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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 16 — Aug. 8, 2005
  • pp: 5976–5982
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C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 16, pp. 5976-5982 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.005976


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Abstract

An optical waveguide amplifier fabricated on erbium-ytterbium-doped phosphate glass by direct femtosecond laser writing is demonstrated. The waveguides are manufactured using 1040-nm radiation from a diode-pumped cavity-dumped Yb:KYW oscillator, operating at a 885 kHz repetition rate, with a 350 fs pulse duration. Peak internal gain of 9.2 dB is obtained at 1535 nm, with a minimum internal gain of 5.2 dB at 1565 nm. Relatively low insertion losses of 1.9 dB enable for the first time an appreciable net gain in the full C-band of optical communications.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In the last few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to the research activity on erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs), because of the great potential impact of these devices on new system architectures in metropolitan and local-access optical networks [1

1. D.R. Zimmermann and L.H. Spiekman, “Amplifiers for the masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA amplets for metro and access applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 63–70 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Several fabrication processes, such as silica-on-silicon, ion diffusion and sol-gel, are nowadays available for high quality mass production, but novel approaches, recently adopted, have given proof of good reliability as well as new capabilities.

Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides and photonic devices is a very promising technique [2–7

2. K.M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], allowing for totally new potentialities, like simple fabrication of 3-D structures, fast prototyping and flexible piece-by-piece fabrication. Up to now, most studies have concerned the understanding of the writing process in various dielectric materials and using different femtosecond laser sources; only recently passive devices with performance close to telecom standards have been presented [8–10

8. S.M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P.R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A.Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708–4716 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4708 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Femtosecond laser waveguide writing has also been applied to active glasses, and internal gain [11

11. Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000). [CrossRef]

,12

12. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559–1567 (2003). [CrossRef]

], net gain [13

13. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1900–1902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and laser action [14

14. S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2626–2628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been reported.

In this paper we demonstrate a femtosecond laser written EDWA providing net gain in the whole C-band, with a peak internal gain of 9.2 dB at 1535 nm and minimum internal gain of 5.2 dB at 1565 nm. The amplifier has been characterized in terms of insertion losses, gain spectrum, saturation power and noise figure at different wavelengths. Our results approach those attainable with standard techniques and represent an important step towards the industrial application of the femtosecond writing technique for low-cost, mass production of photonic devices.

2. Experimental setup

2.1 Waveguide writing setup

The femtosecond laser used in the experiments is a diode-pumped, cavity-dumped Yb:KYW oscillator at 1040 nm [15

15. A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. J. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped femtosecond laser oscillator with cavity dumping,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1288–1290 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. A. Killi, A. Steinmann, J. Dorring, U. Morgner, M.J. Lederer, D. Kopf, and C. Fallnich, “High-peak-power pulses from a cavity-dumped Yb:KY(WO4)2 oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1811–1813 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The laser cavity is a z-fold configuration stretched by curved mirrors, resulting in a 22-MHz repetition rate. A semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror, together with chirped mirrors, provides passive mode locking in the soliton regime. The cavity includes an electro-optic cavity dumper with high speed driving electronics, allowing the extraction of 350-fs pulses with energy up to 1 μJ at frequencies exceeding 1 MHz. This laser offers two important advantages: (i) compactness and reliability thanks to diode pumping; (ii) high output energy without amplification stages.

The active material used for fabricating the amplifier is a phosphate glass base (Kigre Inc.) which has a suitable composition for femtosecond waveguide inscription [12–14

12. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559–1567 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Dopant concentrations (2% wt of Er2O3 and 4% wt of Yb2O3) have been optimized to obtain high gain per unit length in order to fabricate compact devices.

To reach intensities high enough to cause material modification and to obtain waveguides with good matching to optical fibers [13

13. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1900–1902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], a very high numerical aperture objective (100x oil-immersion Zeiss Plan-Apochromat, 1.4 NA) is used which focuses the femtosecond pulses 170 μm inside the glass. A transverse writing configuration, in which the sample is translated by motorized stages (M.511.DD, Physik Instrumente) in a direction perpendicular to the laser beam, is adopted. Both end-facets of the waveguides are polished after laser inscription.

2.2 Amplifier characterization setup

In Fig. 1 a schematic of the EDWA configuration and characterization set-up is presented. The 37-mm-long active waveguide is butt-coupled on both sides to standard telecom single-mode-fibers (SMFs), using an index-matching fluid able to support high power density at 980 nm. A couple of 975-nm wavelength InGaAs laser diodes in a bi-propagating pumping scheme supply up to 460 mW (260 mW + 200 mW) incident pump power through 980/1550 nm wavelength-division-multiplexers (WDMs). Signal radiation at 1.5 μm is provided by a tunable laser-diode or a broad band source, and the signal level is finely adjusted by means of a variable attenuator.

Fig.1. Optical waveguide amplifier configuration and characterization set-up.

3. Experimental results and discussion

3.1 Waveguide characterization

3.2 Small signal gain measurements

Using a broad band source, properly attenuated (about -3 dBm over 100 nm bandwidth) the small signal internal gain of the amplifier as a function of wavelength was measured with an accuracy of about 0.5 dB. The results are shown in Fig. 2: the maximum internal gain is 9.2 dB at 1535 nm, corresponding to 2.5 dB/cm. Taking into account the total insertion losses, indicated by a dashed line in Fig. 2, a net gain is demonstrated from 1530 to 1580 nm, spanning the whole C-band of optical communications with 3.6 dB net gain at 1565 nm, and 7.3 dB peak value at 1535 nm. We note that there is still potential for a further improvement of net gain by both reducing the insertion losses and optimizing the doping concentrations of Er and Yb. The wavelength dependence of the measured internal gain is in fairly good agreement with that obtained in ion-exchanged waveguides produced in the same host glass [17

17. C.M. McIntosh, J.-M.P. Delavaux, G.C. Wilson, C. Hullin, B. Neyret, J. Philipsen, C. Cassagnettes, and D. Barbier, “High output power erbium doped waveguide amplifier for QAM distribution,” in Proceedings of OSA Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2001), pp. WDD5-1 – WDD5-3vol.3.

]. This result demonstrates that the femtosecond laser inscription of waveguides, although locally altering the material structure, does not influence significantly the gain spectrum.

Fig. 2. Measured internal gain spectrum obtained with an incident pump power of 460 mW in bi-directional pumping configuration. The dashed line indicates the total insertion losses.

The small-signal internal gain versus incident pump power is reported in Fig. 3 for two different signal wavelengths, namely 1535 nm and 1550 nm. The small signal (about -20 dBm) was provided by an attenuated tunable laser. In the first part of the curves, between zero and 200 mW of incident pump power, the pump radiation is provided by the counter-propagating pump only. In the second part of the curves the co-propagating pump is operating as well, providing up to 460 mW total power. The pump power at the zero internal gain point is 220 mW and 150 mW at 1535 nm and 1550 nm, respectively. The discontinuity in the curves is mainly due to the fact that each pump inverts about half of the amplifier; therefore turning on the second pump a steep gain increase is observed [18

18. M.R. Lange, E. Bryant, M.J. Myers, J.D. Myers, R. Wu, and C.R. Hardy, “High Gain Short Length Phosphate Glass Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Material,” in Proceedings of OSA Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2001), pp. WDD22-1 – WDD22-3vol.3.

].

Fig. 3. Internal gain of the 37-mm long Er-Yb waveguide amplifier as a function of the incident pump power for two different signal wavelengths: 1535 nm (triangles) and 1550 nm (circles).

3.3 Gain saturation measurements

To investigate the amplifier performance in the saturated regime, we measured the amplifier gain at different signal power levels. The internal gain as a function of the signal output power for three different wavelengths is shown in Fig. 4. The saturation output powers (corresponding to a 3 dB gain reduction) are 8.4 dBm, 12.9 dBm and 19.0 dBm at 1535 nm, 1550 nm and 1565 nm, respectively. As expected, the observed saturation powers are higher for longer wavelengths, basically because of the lower Er emission cross section. More precisely, the signal saturation power of a three-level system is proportional to (1/σE)(1+Pp/Pp0), where σE is the erbium emission cross section, Pp and Pp0 are the pump power and the pump power at zero internal gain, respectively [19

19. A. Lidgard, J.R. Simpson, and P.C. Becker, “Output saturation characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers pumped at 975 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2607–2609 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. In Kigre QX phosphate glass the emission cross section at 1550 nm is roughly 50% less than at 1535 nm.

Fig. 4. Internal gain saturation curves measured at three different wavelengths: 1535 nm (triangles), 1550 nm (circles) 1565 nm (squares). Pump power is 460 mW.

3.4 Noise figure

Figure 5 shows the noise figure of the optical amplifier at different wavelengths. Experimental values (triangles) have been obtained from a standard procedure, based on the measurement of the amplified spontaneous emission noise floor in a 0.5 nm bandwidth around the signal peak at different wavelengths. It is assumed that the signal to noise ratio of the input radiation (from the tunable laser source) is limited by quantum noise [20

20. P.C. Becker, N.A. Olsson, and J.R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology, (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

]. These results are compared with a theoretical curve (dashed line) computed from the approximate relation [20

20. P.C. Becker, N.A. Olsson, and J.R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology, (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

]:

NF=1G+2G1GN2N2(σAσE)N1

where G is the measured net gain of the amplifier, σA and σE are the erbium absorption and emission cross sections measured for Kigre QX glass, N2 and N1 are the upper and lower energy levels populations of the 1.5 μm erbium transition, corresponding to a population difference of 35%. This value, which confirms that the amplifier was well inverted (N2~65%, close to erbium population saturation), was estimated [20

20. P.C. Becker, N.A. Olsson, and J.R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology, (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

] from the ratio between the absorption and internal gain values at 1535 nm, equal to 17.6 dB and 9.2 dB, respectively, and taking into account the ratio between σA and σE at the same wavelength, which is about 0.76 in our glass. We can observe the fall of the noise figure below the 3 dB level for wavelengths longer than 1560 nm, where the gain is noticeably decreased, as expected in short, heavily-doped erbium amplifiers, which are well inverted low gain devices [20

20. P.C. Becker, N.A. Olsson, and J.R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology, (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

].

Fig. 5. Waveguide amplifier noise figure at different wavelengths (triangles). Theoretical curve (dashed line) is calculated from the estimated value of the effective inversion level (35%).

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we demonstrated an EDWA fabricated by the femtosecond laser writing technique, operating in the whole C-band of optical communications. The amplifier provided up to 9.2 dB peak internal gain at 1535 nm and 5.2 dB minimum internal gain in the whole C-band. Saturation output powers greater than 8 dBm and full amplifier characterization were also reported. Even if these figures still need to be improved to compete with those of commercially available devices, it is noteworthy that photonic devices fabricated by femtosecond lasers have now reached a performance level sufficient to be considered for telecom applications and directly compared to devices fabricated with conventional techniques.

Acknowledgments

This research was partially funded by MIUR within the FIRB project “Miniaturized systems for electronics and photonics”. A. Killi and U. Morgner acknowledge support from the European Community-Access to Research Infrastructure action of the improving Human Potential Programme, Contract No. RII3-CT-2003-506350 (Center For Ultrafast Science and Biomedical Optics, CUSBO).

References and links

1.

D.R. Zimmermann and L.H. Spiekman, “Amplifiers for the masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA amplets for metro and access applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 63–70 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

K.M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

A.M. Streltsov and N.F. Borrelli, “Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 42–43 (2001). [CrossRef]

4.

C.B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J.F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 93–95 (2001). [CrossRef]

5.

J.W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D.M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1726–1728 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Minoshima, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1516–1518 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

S.M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P.R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A.Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708–4716 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4708 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 246–253 (2003). [CrossRef]

10.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 μ m wavelength by femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 41, 315–317 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559–1567 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1900–1902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2626–2628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. J. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped femtosecond laser oscillator with cavity dumping,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1288–1290 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. Killi, A. Steinmann, J. Dorring, U. Morgner, M.J. Lederer, D. Kopf, and C. Fallnich, “High-peak-power pulses from a cavity-dumped Yb:KY(WO4)2 oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1811–1813 (2005). [CrossRef]

17.

C.M. McIntosh, J.-M.P. Delavaux, G.C. Wilson, C. Hullin, B. Neyret, J. Philipsen, C. Cassagnettes, and D. Barbier, “High output power erbium doped waveguide amplifier for QAM distribution,” in Proceedings of OSA Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2001), pp. WDD5-1 – WDD5-3vol.3.

18.

M.R. Lange, E. Bryant, M.J. Myers, J.D. Myers, R. Wu, and C.R. Hardy, “High Gain Short Length Phosphate Glass Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Material,” in Proceedings of OSA Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2001), pp. WDD22-1 – WDD22-3vol.3.

19.

A. Lidgard, J.R. Simpson, and P.C. Becker, “Output saturation characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers pumped at 975 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2607–2609 (1990). [CrossRef]

20.

P.C. Becker, N.A. Olsson, and J.R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology, (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: June 20, 2005
Revised Manuscript: July 21, 2005
Published: August 8, 2005

Citation
G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13, 5976-5982 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-5976


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References

  1. D.R. Zimmermann, and L.H. Spiekman, �??Amplifiers for the masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA amplets for metro and access applications,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 63-70 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, �??Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A.M. Streltsov and N.F. Borrelli, �??Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. C.B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J.F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, �??Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. J.W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D.M. Krol, �??Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Minoshima, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, �??Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, A. Tuennermann, �??Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,�?? Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. S.M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P.R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, A.Y. Arai, �??Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser written waveguides with variable repetition rate,�?? Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4708">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4708</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, �??Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 246-253 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, �??Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 µm wavelength by femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator,�?? Electron. Lett. 41, 315-317 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, �??Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, �??Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, �??Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, �??Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. J. Lederer, and D. Kopf, �??Diode-pumped femtosecond laser oscillator with cavity dumping,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 1288-1290 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Killi, A. Steinmann, J. Dorring, U. Morgner, M.J. Lederer, D. Kopf, and C. Fallnich, �??High-peak-power pulses from a cavity-dumped Yb:KY(WO4)2 oscillator,�?? Opt. Lett. 30, 1811-1813 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. C.M. McIntosh, J.-M.P. Delavaux, G.C. Wilson, C. Hullin, B. Neyret, J. Philipsen, C. Cassagnettes, D. Barbier, �??High output power erbium doped waveguide amplifier for QAM distribution,�?? in Proceedings of OSA Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2001), pp. WDD5-1 �?? WDD5-3 vol.3.
  18. M.R. Lange, E. Bryant, M.J. Myers, J.D. Myers, R. Wu, and C.R. Hardy, �??High Gain Short Length Phosphate Glass Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Material,�?? in Proceedings of OSA Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2001), pp. WDD22-1 �?? WDD22-3 vol.3.
  19. A. Lidgard, J.R. Simpson, and P.C. Becker, �??Output saturation characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers pumped at 975 nm,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2607-2609 (1990). [CrossRef]
  20. P.C. Becker, N.A. Olsson, and J.R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology, (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

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