## New all-optical wavelength auto-router based on spatial solitons

Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 18, pp. 4172-4177 (2004)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.004172

Acrobat PDF (198 KB)

### Abstract

We propose a novel all-optical wavelength auto-router based on spatial solitons. By using the swing effect of spatial solitons in a Kerr-type nonlinear medium, the proposed nonlinear waveguide structure could function as a self-routing wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). It could be a potential key component in the applications of ultra-high-speed and ultra-high-capacity optical communications and optical data processing systems.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

1. G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. **6**, 953 (1988). [CrossRef]

2. R. Y. Ciao, E. Gramire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Lett. **13**, 479 (1964). [CrossRef]

10. M. S. Borelly, J. P. Jue, D. Banerjee, B. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical Components for WDM Lightwave Networks,” Proc. IEEE. **85**, 1274 (1997). [CrossRef]

## 2. Analysis

*L*

_{1},

*L*

_{2},

*L*

_{3}, and

*L*

_{4}, respectively. The widths of the inclined linear waveguide, the straight nonlinear waveguide, and the output nonlinear waveguide are denoted

*w*

_{1},

*w*

_{2}, and

*w*

_{3}, respectively. In the input section, the inclined linear waveguide is used to launch the signal beam and the inclined angle is denoted

*θ*. In the straight nonlinear waveguide section, the spatial solitons will be excited. Owing to the strong perturbation of the linear-nonlinear interfaces, the spatial solitons will swing in this region [11

11. F. Garzia, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, “Swing effect of spatial soliton,” Optics Comm. **139**, 193 (1997). [CrossRef]

*k*

_{0}is the wave number in the free space,

*ω*is the angular frequency,

*β*is the effective refractive index, and we have taken the field to be homogeneous in the y direction. Taking into account the slowly varying envelope approximation, we obtain the following equation for

*E*(

*x*,

*z*):

*f*,

*c*, and

*u*are used to denote the guiding film, the cladding, and the uniform nonlinear medium, respectively. For a Kerr-type nonlinear medium [12

12. R.A. Sammut, Q. Y. Li, and C. Pask, “Variational approximations and mode stability in planar nonlinear waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B **9**, 884 (1992). [CrossRef]

*n*

_{i}

_{0}is the linear refractive index of the nonlinear medium and

*α*is the nonlinear coefficient (

*α*= 0 , for the linear medium). All the refractive indices in the proposed structure are

*n*

_{i}=

*n*

_{c0}in the cladding of the structure,

*n*

_{i}=

*n*

_{f0}in the inclined linear waveguide,

*n*

_{i}=

*n*

_{i}=

## 3. Numerical results and discussions

13. Y. Chung and N. Dagli, “As assessment of finite difference beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **26**, 1335 (1990). [CrossRef]

*n*

_{c0}=

*n*

_{u0}=1.55 ,

*n*

_{f0}=1.56 ,

*w*

_{1}=

*w*

_{3}=3

*μm*,

*w*

_{2}=15

*μm*,

*L*

_{1}=50

*μm*,

*L*

_{4}=500

*μm*,

*L*

_{3}=1000

*μm*, and

*α*= 63786

*μm*

^{2}/

*V*

^{2}[12

12. R.A. Sammut, Q. Y. Li, and C. Pask, “Variational approximations and mode stability in planar nonlinear waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B **9**, 884 (1992). [CrossRef]

*d*the position shift of the input signal beam propagating throughout the uniform nonlinear medium section and

*λ*

_{i}the wavelength of the input signal beam. As shown in Fig. 2, we plot the position shift Δ

*d*as a function of the wavelength

*λ*

_{i}, of the input signal beam. Figure 2(a) shows that the position shift Δ

*d*is plotted as a function of the input wavelength

*λ*

_{i},in 1310

*nm*spectral region and Fig. 2(b) shows that the position shift Δ

*d*is plotted as a function of the input wavelength

*λ*

_{i}, in 1550

*nm*spectral region. The numerical results show that the position shift is increasing as the input wavelength is increasing and the linearity is very well. Figure 3 shows the transmission efficiency

*P*

_{0}/

*P*

_{i}(

*P*

_{i}, the input signal power,

*P*

_{0}the output signal power) of the input signal beam propagating throughout the output section. The numerical results show that the transmission efficiency is very high, more than 94%. When the incoming signal beams enter the straight nonlinear waveguide, they will excite spatial solitons. Because the signal beams are launched in an inclined angle, the particle-like spatial solitons [14

14. A. B. Aceves, J. V. Moloney, and A. C. Newell, “Theory of light-beam propagation at nonlinear interfaces. I. Equivalent-particle theory for a single interface,” Phy Rev A. **39**, 1809 (1989). [CrossRef]

*nm*spectral region. Because for the conventional single-mode optical fiber, when the wavelength of the input light wave in 1310

*nm*spectral region, the dispersion is near zero and the transmission loss is very low. The numerical results are shown in Figs. 4(a) and 5(a). Figure 4(a) shows the evolutions of the input signal beams propagating along the structure with the wavelength of the input signal beams in 1310

*nm*spectral region. When the input wavelength increases, the output signal beams will be switched from one output guide to another. The spatial distributions of the input signal beam with different wavelengths at the end of the uniform nonlinear medium section is shown in Fig. 5(a). Second, we show a numerical example of a 1×13 all-optical wavelength auto-router with the input wavelength in 1550

*nm*spectral region. Because for the dispersion shifted single-mode optical fiber, when the wavelength of the input light wave in 1550

*nm*spectral region, the dispersion is near zero and the transmission loss is very low. The numerical results are shown in Figs. 4(b) and 5(b). Fig. 4(b) shows the evolutions of the input signal beams propagating along the structure with the wavelength of the input signal beams in 1550nm spectral region. When the input wavelength increases, the output signal beams will be switched from one output guide to another. The spatial distribution of the input signal beams with different wavelengths at the end of the output is shown in Fig. 5(b). Tab. 1(a) and Tab. 1(b) show the transmission efficiency with respect the input wavelength in 1310

*nm*and 1550

*nm*spectral region, respectively. The numerical results show that the transmission efficiency is higher than 94%.

wavelength (nm) |
P_{o}
/P_{i}
(%) | |
---|---|---|

λ
_{1}
| 1530 | 96.51 |

λ
_{2}
| 1534 | 96.51 |

λ
_{3}
| 1538 | 96.33 |

λ
_{4}
| 1541 | 96.76 |

λ
_{5}
| 1544 | 96.97 |

λ
_{6}
| 1547 | 95.35 |

λ
_{7}
| 1550 | 95.06 |

λ
_{8}
| 1553 | 94.82 |

λ
_{9}
| 1556 | 94.66 |

λ
_{10}
| 1559 | 94.58 |

λ
_{11}
| 1563 | 94.62 |

λ
_{12}
| 1567 | 94.81 |

A3 | 1570 | 95.20 |

## 4. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

2. | R. Y. Ciao, E. Gramire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Lett. |

3. | Y. D. Wu, “All-Optical switching device by using the spatial soliton collision,” Fiber and Integrated Optics. |

4. | Y. D. Wu, M. H. Chen, K. H. Chiang, and R. Z. Tasy, “New all-optical switching device by using interaction property of spatial optical solitons in uniform nonlinear medium,” Optics and Photonics Taiwan ☐ 215 (2003). |

5. | Y. D. Wu and B. X. Huang, “All-optical switching device by using the interaction of spatial solitons,” Optics and Potonics Taiwan ☐ 164 (2003). |

6. | F. Garzia, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotii, “New phase modulation technique based on spatial soliton switching,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. |

7. | Y. D. Wu, M. H. Chen, and C. H. Chu, “All-optical logic device using bent nonlinear tapered Y-junction waveguide structure,” Fiber and Integrated Optics. |

8. | Y. D. Wu, “Coupled-soliton all-optical logic device with two parallel tapered waveguides,” Fiber and Integrated Optics. (2004) (to be published). [CrossRef] |

9. | N. T. Vukovic and B. Milovanovic, “Realization of full set of logic gates for all-optical ultrafast switching,” IEEE Telsiks.500 (2001). |

10. | M. S. Borelly, J. P. Jue, D. Banerjee, B. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical Components for WDM Lightwave Networks,” Proc. IEEE. |

11. | F. Garzia, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, “Swing effect of spatial soliton,” Optics Comm. |

12. | R.A. Sammut, Q. Y. Li, and C. Pask, “Variational approximations and mode stability in planar nonlinear waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B |

13. | Y. Chung and N. Dagli, “As assessment of finite difference beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

14. | A. B. Aceves, J. V. Moloney, and A. C. Newell, “Theory of light-beam propagation at nonlinear interfaces. I. Equivalent-particle theory for a single interface,” Phy Rev A. |

**OCIS Codes**

(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics

(190.3270) Nonlinear optics : Kerr effect

(230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices

**ToC Category:**

Research Papers

**History**

Original Manuscript: July 19, 2004

Revised Manuscript: August 4, 2004

Published: September 6, 2004

**Citation**

Yaw-Dong Wu, "New all-optical wavelength auto-router based on spatial solitons," Opt. Express **12**, 4172-4177 (2004)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4172

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### References

- G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, �??Third order nonlinear integrated optics,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953 (1988). [CrossRef]
- R. Y. Ciao, E. Gramire, C. H. Townes, �??Self-trapping of optical beams,�?? Phys. Lett. 13, 479 (1964). [CrossRef]
- Y. D. Wu, �??All-Optical switching device by using the spatial soliton collision,�?? Fiber and Integrated Optics 23, 4 (2004) (to be published).
- Y. D. Wu, M. H. Chen, K. H. Chiang, and R. Z. Tasy, �??New all-optical switching device by using interaction property of spatial optical solitons in uniform nonlinear medium,�?? Optics and Photonics Taiwan, 215 (2003).
- Y. D. Wu, B. X. Huang, �??All-optical switching device by using the interaction of spatial solitons,�?? Optics and Photonics Taiwan, 164 (2003).
- F. Garzia, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotii, �??New phase modulation technique based on spatial soliton switching,�?? IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1036 (2001). [CrossRef]
- Y. D. Wu, M. H. Chen, and C. H. Chu, �??All-optical logic device using bent nonlinear tapered Y-junction waveguide structure,�?? Fiber and Integrated Optics 20, 517 (2001). [CrossRef]
- Y. D. Wu, �??Coupled-soliton all-optical logic device with two parallel tapered waveguides,�?? Fiber and Integrated Optics, (2004) (to be published). [CrossRef]
- N. T. Vukovic, B. Milovanovic, �??Realization of full set of logic gates for all-optical ultrafast switching,�?? IEEE Telsiks, 500 (2001).
- M. S. Borelly, J. P. Jue, D. Banerjee, B. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, �??Optical Components for WDM Lightwave Networks,�?? Proc. IEEE 85, 1274 (1997). [CrossRef]
- F. Garzia, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, �??Swing effect of spatial soliton,�?? Optics Commun. 139, 193 (1997). [CrossRef]
- R.A. Sammut, Q. Y. Li, and C. Pask, �??Variational approximations and mode stability in planar nonlinear waveguides,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 884 (1992). [CrossRef]
- Y. Chung and N. Dagli, �??As assessment of finite difference beam propagation method,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1335 (1990). [CrossRef]
- A. B. Aceves, J. V. Moloney, and A. C. Newell, �??Theory of light-beam propagation at nonlinear interfaces. I. Equivalent-particle theory for a single interface,�?? Phys. Rev. A 39, 1809 (1989). [CrossRef]

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