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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 12, Iss. 17 — Aug. 23, 2004
  • pp: 4094–4102
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All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides

Özdal Boyraz, Prakash Koonath, Varun Raghunathan, and Bahram Jalali  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 17, pp. 4094-4102 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.004094


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Abstract

First demonstration of cross phase modulation based interferometric switch is presented in silicon on insulator waveguides. By using Mach-Zehnder interferometric configuration we experimentally demonstrate switching of CW signal ~25 nm away from the pump laser. We present the effect of free carrier accumulation on switching. Additionally, we theoretically analyze the transient effects and degradations due to free carrier absorption, free carrier refraction and two photon absorption effects. Results suggest that at low peak power levels the system is governed by Kerr nonlinearities. As the input power levels increase the free carrier effects becomes dominant. Effect of free carrier generation on continuum generation and power transfer also theoretically analyzed and spectral broadening factor for high input power levels is estimated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The third-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon are much stronger than those in the optical fiber. Among the third order effects (i) Raman (ii) Kerr Nonlinearity (iii) Two Photon Absorption (TPA) are particularly strong. Compared to the optical fiber, Raman effect is 104 times stronger in silicon while the Kerr effect is 102 times stronger than that of the fiber [1

1. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express 10, 1305–1313(2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. J.J. Wayne, “Optical third-order mixing in GaAs, Ge, Si, and InAs,” Phys. Rev. 178, 1295–1303 (1969) [CrossRef]

]. Although, Raman effect is nearly 2 orders of magnitude stronger than the Kerr nonlinearity, under pulsed operation the Raman effect is suppressed as long as the pulse width is less than the phonon de-phasing time (~10ps) [3

3. Peter Y. Yu and Manuel Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors Physics and Materials Properties, (Springer, 2001)

]. Additionally, the high index contrast in Silicon On Insulator (SOI) waveguides results in tight mode confinement and improves the effective nonlinearity. In principle, it is thus possible to exploit the Kerr effect to perform optical switching. Unfortunately, TPA and TPA-induced Free Carrier Absorption (FCA) are also prominent in semiconductor waveguides. These phenomena have been identified as problematic in achieving efficient nonlinear optical devices in III–V compound semiconductors [4

4. A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 30 (5) 1172–1175 (1994). [CrossRef]

6

6. Y.-H. Kao, T.J. Xia, and M.N. Islam“Limitations on ultrafast optical switching in a semiconductor laser amplifier operating at transparency current,” J. Appl. Phys. 86 (9) 4740–4747 (1999). [CrossRef]

] and must be dealt with in design of silicon based nonlinear optical devices.

Research on optical properties of silicon spans approximately three decades [2

2. J.J. Wayne, “Optical third-order mixing in GaAs, Ge, Si, and InAs,” Phys. Rev. 178, 1295–1303 (1969) [CrossRef]

]. Absorption and refraction modulation through Free Carrier (FC) injection has been the subject for much of the research [7

7. R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 873–879 (1986) [CrossRef]

11

11. G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers based on the plasma dispersion effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 771–773 (1991) [CrossRef]

]. Recently, attention has focused on Raman effects in silicon. Optical amplification using Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) and Raman-induced wavelength conversion have been demonstrated in silicon waveguides [12

12. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 1731–1739 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide,” Proceedings of IPR 2004, Paper IWA4, (2004)

]. Additionally, Two Photon Absorption (TPA) has been investigated as a means to create an Si autocorrelator device [17

17. T.K. Liang, H.K. Tsang, I.E. Day, J. Drake, A.P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5um wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323–1325 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. TPA-induced FCA has been studied in the potential limit to achievable Raman efficiency [18

18. T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (15) 2745–2747 (2004). [CrossRef]

19

19. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali “influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2774–2780 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and in transmission of ultra short pulses in silicon waveguides [20

20. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 12, 1611–1621 (2004), http://www. opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1611 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. With respect to the Kerr nonlinearity in silicon, measurements of χ (3) have been reported for bulk samples [2

2. J.J. Wayne, “Optical third-order mixing in GaAs, Ge, Si, and InAs,” Phys. Rev. 178, 1295–1303 (1969) [CrossRef]

,21

21. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003) [CrossRef]

] and waveguides [22

22. H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002) [CrossRef]

] with results suggesting a value that is two orders of magnitude higher than that in silica glass. Recently, we have demonstrated spectral broadening as a first step towards on-chip supercontinuum generation [23

23. O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 829–834 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-829 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This was achieved through Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and at moderate peak power levels where FC effects were negligible. Specifically, a phase shift of approximately 2π was measured at the optical intensity of 2 GW/cm2.

In this paper, we demonstrate interferometric all-optical switching through Cross Phase Modulation (XPM) in silicon waveguides. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report. By using the Mach-Zehnder configuration, we experimentally demonstrate switching of CW signal in a 2µm2 silicon waveguide. A~7 ns switching window, limited by FC accumulation, is observed. Additionally, we model optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides including TPA-induced FC loss and index change. Results suggest that at low peak power levels the devices are governed by Kerr nonlinearities and switching can be obtained at approximately 40W pulse peak power levels with ultra fast response. As peak power level increases, free-carrier effects become important. Such effects include distortion in the switching transient and an enhancement of continuum generation with an asymmetric spectral profile.

2. Experimental results

Fig. 1. Experimental setup of XPM based silicon switch. Mach Zehnder interferometer is used for switching. XPM induced phase shift causes switching of CW signal to the output port.

Fig. 2. Output results of XPM based silicon switch. a) Residual pump pulse and switched CW signal when probe signal is present. b) Net switching results. Exponential decay indicates free carrier refraction.

Figure 2 indicates that the switching transients are limited by the FC lifetime. The carrier lifetime in silicon-on-insulator samples depends on the method used for fabrication of the wafer and the film thickness, with reported values ranging between 10–200ns [18

18. T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (15) 2745–2747 (2004). [CrossRef]

,19

19. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali “influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2774–2780 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. J.L. Freeouf and S.T. LiuProceedings of IEEE International SOI Conference.Tucson, AZ, 74–75 (1995).

25

25. M.A. Mendicino Comparison of properties of available SOI materials. Properties of Crystalline Silicon. Ed.Hull and Robert. INSPEC, IEE. 992–1001 (1998).

]. The lifetime is primarily limited by recombination caused by defect states located at the interface between the silicon and buried oxide. In rib waveguides, the lifetime is further reduced by lateral diffusion of carriers away from the optically active waveguide core. The effective lifetime of carriers in SOI waveguides can be written as: 1/τeff=1/τr+1/τtr, which includes the recombination lifetime τr and the transit (or diffusion) time τtr. Since carriers must diffuse to the interface for recombination to take place, τr is linearly proportional to Si film thickness [26

26. T. Kuwuyama, M. Ishimura, and E. AraiInterface recombination velocity of Silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity method with electric field.Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928–930 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Similarly, the transit time, τtr is proportional to rib width. Hence reducing the waveguide cross section is beneficial as it reduces the effective lifetime and thus minimizes TPA-induced FCA.

3. Theoretical results

The relevant effects that need to be considered in the theoretical model are (i) Kerr nonlinearity and (ii) TPA induced pump depletion, (iii) absorption by TPA generated free carriers, and (iv) dispersion. Dispersion can be ignored in this case because of the fact that nonlinear length is much shorter than the dispersive length in these waveguides [23

23. O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 829–834 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-829 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The following set of coupled equations then govern the pulse propagation in a nonlinear semiconductor waveguide [27

27. K. W. DeLong, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear transmission, degenerate four-wave mixing, photodarkening, and the effects of carrier-density-dependent nonlinearities in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Journal of Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1306–1313 (1989) [CrossRef]

29

29. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995)

,7

7. R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 873–879 (1986) [CrossRef]

]:

E(t,z)z=12(α+Δα+αTPA)E(t,z)igγEp(t,z)2E+i2πλΔnE(t,z)
(1)
Δα=e3λ24π2c3ε0n[ΔNemce·μe+ΔNhmch·μh]
(2)
Δn=e2λ28π2c2ε0n[ΔNemce+ΔNhmch]
(3)
N(t,z)t=N(t,z)τeff+βIp(t)22ω
(4)
αTPA=4n480πAeff2βIp(t,z)
(5)

3.1 Optical switching

We first consider the nonlinear phase shift in the waveguide. The phase shift has two sources, (i) the Kerr nonlinearity, and (ii) the FC induced index change. Free carriers are generated by the optical pulse and decay during the interval between pulses. Hence, their transient behavior (which determines the index change) and their average density (which determines the absorption) depend on the ratio of the pulse repetition period, T, and the effective recombination lifetime, τeff. Figure 4(a) shows the contribution of FC induced index change to the nonlinear phase shift. The behavior is highly sensitive to the ratio of T/τeff. For τeff <<1, the carrier accumulation results in a significantly higher phase shift compared to that caused by Kerr effect. However, this is not useful for fast switching applications since it is the steady state value caused by buildup in carrier density. The detailed switching behavior that will result from this phenomenon is shown in Fig. 6(b) and will be discussed below. Figure 4(b) shows the contributions of the Kerr effect to the nonlinear phase shift. Calculations are done for two different T/τeff values to show the impact of FC loss. The observed saturation is due to the pump depletion caused by TPA. For T/τeff <<1, FC accumulation occurs resulting in higher losses and a slightly lower phase shift.

Fig. 4. Total amount of phase shift for two different free carrier lifetime values induced by a) the index change due to free carrier accumulation and b) the Kerr nonlinearity. T=pulse period and τeff=free carrier life time.

Figure 5 shows the comparison of the Kerr and the FC contributions for the ideal case when the lifetime is shorter than the pulse period (τeff=3). As can be seen a 180° phase shift can be achieve at relatively low peak power of ~100W and in this regime, Kerr nonlinearity dominates the FC effect. This is the regime of interest for optical switching and it requires the lifetime to be shorter than the pulse repetition period. Typical values for the minority carrier lifetime in silicon waveguides is discussed in Section 4.

Fig. 5. Total amount of phase shift induced by the index change due to free carrier accumulation and the Kerr nonlinearity in the absence of free carrier accumulation. 180° phase shift can be obtained by Kerr nonlinearity at moderate power levels and with minimal free carrier effect.

Figure 6(a) shows the switching behavior for two different peak power levels. Simulations are performed for T/τeff=3 and with τeff=1 ns. At 40W Kerr nonlinearity dominates whereas at 2000W, FC effect is the main source of nonlinear phase shift. At 2000W power levels, the switching transient exhibits an exponential decay with a time constant that is consistent with the carrier lifetime. Figure 6(b) shows the detailed transient behavior over the time scale of the pump pulse. For the low pump power where the Kerr effect dominates, the output signal pulse closely follows the shape of the pump pulse (FWHM=4ps). At the 2000W peak power levels, the switched signal initially has an oscillatory behavior. This is expected because the total phase shift is much greater than 180°, Fig. 4(b). The simulation results and the experimental data shown earlier are encouraging as they indicate that all-optical switching can be realized in silicon waveguide with moderate peak powers.

Fig. 6. Simulated switching behavior in silicon. a) full scale representation b) 30ps time window of switched signal. Perfect switching profile is obtained at 40W peak power levels.

3.2 Continuum generation

Fig. 7. a) Qualitative depiction of free carrier transients in the time scale of optical pulse. The free carrier density follows the integral of pulse shape. b) Simulated results of spectral broadening factor.

Fig. 8. Spectrum generated at ~25 GW/cm2. SPM generates symmetric spectral broadening and free carrier refraction generate blue shifted spectrum.

Figure 8 shows the simulated spectrum at 25 GW/cm2. In the absence of FC effects, a symmetric spectrum is observed. Since the FC accumulation follows the integral of the pulse shape, the trailing edge of the pulse sees a higher phase shift than the leading edge, leading to an asymmetrical spectrum. In particular the spectrum is blue shifted. In the presence of FC accumulation, low spectral broadening with small asymmetry is obtained, Fig. 7(b). These observations are consistent with those reported in [20

20. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 12, 1611–1621 (2004), http://www. opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1611 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Previously Cowan et al. [20

20. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 12, 1611–1621 (2004), http://www. opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1611 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have reported observation of negative differential transmission for silicon waveguides beyond a certain power level, however, the observation could not be accounted for in the simulations [20

20. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 12, 1611–1621 (2004), http://www. opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1611 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Using the above model, we can explain this observation by distinguishing between peak and average powers. Similar to the index change, the FCA also follows the integral of the pulse shape. Thus the trailing edge of the pulse is more attenuated than the leading edge. This causes pulse steepening at extremely high power levels. Figure 9 shows the peak and average power levels emerging from the waveguide. Model parameters are described in the caption. To facilitate the comparison, the values are normalized so they match at the maximum. The average power indeed shows a negative differential transmission due to pulse steepening. On the other hand, the peak power simply saturates. Since a power meter, used in [20

20. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 12, 1611–1621 (2004), http://www. opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1611 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] measures the average power, the measurements would exhibit a negative differential transmission [20

20. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 12, 1611–1621 (2004), http://www. opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1611 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, this interesting phenomenon will not occur in real-time where it is most useful.

Fig. 9. Power transfer function in the presence of pulse steepening. Free carrier absorption causes higher attenuation at the trailing edge of the pulse and average throughput reduces On the other hand peak power level shows saturated behavior due to TPA.

4. Summary

The above analysis suggests that all-optical switching in silicon will be governed by three processes: (i) Kerr effect, (ii) pump depletion due to TPA, and (iii) refraction and absorption due to free carriers generated by TPA. Free carriers impact both the switching time and the switching efficiency. For fast switching, the recombination lifetime must be similar or shorter than the pulse width. This is difficult to achieve in practice since high pulse peak powers that are needed to effect switching are typically achieved by using picosecond pulses. While the effective lifetime in submicron silicon waveguides (~1ns) is much shorter than in bulk silicon (~1–10 µs) it is much longer than the optical pulse width. To avoid FCA and to obtain efficient switching, carrier accumulation must be avoided. This requires the lifetime to be much shorter than the pulse period, placing an upper limit on the repetition rate at which efficient switching can be achieved. Hence there is a direct trade-off between the data rate that can be switched and the required pump power. Fortunately, there exists a regime where the optical intensity is low enough such that the FC generation is negligible yet the Kerr induced phase shift of 180o can be achieved. As shown in Figure 5, this regime corresponds to peak intensity levels of ~1 GW/cm2 or lower.

At high intensities (30>GW/cm2) the index change caused by FC generation is much larger than the Kerr induced index change, resulting in significant spectrum broadening. As long as the lifetime is much shorter than the repletion period, carrier accumulation and the resulting absorption is avoided. Therefore, the FC effect can be beneficial in supercontinuum generation at low repetition rates (<1 GHz). However, a tradeoff exists between efficiency and repetition rate, similar to that in optical switching. In order to avoid FC accumulation at high repetition rate, the lifetime must be similar to or shorter than the pulse period, placing an upper limit on the repetition rate.

References and Links

1.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express 10, 1305–1313(2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J.J. Wayne, “Optical third-order mixing in GaAs, Ge, Si, and InAs,” Phys. Rev. 178, 1295–1303 (1969) [CrossRef]

3.

Peter Y. Yu and Manuel Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors Physics and Materials Properties, (Springer, 2001)

4.

A. Villeneuve, C.C. Yang, G.I. Stegeman, C.N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R.M. Osgood “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 30 (5) 1172–1175 (1994). [CrossRef]

5.

A.M. Darwish, E.P. Ippen, H.Q. Lee, J.P. Donnelly, and S.H. Groves “Optimization of four-wave mixing conversion efficiency in the presence of nonlinear loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 (6) 737–739 (1996). [CrossRef]

6.

Y.-H. Kao, T.J. Xia, and M.N. Islam“Limitations on ultrafast optical switching in a semiconductor laser amplifier operating at transparency current,” J. Appl. Phys. 86 (9) 4740–4747 (1999). [CrossRef]

7.

R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 873–879 (1986) [CrossRef]

8.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, “Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low loss single mode SOI waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 505–518 (1997). [CrossRef]

9.

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 451–452, (1995) [CrossRef]

10.

C. Z. Zhao, G. Z. Li, E. K. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. D. Liu, “Silicon on insulator Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2448–2449 (1995). [CrossRef]

11.

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J. M. Halbout, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers based on the plasma dispersion effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 771–773 (1991) [CrossRef]

12.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 1731–1739 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1731 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Anti-Stokes Raman conversion in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 2862–2872 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2862 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Phase-matching and nonlinear optical process in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 149–160 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-149 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Phase matching and nonlinear optical process in silicon waveguides,” Proceedings of IPR 2004, Paper IThE3, (2004)

16.

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide,” Proceedings of IPR 2004, Paper IWA4, (2004)

17.

T.K. Liang, H.K. Tsang, I.E. Day, J. Drake, A.P. Knights, and M. Asghari, “Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5um wavelength for autocorrelation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323–1325 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

T.K. Liang and H.K. Tsang “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (15) 2745–2747 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali “influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2774–2780 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 12, 1611–1621 (2004), http://www. opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1611 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003) [CrossRef]

22.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002) [CrossRef]

23.

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 829–834 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-829 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

J.L. Freeouf and S.T. LiuProceedings of IEEE International SOI Conference.Tucson, AZ, 74–75 (1995).

25.

M.A. Mendicino Comparison of properties of available SOI materials. Properties of Crystalline Silicon. Ed.Hull and Robert. INSPEC, IEE. 992–1001 (1998).

26.

T. Kuwuyama, M. Ishimura, and E. AraiInterface recombination velocity of Silicon-on-insulator wafers measured by microwave reflectance photoconductivity method with electric field.Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 928–930 (2003). [CrossRef]

27.

K. W. DeLong, A. Gabel, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear transmission, degenerate four-wave mixing, photodarkening, and the effects of carrier-density-dependent nonlinearities in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Journal of Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1306–1313 (1989) [CrossRef]

28.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987) [CrossRef]

29.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995)

OCIS Codes
(190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: July 22, 2004
Revised Manuscript: August 13, 2004
Published: August 23, 2004

Citation
Özdal Boyraz, Prakash Koonath, Varun Raghunathan, and Bahram Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4094


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References

  1. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm," Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. J. Wayne, "Optical third-order mixing in GaAs, Ge, Si, and InAs," Phys. Rev. 178, 1295-1303 (1969). [CrossRef]
  3. Peter Y. Yu and Manuel Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors Physics and Materials Properties, (Springer, 2001).
  4. A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, R. M. Osgood; "Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 30 (5) 1172-1175 (1994). [CrossRef]
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