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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 11, Iss. 26 — Dec. 29, 2003
  • pp: 3542–3549
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Compact supercell method based on opposite parity for Bragg fibers

Wang Zhi, Ren Guobin, Lou Shuqin, Liang Weijun, and Shangping Guo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 11, Issue 26, pp. 3542-3549 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.11.003542


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Abstract

The supercell- based orthonormal basis method is proposed to investigate the modal properties of the Bragg fibers. A square lattice is constructed by the whole Bragg fiber which is considered as a supercell, and the periodical dielectric structure of the square lattice is decomposed using periodic functions (cosine). The modal electric field is expanded as the sum of the orthonormal set of Hermite-Gaussian basis functions based on the opposite parity of the transverse electric field. The propagation characteristics of Bragg fibers can be obtained after recasting the wave equation into an eigenvalue system. This method is implemented with very high efficiency and accuracy.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In the conventional metallic coaxial cable, the entire electromagnetic field is confined between two coaxial metal cylinders. The fundamental electromagnetic mode of a coaxial cable is the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, which has radial symmetry in the electric field distribution and a linear relationship between frequency and wave vector.

Optical waveguide is restricted to the use of dielectric materials at optical wavelengths because of heavy absorption losses in the metal. However, because of the differences in boundary conditions of the electromagnetic fields at metal and dielectric surfaces, it has not previously been possible to recreate a TEM-like mode with all-dielectric materials. Consequently, optical waveguiding is done with the traditional total internal reflection (TIR) mechanism, by which the waveguides can achieve very low losses.

Recently, all-dielectric waveguides have been introduced that confine optical light by means of 1D or 2D photonic band gap [6

6. P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. Jes Broeng, Stig E. B. Libori, T. Sondergaard, and Anders Bjarklev, “Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 96–98 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. These new designs have the potential advantage that light propagates mainly through the empty core of a hollow waveguide, thus minimizing effects associated with material nonlinearities, absorption losses and sharp bending.

The coaxial omniguide Bragg fiber, which combines some of the best features of the metallic coaxial cable and the dielectric waveguides, is an all-dielectric coaxial waveguide and supports a truly single mode in a low-index air core, which is very similar to the TEM mode of the metallic coaxial cable [2

2. Y. Fink, J.N. Winn, S.H. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J.D. Joannopoulos, and E.L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682(1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. S.D. Hart, G.R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P.H. Prideaux, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296, 510–513(2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It has a radially symmetric electric field distribution so that the polarization is maintained throughout propagation [4

4. M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E.L. Thomas, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289, 415–419(2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. M. Ibanescu, S.G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8(2003). [CrossRef]

11

11. S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 748–779 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9-13-748. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It can be designed to be single-mode over a wide range of frequencies [11

11. S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 748–779 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9-13-748. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition, the mode has a point of intrinsic zero dispersion around which a pulse can retain its shape during propagation [12

12. G. Ourang, Yong Xu, and A. Yariv, “Theoretical study on dispersion compensation in air-core Bragg fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 899–908 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-10-17-899. [CrossRef]

14

14. J.A. Mosoriu, E. Silvestre, A. Ferrando, P. Andres, and J.J. Miret, “High-index-core Bragg fibers: dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 11, 1400–1405 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-11-12-1400. [CrossRef]

]. Finally, the coaxial omniguide can be used to guide light around sharp bends whose radius of curvature can be as small as the wavelength of the light [4

4. M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E.L. Thomas, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289, 415–419(2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. S.D. Hart, G.R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P.H. Prideaux, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296, 510–513(2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

There are a few different approaches to calculate the modes of the Bragg fibers, such as the semi-analytic approach based on the transfer matrix method [1

1. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, “Theory of Bragg fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. , 68, 1196–1201(1978). [CrossRef]

], the asymptotic matrix method [11

11. S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 748–779 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9-13-748. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. G. Ourang, Yong Xu, and A. Yariv, “Theoretical study on dispersion compensation in air-core Bragg fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 899–908 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-10-17-899. [CrossRef]

], the bi-orthonormal-basis method [14

14. J.A. Mosoriu, E. Silvestre, A. Ferrando, P. Andres, and J.J. Miret, “High-index-core Bragg fibers: dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 11, 1400–1405 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-11-12-1400. [CrossRef]

,15

15. E. Silvestre, M.V. Andrés, and P. Andrés, “Biorthonormal-basis method for the vector description of optical-fiber mode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 923–928 (1998). [CrossRef]

], and the approach involving a numerical solution of Maxwell’s equations in the frequency domain with the use of the conjugate gradient method within the supercell approximation [16

16. R. D. Meade, A.M. Rappe, K.D. Brommer, J.D. Joannopoulos, and O.L. Alerhand, “Accurate theoretical analysis of photonic band-gap materials,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434–8437 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. The most recent Galerkin method [17

17. Shangping Guo, Feng Wu, Khalid Ikram, and Sacharia Albin, “Analysis of circular fibers with arbitrary index profile by Galerkin method,” to be published by Opt. Lett..

] can be used to analyze the circular fibers with arbitrary index profile.

The supercell-based orthonormal basis method is proposed in this article. In section 2, the square lattice of the dielectric structure is constructed by arranging the whole Bragg fiber along x- and y- direction. In Section 3, the transverse electric field is decomposed into Hermite-Gaussian basis based on the opposite parity of the transverse electric field, and an eigenvalue system is deduced from the full-vectorial coupling wave equations. In Section 4, a Bragg fiber, which has the same structure as in Ref. [11

11. S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 748–779 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9-13-748. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], is considered as an example, and the numerical results agree with it. Section 5 is the conclusion.

2. Supercell of the dielectric structure

The air-guiding Bragg fiber is a cylindrical multilayered fiber, which is a cylindrically symmetric microstructured fiber having a hollow core surrounded by a multilayered cladding made of alternating layers of a higher and a lower refractive-index dielectric. The multiayered structure geometry is characterized by the radial multiplayer period, Λ, and the low-index-layer thichness, a, as illustrated in Fig. 1(a). The dielectric constants are alternately ε 1 and ε 2, where ε 2<ε 1. The dielectric constant of the hollow core is ε 3, and its radius is R. In order to analyze this fiber, a square lattice is constructed by the whole transverse profile of the Bragg fiber that is considered as a supercell, the lattice constant of the square lattice is D, as illustrated in Fig. 1(b).

Fig. 1. scheme of the construction of the supercell square lattice of the Bragg fiber, (a) is the radial distribution of the dielectric constant and (b) is the supercell square lattice.

The periodic dielectric constant structure should be transferred into its Fourier transform when one is investigating photonic crystals, photonic crystal fibers or Bragg fibers [18

18. J.D. Joannopoulos, R.D. Meade, and J.N. Winn, “Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light,” (New York, Princeton university press, 1995).

,19

19. Shangping Guo and Sacharia Albin, “Simple plane wave implementation for photonic crystal calculations,” Opt. Express 11, 167–175 (2003), http://www. opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI=OPEX-11-2-167. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], then the wave equation will be solved with the Fourier transform. For the supercell with length D in Fig. 1(b), the Fourier transform of the dielectric constant is:

εF(k)=1AAε(r)eik·rds,
(1)

where r=(x, y) is the space position, A=D 2 is the area of the supercell, k=(kx, ky ), the vector in the reciprocal space of the supercell lattice, is linearly combined by the primitive reciprocal lattice vectors (2π/D, 2π/D), ε(r) is the dielectric structure of the supercell, which can be expressed in different regions as follows:

ε(r)={εi,ri1<r<riεb,r>rm=εb+{εiεb,ri1<r<ri0,r>rm,
(2)

where εi and ri are the dielectric constant and the outer radius of the ith layer, and r 0 is set zero, m is the total number of the layers, εb is the background dielectric constant. Eq. (1) will be analytically expressed as [18

18. J.D. Joannopoulos, R.D. Meade, and J.N. Winn, “Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light,” (New York, Princeton university press, 1995).

]:

εF(k)=1AAεbeik·rds+1Ai=1mA(εiεb)eik·rds
=εbδ(k)+i=1m(εiεb)[2fiJ1(kri)kri2fi1J1(kri1)kri1],
(3)

where k=|k|, fi =πri2/A is the filling ratio. The limitation will be used when k=0 in Eq. (3).

Because the dielectric constant structure of the Bragg fiber has the x- and y- axial symmetric, i.e., ε(-x,y)=ε(x,-y)=ε(x,y), it can be expressed as a sum of the cosine functions as

ε(r)=ε(x,y)=a,b=0PPabcos2πaxDcos2πbyD
lnε(r)=lnε(x,y)=a,b=0PPablncos2πaxDcos2πbyD,
(4)

where (P+1) is the number of the expansion items, Pab , PabIn are the expansion coefficients which can be analytically evaluated from the Fourier transform εF (k) in Eq. (3) and expressed as Eq. (5).

Pab=εF(ka+P,b+P)+εF(ka+P,b+P)+εF(ka+P,b+P)+εF(ka+P,b+P),
(5a)
fora=0orb=0,Pab=εF(ka+P,b+P)+εF(ka+P,b+P),
(5b)
fora=0andb=0,P00=εF(kP,P),
(5c)

where k m,n=(kx, ky )=2π/D×(m, n). PabIn can also be analytically evaluated from the Fourier transform of the logarithm of the dielectric constant distribution lnε(r).

Fig. 2. The simulation result of the dielectric constant of the Bragg fiber, with the parameters ε 1=4.62, ε 2=1.62, ε 3=1.0, Λ=0.434µm, R=30Λ, a=0.78Λ, and m=17, supercell lattice constant D=1.2(2R+18Λ), P=1200.

Figure 2 is the simulation result of the dielectric constant structure of the Bragg fiber, which has the same structure parameters as the Fig. 4 in Ref. [11

11. S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 748–779 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9-13-748. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The central area is the air-core with radius R=30Λ, and Λ=0.434µm. The dielectric constant of the periodical cladding are ε 1=4.62 and ε 2=1.62, the background is ε 2 too. There are 17 layers, and the lower-index layer thichness is a=0.78Λ. The supercell lattice constant D is set as 1.2(2R+18Λ), the expansion parameter P=1200.

3. Eigenvalue system

3.1 opposite parity of the mode field

When the confinement loss and the absorption loss are ignored in a normal waveguide which is uniform along the longitudinal direction (z-axis), both components ex (x,y) and ey (x,y) of the transverse electric field must satisfy the full-vectorial coupling wave equations [20

20. A.W. Snyder and J.D. Love, Optical waveguide theory, (New York: Chapman and Hall, 1983).

,21

21. T.M. Monro, D.J. Richardson, N.G.R. Broderick, and P.J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093–1102 (1999). [CrossRef]

]:

(t2β2+k02ε)ex=x(exlnεx+eylnεy)
(t2β2+k02ε)ey=y(exlnεx+eylnεy),
(6)

where β is the propagation constant corresponding to the mode field distribution (ex, ey ), k 0=2π/λ is the wave number of the vacuum.

When ε(x, y) is an even function about both the x and y directions, it can be proved that ex (x,y) and ey (x,y) always have opposite parities in the x and y directions for each guided eigenmode [22

22. Yu-Li Hsueh, E. S.T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, and G. Kazovsky, “Opposite-parity orthonormal function expansion for efficient full-vectorial modeling of holey optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1188–1190(2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is also to say that, when one transverse component is an even function about one axis, the other will be an odd function about the same axis. For example, if ex (x,y) is an even function about x, ey (x,y) will be an odd function about x, i.e., ex (-x,y)=ex (x,y), ey (-x,y)=-ey (x,y).

3.2 subscripts

For the case of compactness, two subscripts m and n are introduced to express the opposite parity of the mode electric field, which have the logical value 0 or 1, and are used to describe the symmetry of the x-component ex (x,y) as ex (-x,y)=(-1)m ex (x,y) and ex (x,-y)=(-1)n ex (x,y). All the compositions of ‘mn’ are [00, 01, 10, 11], which can completely express the symmetry of the mode electric field about both axes. For example, the subscript ‘10’ means that ex (x,y) is an odd function about x and an even function about y, ey (x,y) is an even function about x and an odd function about y.

In order to obtain the characteristics of the modes in the Bragg fibers, the transverse electric field can be expanded using the localized orthonormal Hermite- Gaussian basis functions as follows based on the opposite parity of the electric field.

ex(x,y)mn=a,b=0F1εabxψ2a+m(x)ψ2b+n(y),ey(x,y)m¯n¯=a,b=0F1εabyψ2a+m¯(x)ψ2b+n¯(y),
(7)

where the bar over the subscript means the logical operator ‘NOT’, and the subscript ‘mn’ means that there are four sets of (ex, ey ) with different parity. In Eq. (7), F is the number of the expansion terms, εabs (s=x,y) are the expansion coefficients, ψi (s) is the ith order orthonormal Hermite-Gaussian function which is defined as:

ψi(s)=2i2π14i!ϖsexp(s22ϖs2)Hi(sϖs),
(8)

where Hi (s/ϖs ) is the ith Hermite function which has the parity of Hi (-s/ϖs )=(-1)i Hi (s/ϖs ), ϖs is the character width [21

21. T.M. Monro, D.J. Richardson, N.G.R. Broderick, and P.J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093–1102 (1999). [CrossRef]

,22

22. Yu-Li Hsueh, E. S.T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, and G. Kazovsky, “Opposite-parity orthonormal function expansion for efficient full-vectorial modeling of holey optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1188–1190(2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3.3 eigen equations

Substituting the decomposition equations of the dielectric constant and the field Eqs. (4) and (7) into Eq. (6), four sets of eigen equations will be obtained and shown in Eq. (9).

Lmn[εxεy][[Iabcd(1)+k2Iabcd(2)+Iabcd(3)x]mn[Iabcd(4)x]mn[Iabcd(4)y]mn¯[Iabcd(1)+k2Iabcd(2)+Iabcd(3)y]mn¯][εxεy]=β2[εxεy],
(9)

where Lmn is a four-dimensional matrix, I (1), I (2), I (3) and I (4) are the overlapping integrals which are four-dimensional F×F×F×F matrix and expressed as follows.

[Iabcd(1)]mn=+ψ2a+m(x)ψ2b+n(y)t2[ψ2c+m(x)ψ2d+n(y)]dxdy,
(10.a)
[Iabcd(2)]mn=+εψ2a+m(x)ψ2b+n(y)ψ2c+m(x)ψ2d+n(y)dxdy,
(10.b)
[Iabcd(3)x]mn=+ψ2a+m(x)ψ2b+n(y)x[ψ2c+m(x)ψ2d+n(y)lnεx]dxdy,
(10.c)
[Iabcd(3)y]mn=+ψ2a+m(x)ψ2b+n(y)y[ψ2c+m(x)ψ2d+n(y)lnεy]dxdy,
(10.d)
[Iabcd(4)x]mn=+ψ2a+m(x)ψ2b+n(y)x[ψ2c+m¯(x)ψ2d+n¯(y)lnεy]dxdy,
(10.e)
[Iabcd(4)y]mn=+ψ2a+m(x)ψ2b+n(y)y[ψ2c+m¯(x)ψ2d+n¯(y)lnεx]dxdy.
(10.f)

Through the subscript transform, Lmn and εs can be transferred into a [2×F 2]×[2×F 2] 2-D matrix and a vector with 2×F 2 elements, with which the eigen system Eq. (9) can be solved directly, the modes and the corresponding propagation constant β can be calculated. There are 2×F 2 eigenvalue- eigenvector pairs for every ‘mn’, so the total results must be 4×2×F 2 eigenvalue- eigenvector pairs after solving eigen equations corresponding to 4 different ‘mn’. When the eigen values at the wavelength λ are labeled in the decreasing order, the electric fields of the modes from the fundamental to higher-order can be obtained.

If the property of the opposite-parity of the electric field is not considered in the algorithm, the decomposition of the transverse electric field cannot be divided into 4 different pairs. Plenty of modes with or without any physically relevant quantities will mix together to make the computations verbose. In order to get 4×2×F 2 eigenvalue- eigenvector pairs, the decomposition terms must be 2F, and the eigen equation will be a [2×(2F)2]×[2×(2F)2] 2-D matrix in which the element number exhibits an increase factor of 4×4=16 than that discussed above. The computation time is mainly dominated by three mechanisms: (1) constructing the matrix by analytically calculating definite integrals of Hermite-Gaussian functions, (2) the localization property of the Hermite-Gaussian functions increasing the efficiency and the accuracy for the confined modes and (3) the eigen systems with much less matrix elements greatly reducing the computation time for solving eigenvalue problems when standard algorithms are employed.

All information of the transverse electric field is included in the eigen equation (9). The vector property is reflected by both x- and y- components; the coupling property is included in the coupled terms I (4)x and I (4)y; the fiber with complex dielectric structure can be investigated while it is made of the dielectric constant with negative or positive imaginary part (gain or absorption); the degeneracy property can be obtained from the full vectorial coupling wave equation.

4. Numerical results

Fig. 3. The electric field of the modes HE11, TE01, TM01 and HE21 of the Bragg fiber with the structure parameters same as in Fig. 2, the annular dielectric constant is superimposed.
Fig. 4. (a) The propagation constant of TE01 mode, and (b) the difference between two different approaches

The mode characteristics of the Bragg fiber are obtained by numerical computations in which the parameter F is set as 15. The transverse electric field of the lowest-order mode, which is a degenerated pair of modes HE11x and HE11y, and the second order modes are quivered in Fig. 3 at wavelength 1550nm. It can be found that light is strongly confined in the low index air core by the PBG due to the outside annular Bragg reflector. The critical property of TE0m (especially TE01) modes is that they have a node in their electric field (Eφ ) near r=R. The fractional |E|2 in the cladding, hence the radiation loss, scales as 1/R3 and 1/R for TE0m and other modes (TM, HE, EH), respectively. Because of the substantial discrimination between the single lowest-loss mode TE01 and other higher-order guided modes, it allows even a highly multimode omniguide fiber to operate in an effectively single-mode fashion [9

9. M. Ibanescu, S.G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8(2003). [CrossRef]

,11

11. S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 748–779 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9-13-748. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The propagation constant of mode TE01 is shown in Fig. 4(a), in which the solid line is obtained by the supercell method, and the cross is computed by the transfer matrix method (TMM). The difference between both approaches is demonstrated in Fig. 4(b). In our computation for the case with Λ=0.434µm, λ=1550nm, i.e. ω=0.28×2πc/Λ, which is same as Ref. [11

11. S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 748–779 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9-13-748. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the propagation constant is 0.2792093×2π/Λ, which has very good agreement with the value β=0.27926×2π/Λ in Ref. [11

11. S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 748–779 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9-13-748. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It shows the reliability of our model.

5. Conclusion

References and links

1.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, “Theory of Bragg fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. , 68, 1196–1201(1978). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Fink, J.N. Winn, S.H. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J.D. Joannopoulos, and E.L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682(1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

Y. Fink, D.J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J.D. Joannopoulos, and E.L. Thomas, “Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielcetric structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2039–2041 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E.L. Thomas, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289, 415–419(2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S.D. Hart, G.R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P.H. Prideaux, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296, 510–513(2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J.C. Knight and P. St. Russell, “New ways to guide light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Jes Broeng, Stig E. B. Libori, T. Sondergaard, and Anders Bjarklev, “Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 96–98 (2000). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Ibanescu, S.G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8(2003). [CrossRef]

10.

I.M. Bassett and A. Argyros, “Elimination of polarization degeneracy in round waveguides,” Opt. Express 10, 1342–1346 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-10-23-1342. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 748–779 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9-13-748. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

G. Ourang, Yong Xu, and A. Yariv, “Theoretical study on dispersion compensation in air-core Bragg fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 899–908 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-10-17-899. [CrossRef]

13.

T.D. Engeness, M. Ibanescu, S.G. Johnson, O. Weisberg, M. Skorobogatiy, S. Jacobs, and Y. Fink, “Dispersion tailoring and compensation by modal interactions in omniguide fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 1175–1196 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-11-10-1175. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J.A. Mosoriu, E. Silvestre, A. Ferrando, P. Andres, and J.J. Miret, “High-index-core Bragg fibers: dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 11, 1400–1405 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-11-12-1400. [CrossRef]

15.

E. Silvestre, M.V. Andrés, and P. Andrés, “Biorthonormal-basis method for the vector description of optical-fiber mode,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 923–928 (1998). [CrossRef]

16.

R. D. Meade, A.M. Rappe, K.D. Brommer, J.D. Joannopoulos, and O.L. Alerhand, “Accurate theoretical analysis of photonic band-gap materials,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434–8437 (1993). [CrossRef]

17.

Shangping Guo, Feng Wu, Khalid Ikram, and Sacharia Albin, “Analysis of circular fibers with arbitrary index profile by Galerkin method,” to be published by Opt. Lett..

18.

J.D. Joannopoulos, R.D. Meade, and J.N. Winn, “Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light,” (New York, Princeton university press, 1995).

19.

Shangping Guo and Sacharia Albin, “Simple plane wave implementation for photonic crystal calculations,” Opt. Express 11, 167–175 (2003), http://www. opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI=OPEX-11-2-167. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A.W. Snyder and J.D. Love, Optical waveguide theory, (New York: Chapman and Hall, 1983).

21.

T.M. Monro, D.J. Richardson, N.G.R. Broderick, and P.J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093–1102 (1999). [CrossRef]

22.

Yu-Li Hsueh, E. S.T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, and G. Kazovsky, “Opposite-parity orthonormal function expansion for efficient full-vectorial modeling of holey optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1188–1190(2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

W. Zhi, R.G. Bin, L.S. Qin, and J.S Sheng, “Supercell lattice method for photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 980–991 (2003), http:// www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI=OPEX-11-9-980. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

R.G. Bin, W. Zhi, L.S. Qin, and J.S. Sheng, “Mode Classification and Degeneracy in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1310–1321 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-11-1310. [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: October 30, 2003
Revised Manuscript: December 10, 2003
Published: December 29, 2003

Citation
Wang Zhi, Ren Guobin, Lou Shuqin, Liang Weijun, and Shangping Guo, "Compact supercell method based on opposite parity for Bragg fibers," Opt. Express 11, 3542-3549 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-26-3542


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References

  1. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, �??Theory of Bragg fibers,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1196-1201 (1978). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Fink, J.N. Winn, S.H. Fan, C.Chen, J. Michel, J.D. Joannopoulos, E.L. Thomas, �??A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,�?? Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y.Fink, D.J. Ripin, S.Fan, C. Chen, J.D. Joannopoulos, E.L. Thomas, �??Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielcetric structure,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2039-2041 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E.L. Thomas, J.D. Joannopoulos, �??An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,�?? Science 289, 415-419 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S.D. Hart, G.R.Maskaly, B.Temelkuran, P.H. Prideaux, J.D. Joannopoulos, Y.Fink, �??External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,�?? Science 296, 510-513 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Russell, �??Photonic crystal fibers,�?? Science 299, 358-362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J.C. Knight, P. St. Russell, �??New ways to guide light,�?? Science 296, 276-277 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Jes Broeng, Stig E. B. Libori, T. Sondergaard, and Anders Bjarklev, �??Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 96-98 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Ibanescu, S.G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J.D. Joannopoulos, Y.Fink, �??Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,�?? Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. I.M. Bassett, A. Argyros, �??Elimination of polarization degeneracy in round waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 10, 1342-1346 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-10�??23-1342">http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-10�??23-1342</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S.G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, J.D. Joannopoulos, Y.Fink, �??Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers,�?? Opt. Express 9, 748-779 (2001), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9�??13-748">http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-9�??13-748</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Ourang, Yong Xu, A. Yariv, �??Theoretical study on dispersion compensation in air-core Bragg fibers,�?? Opt. Express 10, 899-908 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-10�??17-899">http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-10�??17-899</a>. [CrossRef]
  13. T.D. Engeness, M. Ibanescu, S.G. Johnson, O.Weisberg, M.Skorobogatiy, S.Jacobs, Y.Fink, �??Dispersion tailoring and compensation by modal interactions in omniguide fibers,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1175-1196 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-11�??10-1175">http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX-11�??10-1175</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.A.Mosoriu, E. Silvestre, A. Ferrando, P.Andres, J.J. Miret, �??High-index-core Bragg fibers: dispersion properties,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1400-1405 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX- 11�??12-1400">http://www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI =OPEX- 11�??12-1400</a>. [CrossRef]
  15. E. Silvestre, M.V. Andrés, and P. Andrés, �??Biorthonormal-basis method for the vector description of optical-fiber mode,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 923-928 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. R. D. Meade, A.M. Rappe, K.D. Brommer, J.D. Joannopoulos, and O.L. Alerhand, �??Accurate theoretical analysis of photonic band-gap materials,�?? Phys. Rev. B 48, 8434-8437 (1993). [CrossRef]
  17. Shangping Guo, Feng Wu, Khalid Ikram, and Sacharia Albin, �??Analysis of circular fibers with arbitrary index profile by Galerkin method,�?? to be published by Opt. Lett.
  18. J.D. Joannopoulos, R.D. Meade, J.N. Winn, �??Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light,�?? (New York, Princeton University Press, 1995).
  19. Shangping Guo, Sacharia Albin, �??Simple plane wave implementation for photonic crystal calculations,�?? Opt. Express 11, 167-175 (2003), <a href="http://www. opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI=OPEX-11-2-167">http://www. opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI=OPEX-11-2-167</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A.W. Snyder, J.D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, (New York: Chapman and Hall, 1983).
  21. T.M. Monro, D.J. Richardson, N.G.R. Broderick, P.J. Bennett, �??Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093-1102 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. Yu-Li Hsueh, E. S.T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, . G. Kazovsky, �??Opposite-parity orthonormal function expansion for efficient full-vectorial modeling of holey optical fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 1188-1190 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Zhi, R.G. Bin, L.S. Qin, and J.S.Sheng, �??Supercell lattice method for photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Express 11, 980-991 (2003), <a href="http:// www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI=OPEX-11-9-980">http:// www.opticsexpress.org/ abstract. cfm? URI=OPEX-11-9-980</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R.G. Bin, W. Zhi, L.S. Qin, J.S. Sheng, �??Mode Classification and Degeneracy in Photonic Crystal Fiber,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1310-1321 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11�??11- 1310">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11�??11- 1310</a>. [CrossRef]

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