## Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display

Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 4, pp. 557-563 (2004)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.000557

Acrobat PDF (1162 KB)

### Abstract

We present a projection method in integral imaging for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display. In the proposed method, the entire set of high resolution elemental images with a large number of pixels is spatially divided into smaller image subsets. Then they are projected separately onto the corresponding lenslet array positions either simultaneously or in a sequence faster than the flicker fusion frequency of human eyes or both (i.e., spatiotemporal multiplexing). Thus display panels that do not have enough pixel numbers can be used to display the entire elemental images with a large number of pixels. Preliminary experiments were performed using a galvanometer-based optical scanner.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

3. T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional display,” Proc. IEEE **68**, 548–564 (1980). [CrossRef]

10. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. **36**, 1598–1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, “Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **15**, 2059–2065 (1998). [CrossRef]

12. J.-S. Jang, F. Jin, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus using real and virtual image fields,” Opt. Lett. **28**, 1421–1423 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging with nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. **27**, 324–326 (2002). [CrossRef]

14. S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. **42**, 4186–4195 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. L. Erdmann and K. J. Gabriel, “High-resolution digital integral photography by use of a scanning microlens array,” Appl. Opt. **40**, 5592-(2001). [CrossRef]

17. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Real-time all-optical three-dimensional integral imaging projector,” Appl. Opt. **41**, 4866–4869 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Integral imaging: Review

10. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. **36**, 1598–1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Formation of orthoscopic three-dimensional real images in direct pickup one-step integral imaging,” Opt. Eng. **42**, 1869–1870 (2003). [CrossRef]

12. J.-S. Jang, F. Jin, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus using real and virtual image fields,” Opt. Lett. **28**, 1421–1423 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. **26**, 157–159 (2001). [CrossRef]

21. Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, “Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. **41**, 5488–5496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ψ*is limited and determined approximately by 2×arctan[0.5/(

*f*/#)], where

*f*/# is the

*f*number of a lenslet [10

10. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. **36**, 1598–1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. J.-S. Jang, F. Jin, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus using real and virtual image fields,” Opt. Lett. **28**, 1421–1423 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. **42**, 4186–4195 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*f*/# is as low as 1,

*ψ*is limited by ~50 degrees. This means that the viewing region where the entire 3-D image can be seen is restricted, if a wide 3-D image is displayed. There were a few studies to enhance the viewing angle by introducing some optical system modifications, which may not be practical in a large-scale II system. To increase the viewing angle, the use of an II projector with a micro-concave-mirror array instead of the lenslet array may be useful [22

22. Y. Jeong, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Reflection-type integral imaging scheme for displaying three-dimensional images,” Opt. Lett. **27**, 704–706 (2002). [CrossRef]

*f*number.

## 3. Integral imaging projector using spatiotemporal multiplexing of elemental images

### 3.1 Need of multiplexing

*λ*, where

*λ*is the illumination wavelength [13

13. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging with nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. **27**, 324–326 (2002). [CrossRef]

*N*×

_{x}*N*) in lateral dimensions multiplied by the number of longitudinal pixels (

_{y}*N*).

_{z}*N*×

_{x}*N*×

_{y}*N*≈10

_{z}^{3}×10

^{3}×10

^{3}. Then, it is obvious that we need a display panel with more than

*m*×10

^{9}pixels, where

*m*is a ray multiplicity factor to form a voxel. This is because each voxel in II is determined by a crossing point of multiple rays, each of which is coming from a pixel of distinct elemental images in the display panel through the corresponding lenslet. The ray multiplicity factor

*m*for a given voxel is determined by both the longitudinal distance between the voxel and the lenslet array and

*f*/# of the lenslet. However, it seems that 2-D display panels with more than 10

^{9}pixels will not be available in the near future.

23. G. Bresnahan, R. Gasser, A. Abaravichyus, E. Brisson, and M. Walterman, “Building a large-scale high-resolution tiled rear-projected passive stereo display system based on commodity components,” in *Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X*, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE5006, 19–30 (2003).

### 3.2 Projection type of II with spatiotemporal multiplexing

*θ*is close to zero. To alleviate the need of a large number of display panels or 2-D projectors, we also adopt temporal multiplexing in displaying elemental images. In temporal multiplexing, each display panel (or projector) projects multiple subsets of elemental images onto the corresponding area of the screen (or the lenslet array) sequentially in time domain. The projection speed should be faster than the flicker fusion frequency of human eyes. Figure 3 shows a setup for spatiotemporal multiplexing, in which only one projector is used with a 2-D galvanometer optical scanner for simplicity. As

*x*and

*y*mirrors of the galvanometer scanner change their angles, the panel in the 2-D projector displays a proper part of elemental images accordingly. The whole system should be controlled by, for example, a personal computer (PC). The lens contacted with the diffusion plate can be introduced to equalize optical path lengths from the galvanometer scanner to every projection position in the lenslet array. The use of this lens also makes beams of elemental image subsets incident normally on the lenslet array. The focal length of the lens to equalize the optical path lengths should be equal to the distance between the galvanometer scanner and the lenslet array.

### 3.3 Experiments

*x*and

*y*mirrors. So, every subset of elemental images with 768×1024 pixels should be rotated by -90 degrees before the display for compensation. This compensated image has 1024×768 pixels, which fits in the LCD display panel.

*θ*is negligible.

^{-6}degrees). The projected elemental image subsets did not show any edge blurring and intensity variation that we can notice. Time required to complete one cycle of the projection for six elemental image subsets is approximately 1 second in our current system. This low speed is caused mainly by the display speed of the video card in the PC we used. So the 3-D image was detected with a CCD camera and averaged in another PC to simulate the afterimage effect in the human eye. The results for two different camera positions are shown in Fig. 7. Although indirect camera capture was used, our approach was successfully demonstrated.

## 4. Discussion and conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | S. A. Benton, ed., |

2. | D. H. McMahon and H. J. Caulfield, “A technique for producing wide-angle holographic displays,” Appl. Opt. |

3. | T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional display,” Proc. IEEE |

4. | I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. |

5. | P. Ambs, L. Bigue, R. Binet, J. Colineau, J.-C. Lehureau, and J.-P. Huignard, “Image reconstruction using electrooptic holography,” Proceedings of The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2003, vol. 1 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2003) pp. 172–173. |

6. | G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” Comptes-Rendus Academie des Sciences |

7. | H. E. Ives, “Optical properties of a Lippmann lenticulated sheet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. |

8. | C. B. Burckhardt, “Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. |

9. | N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays,” Opt. Eng. |

10. | F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. |

11. | H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, “Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

12. | J.-S. Jang, F. Jin, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus using real and virtual image fields,” Opt. Lett. |

13. | J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging with nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. |

14. | S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. |

15. | L. Erdmann and K. J. Gabriel, “High-resolution digital integral photography by use of a scanning microlens array,” Appl. Opt. |

16. | B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., |

17. | J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Real-time all-optical three-dimensional integral imaging projector,” Appl. Opt. |

18. | J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Formation of orthoscopic three-dimensional real images in direct pickup one-step integral imaging,” Opt. Eng. |

19. | S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system based on computergenerated integral photography,” in |

20. | H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. |

21. | Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, “Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. |

22. | Y. Jeong, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Reflection-type integral imaging scheme for displaying three-dimensional images,” Opt. Lett. |

23. | G. Bresnahan, R. Gasser, A. Abaravichyus, E. Brisson, and M. Walterman, “Building a large-scale high-resolution tiled rear-projected passive stereo display system based on commodity components,” in |

**OCIS Codes**

(100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing

(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition

**ToC Category:**

Research Papers

**History**

Original Manuscript: January 12, 2004

Revised Manuscript: February 2, 2004

Published: February 23, 2004

**Citation**

Ju-Seog Jang, Yong-Seok Oh, and Bahram Javidi, "Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display," Opt. Express **12**, 557-563 (2004)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-4-557

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### References

- S. A. Benton, ed., Selected Papers on Three-Dimensional Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 2001).
- D. H. McMahon and H. J. Caulfield, �??A technique for producing wide-angle holographic displays,�?? Appl. Opt. 9, 91-96, (1970). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. Okoshi, �??Three-dimensional display,�?? Proc. IEEE 68, 548-564 (1980). [CrossRef]
- I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, �??Phase-shifting digital holography,�?? Opt. Lett. 22, 1268-1270 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Ambs, L. Bigue, R. Binet, J. Colineau, J.-C. Lehureau, and J.-P. Huignard, �??Image reconstruction using electrooptic holography,�?? Proceedings of The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2003, vol. 1 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2003) pp. 172-173.
- G. Lippmann, �??La photographie integrale,�?? Comptes-Rendus Academie des Sciences 146, 446-451 (1908).
- H. E. Ives, �??Optical properties of a Lippmann lenticulated sheet,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 171-176 (1931). [CrossRef]
- C. B. Burckhardt, �??Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 71-76 (1968). [CrossRef]
- N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, �??Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays,�?? Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994). [CrossRef]
- F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, �??Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,�?? Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, �??Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998). [CrossRef]
- J.-S. Jang, F. Jin, and B. Javidi, �??Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus using real and virtual image fields,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 1421-1423 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, �??Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging with nonstationary micro-optics,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002). [CrossRef]
- S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, �??Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices,�?? Appl. Opt. 42, 4186-4195 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- L. Erdmann and K. J. Gabriel, �??High-resolution digital integral photography by use of a scanning microlens array,�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 5592- (2001). [CrossRef]
- B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, Berlin, 2002).
- J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, �??Real-time all-optical three-dimensional integral imaging projector,�?? Appl. Opt. 41, 4866-4869 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, �??Formation of orthoscopic three-dimensional real images in direct pickup one-step integral imaging,�?? Opt. Eng. 42, 1869-1870 (2003). [CrossRef]
- S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, �??Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography,�?? in Stereoscopic Display and Virtual Reality Systems VIII, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4296, 187-195 (2001).
- H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, �??Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 157-159 (2001). [CrossRef]
- Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, �??Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging,�?? Appl. Opt. 41, 5488-5496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Jeong, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, �??Reflection-type integral imaging scheme for displaying three-dimensional images,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 704-706 (2002). [CrossRef]
- G. Bresnahan, R. Gasser, A. Abaravichyus, E. Brisson, and M. Walterman, �??Building a large-scale high-resolution tiled rear-projected passive stereo display system based on commodity components,�?? in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 19-30 (2003).

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