OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 12, Iss. 25 — Dec. 13, 2004
  • pp: 6270–6277
« Show journal navigation

Small core rib waveguides with embedded gratings in As2Se3 glass

N. Ponnampalam, R. G. DeCorby, H. T. Nguyen, P. K. Dwivedi, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 25, pp. 6270-6277 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.006270


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (490 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Low-loss shallow-rib waveguides were fabricated using As2Se3 chalcogenide glass and polyamide-imide polymer. Waveguides were patterned directly in the As2Se3 layer by photodarkening followed by selective wet etching. Theory predicted a modal effective area of 3.5–4 µm2, and this was supported by near-field modal measurements. The Fabry-Perot technique was used to estimate propagation losses as low as ~0.25 dB/cm. First-order Bragg gratings near 1550 nm were holographically patterned in some waveguides. The Bragg gratings exhibited an index modulation on the order of 0.004. They were used as a means to assess the modal effective indices of the waveguides. Small core As2Se3 waveguides with embedded Bragg gratings have potential for realization of all-optical Kerr effect devices.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

2. Device fabrication

Chalcogenide glasses exhibit numerous photostructural changes when exposed to near-bandgap light. For example, illumination of fully annealed chalcogenide films generally results in photodarkening (a red-shift in the absorption band edge, which is typically reversible by subsequent annealing) and a corresponding increase in refractive index [13

13. J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 13, 191–223 (1973/74). [CrossRef]

]. These effects have been used in the fabrication of laser-written channel waveguides [10

10. A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844–1852 (2003). [CrossRef]

] and holographically induced volume gratings [14

14. M. Vlcek, S. Schroeter, J. Cech, T. Wagner, and T. Glaser, “Selective etching of chalcogenides and its application for fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 326&327, 515–518 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Photodarkening is often accompanied by a large change of etch rate (in suitable wet etchants), so that structures such as relief gratings [15

15. R. Vallee, S. Frederick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, “Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 230, 301–307 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and rib or strip waveguides can be realized by patterned exposure of the chalcogenide film followed by etching.

Notwithstanding their unique options for processing, there are some challenges associated with the use of chalcogenide glasses in integrated optics. While toxicity and durability are limitations of some alloys [9

9. J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184–1191 (1999). [CrossRef]

], probably the key challenge is the large coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of these glasses relative to typical substrates and undercladding materials [16

16. S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Low loss photoinduced waveguides in rapid thermally annealed films of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 13–15 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. While high quality thin films (As-Se, As-S, Ge-Se, etc.) can be deposited by various techniques such as evaporation, sputtering, etc., a post-deposition anneal is often required to stabilize and densify the film, and to reduce scattering losses [10

10. A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844–1852 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. This annealing step can lead to film delamination or cracking if the chalcogenide film is deposited on a low thermal expansion substrate such as Si or SiO2. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) [16

16. S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Low loss photoinduced waveguides in rapid thermally annealed films of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 13–15 (1999). [CrossRef]

] and use of as-deposited films (by pulsed laser deposition) [10

10. A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844–1852 (2003). [CrossRef]

] have been reported to mitigate this. We used a polyamide-imide (PAI) polymer, (Torlon AI-10 from Solvay Advanced Polymers) [17

17. R. M. Bryce, H. T. Nguyen, P. Nakeeran, T. Clement, C. J. Haugen, R. R. Tykwinski, R. G. DeCorby, and J. N. McMullin, “Polyamide-imide polymer thin films for integrated optics,” Thin Solid Films 458, 233–236 (2004). [CrossRef]

], with a CTE (~30 ppm/°C) well matched to that of As2Se3 (21 ppm/°C) [18

18. P. N. Kumta and S. H. Risbud, “Review: Rare-earth chalcogenides - an emerging class of optical materials,” J. Mat. Sci. 29, 1135–1158 (1994). [CrossRef]

], as both the undercladding and uppercladding material. PAI is a robust polymer with a high glass transition temperature (270 °C). Of particular importance here, it can be fully cured at temperatures below the glass transition temperature of As2Se3 (~190 °C) [18

18. P. N. Kumta and S. H. Risbud, “Review: Rare-earth chalcogenides - an emerging class of optical materials,” J. Mat. Sci. 29, 1135–1158 (1994). [CrossRef]

].

Several wafers were processed as follows. The PAI polymer undercladding was spun cast onto silicon wafers as described elsewhere [17

17. R. M. Bryce, H. T. Nguyen, P. Nakeeran, T. Clement, C. J. Haugen, R. R. Tykwinski, R. G. DeCorby, and J. N. McMullin, “Polyamide-imide polymer thin films for integrated optics,” Thin Solid Films 458, 233–236 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Subsequently, a 1.1 µm thin film of As2Se3 was deposited by thermal evaporation onto room temperature substrates. The evaporation rate was ~10 nm/s. Uniformity and stoichiometry of the chalcogenide films were verified by electron microprobe analysis. Waveguides were patterned directly in the as-deposited As2Se3 films by exposure through a photomask in a standard UV mask aligner [19

19. R. M. Bryce, H. T. Nguyen, P. Nakeeran, R. G. DeCorby, P. K. Dwivedi, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Direct UV patterning of waveguide devices in As2Se3 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A 22, 1044–1047, (2004). [CrossRef]

]. This exposure photodarkens the glass, and greatly increases its resistance to amine-based wet etchants [14

14. M. Vlcek, S. Schroeter, J. Cech, T. Wagner, and T. Glaser, “Selective etching of chalcogenides and its application for fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 326&327, 515–518 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Exploiting this property, the unexposed chalcogenide film was etched ~100–200 nm using a monoethanolamine (MEA) based solution. It should be noted that annealed As2Se3 films exhibited reverse polarity in MEA, with exposed portions etching more quickly. A second PAI layer was spun cast and cured at 150 °C for one hour in nitrogen atmosphere; the As2Se3 core layer is effectively annealed at the same time. Wafers were cleaved using a conical diamond cutter, and an SEM image of a typical waveguide facet is shown in Fig. 1. Wafers were free from visible cracks, and there was no evidence of film delamination on cleaving. This attests to the good thermo-mechanical compatibility of the PAI polymer and As2Se3, and suggests that PAI is able to absorb the thermally induced mechanical stresses between the As2Se3 layer and the Si substrate.

Fig. 1. (a) SEM image of the cleaved facet of a rib waveguide. The color difference between the upper and lower PAI claddings is an artifact of the SEM imaging and is not visible in microscope images. The slight deformation at the top of the upper cladding is probably due to the film stretching upon dicing into very small pieces required for SEM imaging. (b) Schematic illustration of the rib geometry assumed for simulations.

After dicing the wafers into chips containing waveguides of various lengths, Bragg gratings were embedded in some of the waveguide samples. Gratings were holographically patterned by photodarkening the As2Se3 layer using a standard 633 nm wavelength HeNe source. To write first-order gratings (with required pitch smaller than half the free-space wavelength of the writing beam), samples were placed in intimate contact with a prism [20

20. C. V. Shank and R. V. Schmidt, “Optical technique for producing 0.1-µ periodic surface structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 154–155 (1973). [CrossRef]

] as illustrated in Fig. 2. The PAI uppercladding has good transparency at 633 nm. Using this technique, high quality gratings with periods on the order of 290 nm (see Fig. 2, inset) were realized. Note that for a fully annealed chalcogenide film, we expect to be in the regime of reversible photodarkening [13

13. J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 13, 191–223 (1973/74). [CrossRef]

]. The induced index change has been shown to depend not only on thermal history of the film, but also on the energy and intensity supplied by the writing beam [15

15. R. Vallee, S. Frederick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, “Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 230, 301–307 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The single beam intensity at the sample was estimated to be 0.3 W/cm2 and exposure time was typically on the order of 10 min.

Fig. 2. Experimental arrangement used to embed Bragg gratings in rib waveguides. Inset: SEM images of gratings written by this technique, with period approximately 290 nm. From these low contrast SEM images, the uncertainty in estimating the grating period is at least +/-5 nm.

3. Near field mode analysis

Experimental near-field profiles were obtained by imaging the waveguide output facets through a series of lenses onto either an infrared Vidicon camera or a silicon CCD camera. It was possible to selectively excite either the fundamental or first-order mode by careful alignment of the input fiber. Fig. 3 (c) shows the fundamental mode at 1480 nm, for a 3.8 µm wide waveguide and Fig. 3 (d) shows the first-order mode at 980 nm, for a 4.2 µm wide waveguide. As shown in Fig. 3, the experimental results and theoretical predictions were in good qualitative agreement. Because of camera nonlinearities, we also assessed the near field mode profiles by replacing the camera with a linear detector apertured by a 5 µm pinhole. This detector was mounted on a precision translation stage, and scanned in two dimensions to map the magnified mode intensity profiles. A typical scan for the horizontal direction (in the plane of the layers) is shown in Fig. 3 (e). These scans confirmed that the horizontal 1/e intensity widths (~3 µm) were in good agreement with those predicted theoretically. The 1/e width in the vertical direction (<1 µm) was below the resolving power of the objective lens employed (N.A.=0.85).

Fig. 3. Simulated (a, b) and experimental (c, d) near field images of fundamental mode at 1480 nm for a rib waveguide with nominal width of 3.8 µm (a, c) and first order mode at 980 nm for a rib waveguide with nominal width of 4.2 µm (b, d). An etch depth of 100 nm was estimated from SEM images and used in the simulations. The horizontal mode profile, obtained by scanning an apertured photodetector through the magnified near-field image, is shown in (e).

4. Waveguide propagation loss

Waveguides with rib widths ranging from 3.8 to 4.2 µm, and lengths ranging from 5 to 20 mm were used in Fabry-Perot measurements of propagation loss [21

21. R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 581–583 (1985). [CrossRef]

,22

22. L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu, and S. S. Lau, “Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536–538 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. The schematic of the experimental setup for the loss measurement is shown in Fig. 4. The measurement employed a narrow line width, 1530 nm semiconductor DFB laser source with an external fiber isolator to minimize any fluctuation of laser power due to back reflections at the waveguide facets. The input power was tapped using a 90:10 fiber coupler and the output power was normalized in order to account for variation of input power with laser frequency. A fiber polarization controller was used to control the polarization of the input light. Input coupling was via the high NA fiber described previously. A 60X microscopic objective (N.A.=0.85) was used at the output end of the waveguide to focus the light onto a Ge detector. The polarization of the light was confirmed using a polarizer placed between the objective and the detector. By varying the temperature of the laser source, the emission wavelength was varied. The normalized output power was plotted as a function of time as the laser temperature was ramped. A typical Fabry-Perot fringe pattern is shown in Fig. 5 (a). Fringe quality was generally excellent and results were highly repeatable, providing evidence for the high quality of the waveguide facets.

Fig.4. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used for Fabry-Perot loss measurements.

The propagation loss in dB/cm is given by,

loss=1L10log[1R(K121)(K12+1)]
(1)

where K=I max/I min is the ratio between the maximum and minimum output intensity, R is the geometric mean of the power reflection coefficients of the waveguide end facets, and L is the length of the waveguide in cm [21

21. R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 581–583 (1985). [CrossRef]

]. For small core high index contrast waveguides, estimating R using Fresnel reflection expressions with waveguide effective index is not accurate. Hence, we used the approximations provided by Buus [23

23. J. Buus, “Analytical approximation for the reflectivity of DH lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2256–2267 (1981). [CrossRef]

]. At 1530 nm for example, the Buus formula predicts R~0.266 for the TE0 mode of the waveguides studied (more than 25% larger than the Fresnel estimation). From the data shown in Fig. 5 (a) (representative of the best waveguides realized), for a waveguide length of ~1.75 cm, K is about 2.652 and transmission loss is estimated as 0.26 dB/cm.

Fig. 5. (a) A typical Fabry-Perot fringe pattern. Output intensity normalized to the input intensity is plotted against time (as the laser temperature and emission wavelength are ramped in time). The variation of wavelength with time was not linear, so the fringes do not exhibit a regular spacing. (b) Bar chart showing distribution of losses for 8 waveguides within a single sample. Inset: typical scattered light streak image.

5. Effective modal indices from Bragg grating characterization

We have previously reported photodarkening-induced index changes as high as ~0.06 in as-deposited As2Se3 thin films [24

24. A. C. van Popta, R. G. DeCorby, C. J. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633 nm illumination,” Opt. Express 10, 639–644 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-15-639. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. T. G. Robinson, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, S. O. Kasap, and D. Tonchev, “Strong Bragg gratings photoinduced by 633-nm illumination in evaporated As2Se3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 28, 459–461 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in agreement with earlier results [13

13. J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 13, 191–223 (1973/74). [CrossRef]

]. Exposure (by near-band gap light) of as-deposited (non-annealed) chalcogenide films produces an irreversible shift of the band edge (photodarkening or photobleaching, depending on the alloy). Annealing near the glass-transition temperature also shifts the band-edge of as-deposited films, and typically brings the film closer to the properties of the bulk glass. Exposure of fully annealed films produces a reversible shift of the band edge, typically photodarkening irrespective of the alloy [26

26. K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Advances in Physics 44, 475–588, (1995). [CrossRef]

]. This band edge shift (and corresponding increase in refractive index) can be erased by a subsequent anneal, and the cycle is repeatable. The maximum irreversible and reversible index change depends on the alloy. Irreversible and reversible index changes of 0.06 and 0.004, respectively, have been reported for As2Se3 [13

13. J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 13, 191–223 (1973/74). [CrossRef]

].

We embedded Bragg gratings in several of the low loss waveguides discussed above. The spectral response of the gratings was probed by injecting light from an erbium doped fiber ring laser producing broadband noise-like pulses. The output light was coupled into an optical spectrum analyzer. A typical transmission scan is shown in Fig. 6 (a). Good quality gratings, with stop band extinctions >20 dB were realized. From the width of the main stop band feature, an index contrast Δn~0.004 was estimated [15

15. R. Vallee, S. Frederick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, “Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 230, 301–307 (2004). [CrossRef]

], in good agreement with the reversible index change expected for As2Se3 [13

13. J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 13, 191–223 (1973/74). [CrossRef]

]. Note that the ringing features on the short wavelength side of the stop band are expected for a Gaussian-apodized Bragg grating, as produced by our writing technique. These gratings did not show good stability under illumination by room and microscope lights, typically degrading within days. This can be attributed to further photodarkening of the glass by ambient light, which washes out the grating pattern. Stability is improved when photodarkening is induced by high intensity light, an approach we hope to explore further.

Fig. 6. (a) A typical Bragg grating stop band for a fundamental TM mode, measured with the input polarization well controlled. (b) Spectral features associated with 2 TE modes and 2 TM modes, for a Bragg grating embedded in a waveguide with rib width of 4.2 µm. The polarization is controlled in order to associate each stop band with a TE mode (as for the two longer wavelength stop bands, upper figure) or a TM mode (as for the two shorter wavelength stop bands, lower figure).

Table 1:. Theoretical and Experimental Modal Indices

table-icon
View This Table

6. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Institute for Photonic Innovation, Canada Foundation for Innovation, and TRLabs. We would like to thank George Braybrook for capturing excellent SEM images. The devices were fabricated at the Nanofab of the University of Alberta.

References and links

1.

R. Rangel-Rojo, T. Kosa, E. Hajto, P. J. S. Ewen, A. E. Owen, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Near-infrared optical nonlinearities in amorphous chalcogenides,” Opt. Commun. 109, 145–150 (1994). [CrossRef]

2.

G. Lenz and S. Spalter, “Chalcogenide glasses,” in Nonlinear Photonic Crystals, R. E. Slusher and B.J. Eggleton eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003).

3.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 119–121 (2002). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 256&257, 353–360 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146–1155 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Ogusu, H. Li, and M. Kitao, “Brillouin-gain coefficients of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1302–1304 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S. W. Cheong, and R. E. Slusher, “Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27, 363–365 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching”, Opt. Express 12, 5140–5145 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5140. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184–1191 (1999). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844–1852 (2003). [CrossRef]

11.

D. J. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, “Extrusion of hollow waveguide performs with a one-dimensional photonic bandgap structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3895–3900 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Hollow multilayer photonic bandap fibers for NIR applications,” Opt. Express 12, 1510–1517 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1510. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 13, 191–223 (1973/74). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Vlcek, S. Schroeter, J. Cech, T. Wagner, and T. Glaser, “Selective etching of chalcogenides and its application for fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 326&327, 515–518 (2003). [CrossRef]

15.

R. Vallee, S. Frederick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, “Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguides,” Opt. Comm. 230, 301–307 (2004). [CrossRef]

16.

S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Low loss photoinduced waveguides in rapid thermally annealed films of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 13–15 (1999). [CrossRef]

17.

R. M. Bryce, H. T. Nguyen, P. Nakeeran, T. Clement, C. J. Haugen, R. R. Tykwinski, R. G. DeCorby, and J. N. McMullin, “Polyamide-imide polymer thin films for integrated optics,” Thin Solid Films 458, 233–236 (2004). [CrossRef]

18.

P. N. Kumta and S. H. Risbud, “Review: Rare-earth chalcogenides - an emerging class of optical materials,” J. Mat. Sci. 29, 1135–1158 (1994). [CrossRef]

19.

R. M. Bryce, H. T. Nguyen, P. Nakeeran, R. G. DeCorby, P. K. Dwivedi, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Direct UV patterning of waveguide devices in As2Se3 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A 22, 1044–1047, (2004). [CrossRef]

20.

C. V. Shank and R. V. Schmidt, “Optical technique for producing 0.1-µ periodic surface structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 154–155 (1973). [CrossRef]

21.

R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 21, 581–583 (1985). [CrossRef]

22.

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu, and S. S. Lau, “Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536–538 (1994). [CrossRef]

23.

J. Buus, “Analytical approximation for the reflectivity of DH lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2256–2267 (1981). [CrossRef]

24.

A. C. van Popta, R. G. DeCorby, C. J. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, “Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633 nm illumination,” Opt. Express 10, 639–644 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-15-639. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

T. G. Robinson, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, S. O. Kasap, and D. Tonchev, “Strong Bragg gratings photoinduced by 633-nm illumination in evaporated As2Se3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 28, 459–461 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Advances in Physics 44, 475–588, (1995). [CrossRef]

27.

C. V. Poulsen, J. Hubner, T. Rasmussen, L. U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, “Characterization of dispersion properties in planar waveguides using UV-induced Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1437–1438 (1995). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: November 12, 2004
Revised Manuscript: December 2, 2004
Published: December 13, 2004

Citation
N. Ponnampalam, R. DeCorby, H. Nguyen, P. Dwivedi, C. Haugen, J. McMullin, and S. Kasap, "Small core rib waveguides with embedded gratings in As2Se3 glass," Opt. Express 12, 6270-6277 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-25-6270


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. R. Rangel-Rojo, T. Kosa, E. Hajto, P. J. S. Ewen, A. E. Owen, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, ???Near-infrared optical nonlinearities in amorphous chalcogenides,??? Opt. Commun. 109, 145-150 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. G. Lenz and S. Spalter, ???Chalcogenide glasses,??? in Nonlinear Photonic Crystals, R. E. Slusher and B.J. Eggleton eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003).
  3. J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, ???Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,??? Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, ???Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,??? J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 256&257, 353-360 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, ???Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,??? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146-1155 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Ogusu, H. Li, and M. Kitao, ???Brillouin-gain coefficients of chalcogenide glasses,??? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1302-1304 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S. W. Cheong and R. E. Slusher, ???Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguides,??? Opt. Lett. 27, 363-365 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, ???Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching???, Opt. Express 12, 5140-5145 (2004), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5140">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5140</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, ???Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,??? J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, ???Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,??? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844-1852 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Gibson and J. A. Harrington, ???Extrusion of hollow waveguide performs with a one-dimensional photonic bandgap structure,??? J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3895-3900 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, ???Hollow multilayer photonic bandap fibers for NIR applications,??? Opt. Express 12, 1510-1517 (2004), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1510">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1510</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, ???Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,??? J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 13, 191-223 (1973/74). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Vlcek, S. Schroeter, J. Cech, T. Wagner, and T. Glaser, ???Selective etching of chalcogenides and its application for fabrication of diffractive optical elements,??? J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 326&327, 515-518 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Vallee, S. Frederick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, ???Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguides,??? Opt. Comm. 230, 301-307 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, ???Low loss photoinduced waveguides in rapid thermally annealed films of chalcogenide glasses,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 13-15 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. R. M. Bryce, H. T. Nguyen, P. Nakeeran, T. Clement, C. J. Haugen, R. R. Tykwinski, R. G. DeCorby, and J. N. McMullin, ???Polyamide-imide polymer thin films for integrated optics,??? Thin Solid Films 458, 233-236 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. P. N. Kumta and S. H. Risbud, ???Review: Rare-earth chalcogenides ??? an emerging class of optical materials,??? J. Mat. Sci. 29, 1135-1158 (1994). [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. Bryce, H. T. Nguyen, P. Nakeeran, R. G. DeCorby, P. K. Dwivedi, C. J. Haugen, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, ???Direct UV patterning of waveguide devices in As2Se3 thin films,??? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A 22, 1044-1047, (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. C. V. Shank and R. V. Schmidt, ???Optical technique for producing 0.1-µ periodic surface structures,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 154-155 (1973). [CrossRef]
  21. R. G. Walker, ???Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguides,??? Electron. Lett. 21, 581-583 (1985). [CrossRef]
  22. L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu, and S. S. Lau, ???Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536-538 (1994). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Buus, ???Analytical approximation for the reflectivity of DH lasers,??? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2256-2267 (1981). [CrossRef]
  24. A. C. van Popta, R. G. DeCorby, C. J. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. N. McMullin, and S. O. Kasap, ???Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633 nm illumination,??? Opt. Express 10, 639-644 (2002), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-15-639">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-15-639</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. G. Robinson, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, S. O. Kasap, and D. Tonchev, ???Strong Bragg gratings photoinduced by 633-nm illumination in evaporated As2Se3 thin films,??? Opt. Lett. 28, 459-461 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, ???Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,??? Advances in Physics 44, 475-588, (1995). [CrossRef]
  27. C. V. Poulsen, J. Hubner, T. Rasmussen, L. U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, ???Characterization of dispersion properties in planar waveguides using UV-induced Bragg gratings,??? Electron. Lett. 31, 1437-1438 (1995). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited