OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 21 — Oct. 17, 2005
  • pp: 8591–8595
« Show journal navigation

High-power intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.34 μm in BiB3O6 crystal

Chenlin Du, Shuangchen Ruan, Yongqin Yu, and Zhengping Wang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 21, pp. 8591-8595 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.008591


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (103 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The phase-matching curve and effective nonlinear optical coefficient distribution for the second-harmonic generation of 1342 nm in BiB3O6 crystal were calculated. High-power intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.34 μm in BiB3O6 crystals, at a type-I phase-matching direction of (θ, ϕ)=(9.07°, 0°), was performed with a LD-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser. The maximum continuous-wave (CW) and quasi-CW output powers at 671 nm were obtained to be 1.22 W and 4.38 W, with the corresponding optical conversion efficiency of 4.9% and 9.5%, respectively.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals like KH2PO4 (KDP), KTP (KTiOPO4), LBO (LiB3O5), and BBO (β-BaB2O4) have been extensively applied in the field of NLO frequency conversion. But all of these crystals have some drawbacks such as their maximum available size, hygroscopy, and low effective nonlinear coefficient. None of these crystals can be considered as ideal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new and better NLO materials that can mitigate these limitations.

Borate crystals such as BBO and LBO possess the attractive versatility in nonlinear optics due to the various structural possibilities for boron atom [1

1 . D. Xue , K. Betzler , H. Hesse , and D. Lammers , “ Nonlinear optical properties of borate crystals ,” Solid State Commun. 114 , 21 – 25 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

]. They have been attracting much attention due to their outstanding linear and nonlinear optical properties. New borate crystals for NLO applications are still of great interest. As a new developed NLO crystal, BiB3O6 (BIBO) is a highly nonsymmetric crystal of point group 2 and space group C2. The effective NLO coefficient d eff of BIBO is found to be comparable to that of KTP and be larger than those of KDP, LBO or BBO [2

2 . H. Hellwig , J. Liebertz , and L. Bohaty , “ Exceptional large nonlinear optical coefficients in the monoclinc bismuth borate BiB 3 O 6 (BIBO) ,” Solid State Commun. 109 , 249 – 251 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

,3

3 . H. Hellwig , J. Liebertz , and L. Bohaty , “ Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB 3 O 6 ,” J. Appl. Phys. 88 , 240 – 244 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, BIBO is non-hygroscopy, and has high optical damage threshold which is comparable to high quality LBO [3

3 . H. Hellwig , J. Liebertz , and L. Bohaty , “ Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB 3 O 6 ,” J. Appl. Phys. 88 , 240 – 244 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

]. So in the past few years, a number of research works on BIBO were performed. These include second-harmonic generation (SHG) [4–8

4 . C. Du , Z. Wang , J. Liu , X. Xu , B. Teng , K. Fu , J. Wang , Y. Liu , and Z. Shao , “ Efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation at 1.06 μm in BiB 3 O 6 (BIBO) crystal ,” Appl. Phys. B 73 , 215 – 217 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

], optical parametric oscillators (OPO) [9

9 . M. Peltz , J. Bartschke , A. Borsutzky , R. Wallenstein , S. Vernay , T. Salva , and D. Rytz , “ Bismuth triborate (BiB3O6) optical parametric oscillators ,” Appl. Phys. B 80 , 55 – 60 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

], noncollinear SHG [10

10 . Zhengping Wang , Guibao Xu , Junhai Liu , Dawei Hu , Xinguang Xu , Jiyang Wang , and Zongshu Shao , “ Noncollinear second harmonic generation in BiB 3 O 6 ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21 , 1348 – 1353 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

], and UV-induced two-photon absorption (TPA) [11

11 . A. Majchrowski , J. Kisielewski , E. Michalski , K. Ozga , I.V. Kityk , and T. Lukasiewicz , “ UV-induced two-photon absorption in BiB 3 O 6 single crystals ,” Opt. Commun . 250 , 334 – 343 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

].

High-power red lasers can be widely applied in many fields such as medical treatment and laser color display, and can also be applied to optically excited femtosecond Kerr-lens mode-locked lasers based on Cr3+:LiSrAlF6 (Cr:LiSAF), Cr3+:LiSrGaF6 (Cr:LiSGAF), and Cr3+LiSrCaAlF6 (Cr:LiSCAF) crystals. The SHG of infrared radiation with nonlinear optical crystals is an effective method to generate high-power and high-beam-quality red light.

Here we report the phase-matching (PM) curve and d eff distribution for the SHG of 1342 nm in BiB3O6 crystal. High-power intracavity SHG of 1.34 μm in BiB3O6 crystals, at a type-I phase-matching direction of (θ, ϕ)=(9.07°, 0°), was performed with a LD-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser. The maximum continuous-wave (CW) and quasi-CW output powers at 671 nm were obtained to be 1.22 W and 4.38 W, with the corresponding optical conversion efficiency of 4.9% and 9.5%, respectively.

2. Phase-matching curve and |deff| distribution

With the Sellmeier equation of BIBO presented by Hellwig et al. [3

3 . H. Hellwig , J. Liebertz , and L. Bohaty , “ Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB 3 O 6 ,” J. Appl. Phys. 88 , 240 – 244 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

], we calculated the type-I and type-II SHG phase-matching curves at the fundamental wavelength of 1342 nm, as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Type-I and type-II SHG phase-matching curves at the fundamental wavelength of 1342 nm for the BIBO crystal

According to the dijk values presented by Hellwig et al. [2

2 . H. Hellwig , J. Liebertz , and L. Bohaty , “ Exceptional large nonlinear optical coefficients in the monoclinc bismuth borate BiB 3 O 6 (BIBO) ,” Solid State Commun. 109 , 249 – 251 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

], the absolute values distribution of d eff corresponding to the PM directions in Fig.1 was also calculated, which is shown in Fig.2. From the figure, we can see the maximum values of |d eff| for type-I and type-II PM were calculated to be 3.1 pm/V and 2.83 pm/V, corresponding to the PM directions of (θ, ϕ)=(167.4°, 152.1°) and (45.95°, 7°), respectively. The |d eff| value for type-I PM direction of (9.07°, 0°) is 2.89 pm/V, which is a little lower than that of (167.4°, 152.1°). So for the simplicity of crystal processing, we chose the type-I PM direction of (9.07°, 0°) as the cutting direction of BIBO crystals used in our experiments.

Fig. 2. The |d eff| distribution corresponding to (a) type-I and (b) type-II PM directions for the SHG of 1342 nm

3. SHG experimental setup

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the experimental SHG laser setup

For efficient second-harmonic generation, it is necessary to provide a high power density of fundamental waves in the nonlinear optical crystal. To take advantage of the intense fundamental wave power density, the SHG crystal was placed close to the end mirror M2 where a beam waist existed. In our experiment, the length of the M2M3 arm was experimentally optimized to be about 70 mm by translating the end mirror M2, while the total cavity length was about 305 mm.

3. Results and discussion

First, the CW performance of intracavity SHG was investigated by removing the A-O Q-switch out of the resonator. The threshold pump power was measured to be about 625 mW. The CW 671 nm output power as a function of the incident pump power is shown in Fig.4. The maximum CW red output power of 1.22 W was obtained at the incident pump power of 25 W, with the corresponding optical conversion efficiency of 4.9 %.

Fig. 4. The average output power of 671 nm light versus incident pump power

The SHG conversion efficiency can be improved for Q-switched operation due to the higher peak power. So we performed the quasi-CW operation of intracavity SHG by inserting the A-O Q-switch. We investigated the red output powers for different repetition rates of 15, 30, 47, and 70 kHz. The red laser pulse signal was detected by using a fast photodiode detector (Newport 818-BB-20), and was observed and measured with a 300 MHz oscilloscope (Tektronix TDS 3032B). The average output power at 671 nm as a function of incident pump power for various repetition frequencies is also shown in Fig.4. From Fig.4, we can see that, the maximum average output power of quasi-CW red light was obtained to be 4.38 W at the repetition rate of 70 kHz and the incident pump power of 46 W, with the corresponding optical conversion efficiency of 9.5%. The temporal pulse profile and stable pulse train of the output red light are shown in Fig.5. The pulse width was measured to be about 290 ns (Full Width Half Maximum, FWHM). In the case of the repetition rates of 15, 30, and 47 kHz, the average output powers saturated at the lower pump powers. And the maximum output powers were only obtained to be 1.35, 2.17, and 2.98 W at the repetition rates of 15, 30, and 47 kHz, respectively.

Fig. 5. The temporal (a) pulse profile and (b) stable pulse train of red light at the incident pump power of 46 W and the repetition rate of 70 kHz.

In the experiments, the far-field intensity distribution of red laser was very elliptic. It was due to the large difference between the two angular acceptances along the orthogonal directions in the plane perpendicular to the orientation of BIBO crystal. The two angular acceptances, ∆θ and ∆ϕ were calculated to be 0.91 and 74.77 mrad for type-I SHG of 1342 nm in the 8-mm-long (θ, ϕ)=(9.07°, 0°)-cut BIBO crystal, respectively.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province of China (2004B16001210), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province of China (No. 04300858), and the Science and Technology Project of Shenzhen (No. 200429).

References and links

1 .

D. Xue , K. Betzler , H. Hesse , and D. Lammers , “ Nonlinear optical properties of borate crystals ,” Solid State Commun. 114 , 21 – 25 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

2 .

H. Hellwig , J. Liebertz , and L. Bohaty , “ Exceptional large nonlinear optical coefficients in the monoclinc bismuth borate BiB 3 O 6 (BIBO) ,” Solid State Commun. 109 , 249 – 251 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

3 .

H. Hellwig , J. Liebertz , and L. Bohaty , “ Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB 3 O 6 ,” J. Appl. Phys. 88 , 240 – 244 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

4 .

C. Du , Z. Wang , J. Liu , X. Xu , B. Teng , K. Fu , J. Wang , Y. Liu , and Z. Shao , “ Efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation at 1.06 μm in BiB 3 O 6 (BIBO) crystal ,” Appl. Phys. B 73 , 215 – 217 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

5 .

Chenlin Du , Bing Teng , Zhengping Wang , Junhai Liu , Xinguang Xu , Guibao Xu , Kun Fu , Jiyang Wang , Yaogang Liu , and Zongshu Shao , “ Actively Q-switched intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.06 μm in BiB 3 O 6 crystal ,” Opt. Laser Technol. 34 , 343 – 346 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

6 .

C. Czeranowsky , E. Heumann , and G. Huber , “ All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency-doubled Nd:YAG-BIBO laser with 2.8-W output power at 473 nm ,” Opt. Lett. 28 , 432 – 434 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7 .

T. Harimoto , Y. Takeuchi , and M. Fujita , “ Spectral properties of second-harmonic generation at 800 nm in a BiB 3 O 6 crystal ,” Opt. Express 12 , 811 – 816 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-811 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8 .

M. Ghotbi and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh , “ Optical second harmonic generation properties of BiB3O6 ,” Opt. Express 12 , 6002 – 6019 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6002 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9 .

M. Peltz , J. Bartschke , A. Borsutzky , R. Wallenstein , S. Vernay , T. Salva , and D. Rytz , “ Bismuth triborate (BiB3O6) optical parametric oscillators ,” Appl. Phys. B 80 , 55 – 60 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

10 .

Zhengping Wang , Guibao Xu , Junhai Liu , Dawei Hu , Xinguang Xu , Jiyang Wang , and Zongshu Shao , “ Noncollinear second harmonic generation in BiB 3 O 6 ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21 , 1348 – 1353 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

11 .

A. Majchrowski , J. Kisielewski , E. Michalski , K. Ozga , I.V. Kityk , and T. Lukasiewicz , “ UV-induced two-photon absorption in BiB 3 O 6 single crystals ,” Opt. Commun . 250 , 334 – 343 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

12 .

J. Liu , Z. Shao , H. Zhang , and X. Meng et al, “ Diode-laser-array end-pumped intracavity frequency-doubled 3.6 W CW Nd:GdVO 4 /KTP green laser ,” Opt. Commun. 173 , 311 – 314 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

13 .

C. Du , Z. Wang , J. Liu , X. Xu , K. Fu , G. Xu , J. Wang , and Z. Shao , “ Investigation of intracavity third-harmonic generation at 1.06 μm in YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 crystals ,” Appl. Phys. B 74 , 125 – 127 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(140.7300) Lasers and laser optics : Visible lasers
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: July 11, 2005
Revised Manuscript: October 5, 2005
Published: October 17, 2005

Citation
Chenlin Du, Shuangchen Ruan, Yongqin Yu, and Zhengping Wang, "High-power intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.34 µm in BiB3O6 crystal," Opt. Express 13, 8591-8595 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8591


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. Xue, K. Betzler, H. Hesse, D. Lammers, �??Nonlinear optical properties of borate crystals,�?? Solid State Commun. 114, 21-25 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, L. Bohaty, �??Exceptional large nonlinear optical coefficients in the monoclinc bismuth borate BiB3O6 (BIBO),�?? Solid State Commun. 109, 249-251 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, L. Bohaty, �??Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth borate BiB3O6,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 88, 240-244 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Du, Z. Wang, J. Liu, X. Xu, B. Teng, K. Fu, J. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Shao, �??Efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation at 1.06 μm in BiB3O6 (BIBO) crystal,�?? Appl. Phys. B 73, 215�??217 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. Chenlin Du, Bing Teng, Zhengping Wang, Junhai Liu, Xinguang Xu, Guibao Xu, Kun Fu, Jiyang Wang, Yaogang Liu, Zongshu Shao, �??Actively Q-switched intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.06 μm in BiB3O6 crystal,�?? Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 343�??346 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. C. Czeranowsky, E. Heumann, G. Huber, �??All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency-doubled Nd:YAG-BIBO laser with 2.8-W output power at 473 nm,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 432-434 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Harimoto, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Fujita, "Spectral properties of second-harmonic generation at 800 nm in a BiB3O6 crystal," Opt. Express 12, 811-816 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-811">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-811</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Ghotbi and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, "Optical second harmonic generation properties of BiB3O6," Opt. Express 12, 6002-6019 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6002">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6002</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Peltz, J. Bartschke, A. Borsutzky, R. Wallenstein, S. Vernay, T. Salva, D. Rytz, �??Bismuth triborate (BiB3O6) optical parametric oscillators,�?? Appl. Phys. B 80, 55-60 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. Zhengping Wang, Guibao Xu, Junhai Liu, Dawei Hu, Xinguang Xu, Jiyang Wang, Zongshu Shao, �??Noncollinear second harmonic generation in BiB3O6,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1348-1353 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Majchrowski, J. Kisielewski, E. Michalski, K. Ozga, I.V. Kityk, T. Lukasiewicz, �??UV-induced two-photon absorption in BiB3O6 single crystals,�?? Opt. Commun. 250, 334-343 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Liu, Z. Shao, H. Zhang, X. Meng et al, �??Diode-laser-array end-pumped intracavity frequency-doubled 3.6 W CW Nd:GdVO4/KTP green laser,�?? Opt. Commun. 173, 311-314 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Du, Z. Wang, J. Liu, X. Xu, K. Fu, G. Xu, J. Wang, Z. Shao, �??Investigation of intracavity third-harmonic generation at 1.06 μm in YCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. B 74, 125�??127 (2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited