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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 12, Iss. 18 — Sep. 6, 2004
  • pp: 4326–4332
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All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks

R. Clavero, J. M. Martínez, F. Ramos, and J. Martí  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 18, pp. 4326-4332 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.004326


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Abstract

A novel scheme for all-optical label reading and packet routing is proposed. The architecture is comprised of all-optical logic XOR gates and all-optical flip-flops based on single Mach-Zehnder interferometers incorporating semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA-MZIs). The simulation results show that a very small penalty (less than 0.45 dB) for 10 Gbit/s packet processing can be achieved.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Future all-optical networks will require optical data packets to be routed quickly through all-optical nodes. For transparent and high-throughput packet routing, the packet header/label bits must be all-optically recognized and further the packet routed/switched properly [1–2

01. M. T. Hill, A. Srivatsa, N. Calabretta, Y. Liu, H. d. Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “1×2 optical packet switch using all-optical header processing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 774–775 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. So far, most of proposed architectures address processing the packet header electronically [3

03. T. Koonen, Sulur, I. Tafur, J. Jennen, and H. d. Waardt, “Optical labeling of packets in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’2002) 2 paper 5.5.2 (2002).

] and/or take the routing/switching decisions employing electronic control circuitry [4–7

04. N. Wada, H. Harai, and W. Chujo, “Multi-hop, 40 Gbit/s variable length photonic packet routing based on multi-wavelength label switching, waveband routing and label swapping,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC’2002) paper WG3, 216–217 (2002).

]. Furthermore, the really all-optical schemes previously reported are limited to single-bit header reading and/or 1×2 optical packet switching [1

01. M. T. Hill, A. Srivatsa, N. Calabretta, Y. Liu, H. d. Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “1×2 optical packet switch using all-optical header processing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 774–775 (2001). [CrossRef]

,8–9

08. I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of ultrafast all-optical packet routing,” Electron Lett. 33, 794–795 (1997). [CrossRef]

], which cannot be generally considered as packet routing.

In this paper, a new scheme for fully all-optical label reading and packet routing based on all-optical logic XOR gates and all-optical flip-flops is proposed. This architecture is key to develop all-optical packet routers in optical label-swapping networks [10

10. D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, Coldren, and J. Barton, “All-optical label swapping networks and technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2058–2075 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Conversely to other header/label recognition methods [1

01. M. T. Hill, A. Srivatsa, N. Calabretta, Y. Liu, H. d. Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “1×2 optical packet switch using all-optical header processing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 774–775 (2001). [CrossRef]

,9

09. D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, and P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1475–1476 (1995). [CrossRef]

], the approach proposed here allows for the recognition of arbitrary words without the need of any kind of ‘keyword’ coding. The basic building blocks of the proposed architecture are potentially integrated semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (SOA-MZIs).

The proposed packet routing scheme was validated by means of simulations with 10 Gbit/s packets. The label/header of each data packet was previously processed employing logic XOR gates and the packet routed according to it. Four different wavelengths used to route the data packets were generated during the simulations employing optical flip-flops. The simulation results show that a good performance (less than 0.45 dB penalty) for 10 Gbit/s packet processing can be achieved.

2. Principle of operation

The proposed architecture is shown in Fig. 1. When a packet arrives to the optical node, its header/label is extracted and sent to an array of optical correlators (Fig. 1(a)) where it is compared with several reference address keywords (look-up table entries) by using all-optical logic XOR gates based on single SOA-MZI devices (Fig. 1(b)) [11–13

11. J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, J. Marti, J. Herrera, and R. Llorente, “All-optical N-bit XOR gate with feedback for optical packet header processing,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’2002) 3 paper P4.8 (2002).

]. The reference address keywords can be all-optically generated employing the approach shown in [9

09. D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, and P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1475–1476 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. By using this technique, the address keywords are automatically generated after each packet arrival without the need of any additional synchronization. Anyway, it is not the aim of this paper to deal with the synchronization issues in optical nodes which is a tricky matter. Each XOR gate is followed by an all-optical flip-flop which emits a CW signal at λi when it is in ″high″ state, as it is shown in Fig. 1(a). Previously to the comparison, an optical pulse (set signal) is applied to all optical flip-flops to set their outputs to ″high″ state (Fig. 1(b)). If both data inputs to a specific correlator (XOR gate) are identical, no output pulse is obtained and the following flip-flop continues emitting at λi. Conversely, if any of the bits of both data inputs is different, one or several pulses may be obtained at the output of the XOR gate (Fig. 1(b)). These pulses reset the corresponding all-optical flip-flops and no signals appear at their outputs. The structure of the all-optical flip-flop based on a single SOA-MZI device (Fig. 1(b)) has been proposed and evaluated, for the first time [14

14. R. Clavero, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, “All-optical flip-flop based on a single SOA-MZI,” (patent pending).

]. Similar architectures make use of a minimum of two SOA-MZIs [15

15. M.T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Fast optical flip-flop by use of Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 31, 411–415 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 1. (a) All-optical packet router architecture and (b) detailed diagrams of some of the simulated elements and their interconnection.

The operating principle of the proposed all-optical flip-flop shown in Fig. 1b is described below. A CW optical signal at λi is launched into the input port of the SOA-MZI. The input and output couplers provide both a phase shift of π/2 between both MZI branches. Therefore, in absence of other input signals no optical signal is obtained at the SOA-MZI output as a consequence of a destructive interference at the output coupler. As it is shown in Fig. 1(b), this output port is interconnected through a feedback loop to the lower SOA-MZI branch by means of an 80/20 coupler. Inside this feedback loop, a 2×2 coupler with an adjustable coupling factor is also used to extract the output signal from the all-optical flip-flop and introduce the set pulses which act as enabling signals. Finally, another 80/20 coupler is used in the upper SOA-MZI branch to balance the interferometer and allow the introduction of the reset pulses which act as disabling signals. When a set pulse is injected (Fig. 1(b)), it reaches the lower SOA and reduces its carrier density and differential gain. The SOA-MZI is now unbalanced and the CW signal experiences different gains in both MZI branches, which results in an output power in point (D). The feedback loop forwards a fraction of this output power through the couplers again to the lower SOA to hold its state when the optical power of the set pulse vanishes. Conversely, when a reset pulse is injected, it arrives to the upper SOA and reduces its carrier density and gain in a similar way, but due to the feedback loop the carrier density in the lower SOA is also changed. If the energy of this reset pulse is high enough a change in the state of the flip-flop occurs, and the MZI is balanced again. By employing this flip-flop, low switching energies (<2 pJ pulses) and fast operation (<1 ns response delays) may be achieved.

In optical label swapping networks, the packet header usually acts as a serial intensity-modulated optical label [10

10. D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, Coldren, and J. Barton, “All-optical label swapping networks and technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2058–2075 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. A new-label insertion circuit is also needed to restore the previously extracted incoming label by a new one, as shown in Fig. 1(a). Finally, all the optical flip-flop outputs are then combined and applied to an SOA-MZI wavelength converter (Fig. 1(a)) [16

16. T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, P. B. Hansen, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, “20 Gbit/s optical wavelength conversion in all-active Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 913–914 (1999). [CrossRef]

], jointly with the optical packet to be routed (the payload previously extracted and the new label inserted). Each packet is then converted to λi, the optical wavelength corresponding to the output of the unique flip-flop in ″high state″ (i.e., the correlator branch where both the corresponding packet label and the reference address are equal). The wavelength conversion of the payload allows for the packet routing by using an arrayed waveguide grating or similar techniques (Fig. 1(a)) [1

01. M. T. Hill, A. Srivatsa, N. Calabretta, Y. Liu, H. d. Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “1×2 optical packet switch using all-optical header processing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 774–775 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

As it can be deduced from the architecture shown in Fig. 1(a), only a limited address space is available due to the scalability driven by space constraints, integration issues and the loss in the splitters/combiners which need to be used to compare the incoming packet header/label with all the possible addresses. However, this approach may be still valid for all-optical label processing considering the typical number of optical nodes (different labels/addresses) in a core network which can be estimated in a maximum of 256 [17

17. R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, J. Cheyns, E. Van Breusegem, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “All-optical label swapping versus label stripping: a node dimensioning point of view,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’2004), (to be published).

].

3. Simulation results and discussion

Fig. 2. Simulation results of all-optical packet routing (the points are referred to Fig. 1). (a) Input data packets at point (A). (b) Outputs from the 4th XOR correlator at point (C) (only the second label matches the 4th reference address). (c) Output from the 4th flip-flop at point (D). (d) AWG output port #1 at point (H). (e) AWG output port #2 at point (H). (f) AWG output port #3 at point (H). (g) AWG output port #4 at point (H).

Table 1. Simulation parameters.

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Table 2. Optical flip-flop outputs.

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Fig. 3. BER performance of wavelength-converted and routed packets.

During the simulations, a pump signal at 1558.44 nm was also applied to both the XOR correlator and the wavelength converter to accelerate the SOAs carrier density response [20

20. F. Girardin, G. Guekos, and A. Houbavlis, “Gain recovery of bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 784–786 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. For 40 Gbit/s operation, a differential phase-modulation scheme should be used at the SOA-MZIs [21

21. H. Chen, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, J. Jaques, J. Leuthold, A. B. Piccirilli, and N. K. Dutta, “All-optical logic XOR using differential scheme and Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1271–1273 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Two 1.6-nm optical passband filters were also used between the SOA-MZIs, although not shown in Fig. 1(b). The performance of the wavelength conversion process depends on the quality of the signal at the output of the flip-flops. The optical powers at each flip-flop output are shown in Table 2. There are small variations due to the flip-flop parameters were the same for all of them. Each flip-flop, however, can be optimized independently to obtain the same output powers. Finally, the BER of the routed packets was estimated by means of simulations. In Fig. 3, the BER results show that less than 0.45 dB penalty is obtained for all the packets after wavelength conversion. The eye diagram can be also seen in Fig. 3 as an inset. The polarization issues were neglected during the simulations, as we considered that all the signals have the optimum polarisation states. An additional power penalty would arise if the polarization controllers are not adjusted correctly during the experiments, especially in the case of the SOA-MZI input signals.

4. Conclusion

A novel architecture for all-optical label reading and packet routing was proposed. The simulation results show less than 0.45 dB power penalty for the 10 Gbit/s wavelength-converted and routed data packets. This architecture has strong application in optical label swapping networks and can be extended to higher speeds by using a differential scheme in the SOA-MZIs.

Acknowledgments

The European Commission is gratefully acknowledged for partial funding of the LASAGNE FP6-1-507509 project. The Regional Valencian Government is also acknowledged for supporting the work of R. Clavero.

References and links

01.

M. T. Hill, A. Srivatsa, N. Calabretta, Y. Liu, H. d. Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “1×2 optical packet switch using all-optical header processing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 774–775 (2001). [CrossRef]

02.

M. C. Hauer, J. McGeehan, J. Touch, P. Kamath, J. Bannister, E. R. Lyons, C. H. Lin, A. A. Au, H. P. Lee, D. S. Starodubov, and A. E. Willner, “Dynamically reconfigurable all-optical correlators to support ultra-fast internet routing,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC’2002) paper WM7, 268–270 (2002).

03.

T. Koonen, Sulur, I. Tafur, J. Jennen, and H. d. Waardt, “Optical labeling of packets in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’2002) 2 paper 5.5.2 (2002).

04.

N. Wada, H. Harai, and W. Chujo, “Multi-hop, 40 Gbit/s variable length photonic packet routing based on multi-wavelength label switching, waveband routing and label swapping,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC’2002) paper WG3, 216–217 (2002).

05.

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Anderson, and M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998). [CrossRef]

06.

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, and H. Suzuki, “40-Gbit/s label recognition and 1×4 self-routing using self-serial-to-parallel conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 692–694 (2004). [CrossRef]

07.

O. Moriwaki, T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, and M. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of optical label processing with timing pulse generator,” Electron. Lett. 39, 730–731 (2003). [CrossRef]

08.

I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of ultrafast all-optical packet routing,” Electron Lett. 33, 794–795 (1997). [CrossRef]

09.

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, and P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1475–1476 (1995). [CrossRef]

10.

D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, Coldren, and J. Barton, “All-optical label swapping networks and technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2058–2075 (2000). [CrossRef]

11.

J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, J. Marti, J. Herrera, and R. Llorente, “All-optical N-bit XOR gate with feedback for optical packet header processing,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’2002) 3 paper P4.8 (2002).

12.

J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, “All-optical packet header processor based on cascaded SOA-MZIs,” Electron. Lett. 40, 894–895 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, “Demonstration of 20 Gbit/s all-optical logic XOR in integrated SOA-based interferometric wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1863–1864 (2000). [CrossRef]

14.

R. Clavero, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, “All-optical flip-flop based on a single SOA-MZI,” (patent pending).

15.

M.T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Fast optical flip-flop by use of Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 31, 411–415 (2001). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, P. B. Hansen, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, “20 Gbit/s optical wavelength conversion in all-active Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 913–914 (1999). [CrossRef]

17.

R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, J. Cheyns, E. Van Breusegem, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “All-optical label swapping versus label stripping: a node dimensioning point of view,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’2004), (to be published).

18.

D. Tsiokos, E. Kehayas, G.T. Kanellos, L. Stampoulidis, G. Guekos, and H. Avramopoulos, “All-optical 10 Gb/s header replacement for variable-length data packets,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’2003) paper We4.P.83 (2003).

19.

B.-E. Olsson, P. Öhlén, L. Rau, G. Rossi, O. Jerphagnon, R. Doshi, D. S. Humphries, D. J. Blumenthal, V. Kaman, and J. E. Bowers, “Wavelength routing of 40 Gbit/s packets with 2.5 Gbit/s header erasure/rewriting using all-fibre wavelength converter,” Electron. Lett. 36, 345–346 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

F. Girardin, G. Guekos, and A. Houbavlis, “Gain recovery of bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 784–786 (1998). [CrossRef]

21.

H. Chen, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, J. Jaques, J. Leuthold, A. B. Piccirilli, and N. K. Dutta, “All-optical logic XOR using differential scheme and Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1271–1273 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(200.4560) Optics in computing : Optical data processing
(230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices
(250.5980) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor optical amplifiers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: July 30, 2004
Revised Manuscript: August 31, 2004
Published: September 6, 2004

Citation
R. Clavero, J. Martínez, F. Ramos, and J. Martí, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks," Opt. Express 12, 4326-4332 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4326


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References

  1. M. T. Hill, A. Srivatsa, N. Calabretta, Y. Liu, H. d. Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, �??1x2 optical packet switch using all-optical header processing,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 774-775 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. M. C. Hauer, J. McGeehan, J. Touch, P. Kamath, J. Bannister, E. R. Lyons, C. H. Lin, A. A. Au, H. P. Lee, D. S. Starodubov, and A. E. Willner, �??Dynamically reconfigurable all-optical correlators to support ultra-fast internet routing,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC�??2002) paper WM7, 268-270 (2002).
  3. T. Koonen, Sulur, I. Tafur, J. Jennen, and H. d. Waardt, �??Optical labeling of packets in IP-over-WDM networks,�?? in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC�??2002) 2 paper 5.5.2 (2002).
  4. N. Wada, H. Harai, and W. Chujo, �??Multi-hop, 40 Gbit/s variable length photonic packet routing based on multi-wavelength label switching, waveband routing and label swapping,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC�??2002) paper WG3, 216-217 (2002).
  5. T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Anderson, and M. N. Islam, �??All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 153-155 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, and H. Suzuki, �??40-Gbit/s label recognition and 1x4 self-routing using self-serial-to-parallel conversion,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 692-694 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. O. Moriwaki, T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, and M. Matsuoka, �??Demonstration of optical label processing with timing pulse generator,�?? Electron. Lett. 39, 730-731 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. I. Glesk, K. I. Kang, and P. R. Prucnal, �??Demonstration of ultrafast all-optical packet routing,�?? Electron Lett. 33, 794-795 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, and P. Gunning, �??Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit �??keyword�?? address recognition,�?? Electron. Lett. 31, 1475-1476 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Blumenthal, B. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, and J. Barton, �??All-optical label swapping networks and technologies,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, J. Marti, J. Herrera, and R. Llorente, �??All-optical N-bit XOR gate with feedback for optical packet header processing,�?? in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC�??2002) 3 paper P4.8 (2002).
  12. J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, �??All-optical packet header processor based on cascaded SOA-MZIs,�?? Electron. Lett. 40, 894-895 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, A. Kloch, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, �??Demonstration of 20 Gbit/s all-optical logic XOR in integrated SOA-based interferometric wavelength converter,�?? Electron. Lett. 36, 1863-1864 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Clavero, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, �??All-optical flip-flop based on a single SOA-MZI,�?? (patent pending).
  15. M.T. Hill, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, �??Fast optical flip-flop by use of Mach-Zehnder interferometers,�?? Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 31, 411-415 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Fjelde, D. Wolfson, P. B. Hansen, A. Kloch, C. Janz, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, B. Dagens, and M. Renaud, �??20 Gbit/s optical wavelength conversion in all-active Mach-Zehnder interferometer,�?? Electron. Lett. 35, 913-914 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, J. Cheyns, E. Van Breusegem, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, �??All-optical label swapping versus label stripping: a node dimensioning point of view,�?? in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC�??2004), (to be published).
  18. D. Tsiokos, E. Kehayas, G.T. Kanellos, L. Stampoulidis, G. Guekos, and H. Avramopoulos, �??All-optical 10 Gb/s header replacement for variable-length data packets,�?? in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC�??2003) paper We4.P.83 (2003).
  19. B.-E. Olsson, P. �?hlén, L. Rau, G. Rossi, O. Jerphagnon, R. Doshi, D. S. Humphries, D. J. Blumenthal, V. Kaman, and J. E. Bowers, �??Wavelength routing of 40 Gbit/s packets with 2.5 Gbit/s header erasure/rewriting using all-fibre wavelength converter,�?? Electron. Lett. 36, 345-346 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. F. Girardin, G. Guekos, and A. Houbavlis, �??Gain recovery of bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 784-786 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. H. Chen, G. Zhu, Q. Wang, J. Jaques, J. Leuthold, A. B. Piccirilli, and N. K. Dutta, �??All-optical logic XOR using differential scheme and Mach-Zehnder interferometer,�?? Electron. Lett. 38, 1271-1273 (2002). [CrossRef]

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