2% output coupler was placed at this end. The pulse shape was measured with background-free autocorrelation with a 0.5-mm-thick type-I β-BaB2O4.

Fig. 2. Schematic of the diode-pumped mode-locked Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser. L’s, lenses for pump beam shaping: L1, f=8 mm aspherical; L2, f=-6.4 mm cylindrical; L3, f=70 mm cylindrical; L4, f=75 mm doublet. M’s, high-reflecting mirrors; OC’s, output couplers; P’s, SF10 Brewster prisms. Dashed lines indicate the beam lines in a cw operation. Oscillograms of the mode-locked pulse trains are shown in the lower right.

3. Results

In the case of cw laser operation, output powers of 1.5 W in multimode and 1.05 W in ~TEM00 mode were obtained at the maximum pump power of 4 W (3.3 W absorbed). The extraction efficiency (32% in the case of TEM00) seems relatively low, which is mainly due to mismatching between the pump and laser modes. The lasing wavelength was 1076 nm.

When the SESAM and prism pair were incorporated, a self-Q switching behavior was observed in a low pump power regime and then switched to cw mode locking at a 2.8-W pump power. At this transition the output power jumped from ~250 to ~300 mW because the absorption of the SESAM was fully saturated. The maximum average output power was 420 mW at a pump power of 3.3 W (2.6 W absorbed). When the pump power was further increased, the SESAM was damaged soon and then mode locking stopped, because the fluence on the SESAM exceeded its damage threshold (~1 mJ/cm2). The output power in cw operation was 750 mW at the same pump power.

Figure 3 shows the intensity autocorrelation trace and spectrum of the mode-locked pulses at the maximum power of 420 mW. The sech2-fit pulse width is 615 fs and the spectral width is 2.0 nm centered at 1076.5 nm. The time-bandwidth product is 0.318, indicating almost transform-limited pulses were generated. Small intensity modulation around the peak of the spectrum was reproduced; the reason is unclear. The repetition rate was 98 MHz and then the pulse energy and peak power were 4.3 nJ and 7 kW, respectively.

The output beam profile near the output coupler is shown in Fig. 4. The elliptical beam shape was caused by the astigmatism in the cavity. The ratio of 3:4 is smaller than the predicted value (3:5), which may be due to a thermal lens effect in the ceramic. The Mx2 and My2 values were evaluated to be less than 1.1, which indicates the spatial quality was also nearly diffraction-limited.

Fig. 3. (a) Intensity autocorrelation trace of the mode-locked pulses. Solid curve : fit with sech2 pulse shape. (b) Spectrum of them. FWHMs are shown by arrows.
Fig. 4. Contour plot of the output beam profile.

4. Discussion

As is shown in Fig. 1, Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramics have broad spectra due to strong electron-phonon interaction. There is some uncertainty in determination of the cross sections because rare-earth ions can be situated in two possible site symmetries [25

25. D. Bloor and J. R. Dean, “Spectroscopy of rare earth oxide systems: I. Far infrared spectra of the rare earth sesquioxide, and nonstoichiometric praseodymium and terbium oxides,” J. Phys. C 5, 1237–1252 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. We evaluated here the emission cross section as effective values by use of the measured emission lifetime of 0.82 ms and refractive index of 1.89 [26

26. L. D. DeLoach, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Evaluation of absorption and Emission properties of Yb3+ doped crystals for laser application”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1179–1191 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. The effective cross section at the laser wavelength of 1076 nm is 0.4×10-20 cm2. The critical intracavity pulse energy, which gives the transition point from self-Q switching to cw mode locking [27

27. C. Höninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

], is then calculated to be 360 nJ in the case without dispersion compensation. In order to operate the laser below the damage threshold of the SESAM, soliton mode locking [27

27. C. Höninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

] is required for mode locking our 1076-nm Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser, by managing self-phase modulation and negative group-velocity dispersion. The observed transition intracavity pulse energy of 128 nJ is well below the value mentioned above. Even in that case the fluence on the SESAM amounts to 0.94 mJ/cm2, already comparable to the damage threshold. The maximum output power is then limited to be 420 mW at present. The operation near above the transition is the origin of the fluctuation in the intensities of the pulse train (Fig. 2). For further output power and stability, optimization of the ROC of M3 and the transmittance of OC2 is required to decrease the critical intracavity pulse energy with a moderate coupling efficiency. We also have a plan to replace the SESAM with higher damage-threshold ones in near future. We believe the output power can then be raised to a 1-W level.

The optical-to-optical efficiencies with respect to the launched and absorbed pump powers are 13% and 16%, respectively. These values are comparable with or even higher than the typical efficiencies of diode-pumped mode-locked Yb-doped solid-state lasers reported so far. If care is taken for mode matching of the pump and laser by, for example, use of cylindrical cavity mirrors [3

3. J. Aus der Au, S. F. Schaer, R. Paschotta, C. Höninger, U. Keller, and M. Moser, “High-power diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1281–1283 (1999). [CrossRef]

], the efficiency will increase by a factor of 2, which would be comparable to the 30% efficiency in a Ti:sapphire-laser pumped femtosecond Yb3+:Sc2O3 crystalline laser [17

17. P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, K. Petermann, and V. Peters, “Highly-efficient mode-locked Yb:Sc2O3 laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. x of 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CWG1.

]. The ceramic nature imposes no additional difficulties on mode-locking and such highly efficient operation is enabled due to its excellent transparency and quality.

Sub-100-fs pulse generation by use of the broad emission band is also to be pursued. The linewidth of the 1076-nm band is 18 nm in FWHM, which corresponds to the minimum pulse width of 68 fs. The relatively long prism separation in the current setup may elongate the pulse width of the fundamental soliton. However, when the separation was shortened to less than 50 cm, the spectrum exhibited heavily modulated shapes, which is possibly due to multipulsing instability [28

28. M. J. Lederer, B. Luther-Davies, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, N. N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multipulse operation of a Ti:sapphire laser mode locked by ion-implanted semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 895–904 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The characteristic high nonlinear refractive indices of sesquioxides (n 2~12×10-16 cm2/W for Y2O3) [29

29. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 39, 3337–3350 (1989).

,30

30. V. Senatsky, A. Shirakawa, Y. Sato, J. Hagiwara, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Measurements of nonlinear refractive indices in ceramic laser media,” Proc. of SPIE, in press.

] impose careful adjustment of the net dispersion for the shortest pulse operation. On the contrary, it will be advantageous for Kerrlens mode locking, which may be more suitable for much shorter pulse formation [8

8. H. Liu, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KY(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1723–1725 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

5. Summary

Mode locking of an Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser has been successfully demonstrated. Transform-limited 615-fs, 4.3-nJ pulses are generated with an average power of 420 mW, which will be scaled to shorter pulses with higher power. Highly transparent Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramics with high thermal conductivity and broad emission spectrum will be one of the most promising material for high-average power ultrashort pulse laser.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for fruitful discussions with H. Nishioka. This research was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research by the 21st Century COE program of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. It was also partially supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Ministry of Industry, Science and Technology. The authors also wish to note that the ceramic research was strongly motivated by the cooperation with the “Joint Open Laboratory for Laser Crystals and Precise Laser Systems”.

References and links

1.

W. F. Krupke, “Ytterbium solid-state lasers - the first decade,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 1287–1296 (2000). [CrossRef]

2.

C. Höninger, G. Zhang, U. Keller, and A. Giesen, “Femtosecond Yb:YAG laser using semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2402–2404 (1995). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Aus der Au, S. F. Schaer, R. Paschotta, C. Höninger, U. Keller, and M. Moser, “High-power diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1281–1283 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

V. Petrov, U. Griebner, D. Ehrt, and W. Seeber, “Femtosecond self mode locking of Yb:fluoride phosphate glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 408–410 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

C. Höninger, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, U. Keller, L. R. Brovelli, and C. Harder, “Efficient and tunable diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 126–128 (1998). [CrossRef]

6.

F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, A. Courjaud, C. Höninger, F. Salin, A. Aron, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Generation of 90 fs pulses from a mode-locked diode-pumped Yb3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 423–425 (2000). [CrossRef]

7.

F. Brunner, G, J. Spühler, J. Aus der Au, L. Krainer, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, N. Lichtenstein, S. Weiss, C. Harder, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, N. V. Kuleshov, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with 1.1-W average power,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1119–1121 (2000). [CrossRef]

8.

H. Liu, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KY(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1723–1725 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

F. Druon, S. Chénais, P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, P. Georges, R. Gaumé, G. Aka, B. Viana, S. Mohr, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped Yb:Sr3Y(BO3)3 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 197–199 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

F. Druon, S. Chénais, P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, P. Georges, R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, D. Vivien, S. Dhellemmes, V. Ortiz, and C. Larat, “Apatite-structure crystal, Yb3+:SrY4(SiO4)3O, for the development of diode-pumped femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1914–1916 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Kawanaka, K. Yamakawa, H. Nishioka, and K. Ueda, “30-mJ, diode-pumped, chirped-pulse Yb:YLF regenerative amplifier,” appearing in Opt. Lett. 28, 2121–2123 (2003). [CrossRef]

12.

E. Innerhofer, T. Südmeyer, F. Brunner, R. Häring, A. Aschwanden, R. Paschotta, C. Höninger, M. Kumkar, and U. Keller, “60-W average power in 810-fs pulses from a thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 367–369 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

K. K. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer, Berlin, 1990).

14.

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “Czochoralski growth and laser parameters of RE3+ -doped Y2O3 and Sc2O3,” Cer. Int. 26, 589–592 (2002). [CrossRef]

15.

K. Petermann, G. Huber, L. Fornasiero, S. Koch, E. Mix, V. Peters, and S. A. Basun, “Rare-earth doped sesquioxides,” J. Lum. 87–89, 973–975 (2000). [CrossRef]

16.

K. Petermann, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, and V. Peters, “High melting sesquioxides: crystal growth, spectroscopy, and laser experiments,” Opt. Mat. 19, 67–71 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, K. Petermann, and V. Peters, “Highly-efficient mode-locked Yb:Sc2O3 laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. x of 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CWG1.

18.

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and M. Ichikawa, Japanese Patent No. 10-101333 (1998).

19.

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and Y. Yamasaki, Japanese Patent No. 10-101411 (1998).

20.

J. Lu, J. Lu, T. Murai, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Nd3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L1277–L1279 (2001). [CrossRef]

21.

J. Lu, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, A. Shirakawa, M. Musha, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii,“Promising ceramic laser material: Highly transparent Nd3+:Lu2O3 ceramic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 4324–4326 (2002). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Lu, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, A. Shirakawa, M. Musha, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii,“Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramics - a novel solid-state laser material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1373–L1375 (2002). [CrossRef]

23.

K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J. Lu, J-F. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Highly efficient Yb3+-doped Y2O3 ceramic lasers at 1030 nm and 1075 nm,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2003).

24.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Höninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM‘s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996). [CrossRef]

25.

D. Bloor and J. R. Dean, “Spectroscopy of rare earth oxide systems: I. Far infrared spectra of the rare earth sesquioxide, and nonstoichiometric praseodymium and terbium oxides,” J. Phys. C 5, 1237–1252 (1972). [CrossRef]

26.

L. D. DeLoach, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Evaluation of absorption and Emission properties of Yb3+ doped crystals for laser application”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1179–1191 (1993). [CrossRef]

27.

C. Höninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

28.

M. J. Lederer, B. Luther-Davies, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, N. N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Multipulse operation of a Ti:sapphire laser mode locked by ion-implanted semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 895–904 (1999). [CrossRef]

29.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 39, 3337–3350 (1989).

30.

V. Senatsky, A. Shirakawa, Y. Sato, J. Hagiwara, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Measurements of nonlinear refractive indices in ceramic laser media,” Proc. of SPIE, in press.

OCIS Codes
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(140.5680) Lasers and laser optics : Rare earth and transition metal solid-state lasers
(160.3380) Materials : Laser materials

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: September 23, 2003
Revised Manuscript: October 22, 2003
Published: November 3, 2003

Citation
A. Shirakawa, K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J. Bisson, J. Lu, M. Musha, K. Ueda, T. Yanagitani, T. Petrov, and A. Kaminskii, "Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser," Opt. Express 11, 2911-2916 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2911


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References

  1. W. F. Krupke, �??Ytterbium solid-state lasers �?? the first decade,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 1287-1296 (2000). [CrossRef]
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