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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Micha
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 23 — Nov. 14, 2005
  • pp: 9422–9430
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Super-resolution and frequency-dependent efficiency of near-field optical disks with silver nanoparticles

Ming-Yaw Ng and Wei-Chih Liu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 23, pp. 9422-9430 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.009422


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Abstract

The super-resolution capability of the AgO x -type super-resolution near-field structure disk with silver nanoparticles was studied using finite-difference time-domain method at different incident light frequencies. The near fields exhibited strongly local field enhancement around silver nanoparticles in the AgO x layer due to localized surface plasmon. The subwavelength recording marks smaller than λ/10 were distinguishable since the metallic nanoparticles with high localized fields transferred evanescent waves to detectable signals in the far field. The far-field signals from random silver nanoparticles displayed similar behaviors as those from single nanoparticle and red-shifts of peak frequencies from particle-particle interaction.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Diffraction limit poses a fundamental restriction on the resolution of traditional optical microscopy, as well as the minimum size of photonic devices. To reduce the size of photonic devices to subwavelength scale and to meet the challenge of nanophotonics[1

1 . M. Ohtsu , K. Kobayashi , T. Kawazoe , S. Sangu , and T. Yatsui , “ Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8 , 839 – 862 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

, 2

2 . P. N. Prasad , “ Nanophotonics ” ( Wiley, Hoboken, NJ , 2004 ).

], it is essential to overcome optical diffraction limit. Recently, metallic nanostructures (nanoparticles, nanoshell, nanogroove, nanohole, and etc.) become attractive to scientists and engineers, since the interaction between electromagnetic waves and metallic nanostructures exhibits fascinate phenomena, like highly localized field enhancement, extraordinarily light transmission[3

3 . T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays ,” Nature , 391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ). [CrossRef]

] and nonlinear optical response[4

4 . V. M. Shalaev , ed., “ Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media ” ( Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 2002 ).

], via the excitation of surface plasmon resonance[5

5 . Antoly V Zayats and Igor O Smolyaninov , “ Near-field photonic: surface plasmon polaritons and locallized surface plasmons ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5 , S16 – S50 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef]

]. The surface plasmon mode supported by metallic nanostrucutres is evanescent plasmon polariton and provides an approach to overcome the diffraction limit of light. Especially the surface plasmon modes of metallic nanoparticles[6

6 . C. Bohren and D. Huffman , “ Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles ” ( Wiley, New York , 1983 ).

] are being explored for various applications in chemical and biological sensors[7

7 . D. A. Schultz ,“ Plasmon resonant particles for biological detection ,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 14 , 13 – 22 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nanophotonic devices[1

1 . M. Ohtsu , K. Kobayashi , T. Kawazoe , S. Sangu , and T. Yatsui , “ Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8 , 839 – 862 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

], plasmonics[8

8 . S. A. Maier , M. L. Brongersma , P. G. Kik , S. Meltzer , A. A. G. Requicha , and H. A. Atwater , “ Plasmonics - A route to nanoscale optical devices ,” Adv. Mater. 13 , 1501 – 1505 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

], etc. By manipulating the localized surface plasmon resonance, local field enhancement, and near-field coupling of nanoparticles, it is promising to be able to focus, to transport, and to interact with light in nano-scale region.

One apparent area of nanophotonic application is high-density optical storage. To achieve high recording density beyond diffraction limit, near-field optical technology has been applied to various high-density optical storage systems. In the near-field optical data storage, the readout signals include not only the propagating diffraction light but also the nonpropagating (or evanescent) light by a fiber probe, a micro-lens, or nanoparticles. The far-field fluorescence microscopy could also achieve super-resolution beyond optical diffraction limit by stimulated emission since scanning with a smaller fluorescent spot signifies increased spatial resolution.[9

9 . S. Hell and J. Wichmann , “ Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy ,” Opt. Lett. 19 , 780 – 782 ( 1994 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10 . T. A. Klar , S. Jakobs , M. Dyba , A. Egner , and S. W. Hell , “ Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97 , 8206 – 8210 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] In contrast to near-field scanning optical microscopy, this method can produce three-dimensional images and have found applications in three-dimensional optical data storage. In addition to conventional scanning near-field microscopy technology [11

11 . E. Betzig , J. Trautman , and J. R. Wolfe , “ Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61 , 142 – 144 ( 1992 ). [CrossRef]

] and solid immersion lens[12

12 . B. D. Terris , H. J. Mamin , D. Rugar , W. R. Studenmund , and G. S. Kino , “ Near-field optical data storage using a solid immersion lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 , 388 – 390 ( 1994 ). [CrossRef]

], the super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS) which was proposed by Tominaga et al.[13

13 . J. Tominaga , T. Nakano , and N. Atoda , “ An approach for recording and readout beyond the diffraction limit with an Sb thin film ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 , 2078 – 2080 ( 1998 ). [CrossRef]

] has overcome the difficulty of near-field distance control and is able to realize high-density near-field optical data storage in a feasible way. Comparing with conventional optical disks, super-RENS disks usually add three-layer structure – a near-field active layer between two protective dielectric layers. The protective dielectric layers avoid abrasion and is responsible for the near-field distance control between the near-field active layer and the phase-change recording layer. The nanostructure in the near-field active layer is the main device to realize super-resolution for the super-RENS disks. There are several types of super-RENS disks. Sb-type super-RENS disks was the first one and then AgOx-type super-RENS disks appeared as a re-writable media for better performance[14

14 . H. Fuji , J. Tominaga , L. Men , and T. Nakano , “ A near-field recording and readout technology using a metallic probe in an optical disk ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 , 980 – 981 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

]. The PtOx-type super-RENS was proposed later[15

15 . T. Kikukawa , T. Nakano , T. Shima , and J. Tominaga , “ Rigid bubble pit formation and huge signal enhancement in super-resolution near-field structure disk with platinum-oxide layer ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 , 4697 – 4699 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

] for improving signal intensity and readout stability. Recently blue laser based super-RENS disks have been fabricated and measured[16

16 . L. Shi , T. C. Chong , P. K. Tan , J. Li , X. Hu , X. Miao , and Q. Wang , “ Investigation on super-resolution near-field blu-ray-type phase-change optical disk with Sb 2 Te 3 mask layer ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44 , 3615 – 3619 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

, 17

17 . T. Shima , T. Nakano , J. Kim , and J. Tominaga , “ Super-RENS disk for blue laser system retrieving signals from polycarbonate substrate side ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44 , 3631 – 3633 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

]. The distinguishable record mark size is reduced to 16 nm due to shorter wavelength, but there is no significant increase in carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR).

Compared to the Sb-type super-RENS disk, the light-scattering-center-type super-RENS disk (including AgOx-type and PtOx-type super-RENS) has stronger local field enhancement and high CNR[14

14 . H. Fuji , J. Tominaga , L. Men , and T. Nakano , “ A near-field recording and readout technology using a metallic probe in an optical disk ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 , 980 – 981 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

, 15

15 . T. Kikukawa , T. Nakano , T. Shima , and J. Tominaga , “ Rigid bubble pit formation and huge signal enhancement in super-resolution near-field structure disk with platinum-oxide layer ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 , 4697 – 4699 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

]. Experimental and simulation results[18

18 . W.-C. Liu , C.-Y. Wen , K.-H. Chen , W. C. Lin , and D. P. Tsai , “ Near-field images of the AgO x -type super-resolution near-field structure ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 , 685 – 687 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

, 19

19 . T. Nakano , Y. Yamakawa , J. Tominaga , and N. Atoda , “ Near-field optical simulation of super-resolution near-field structure disks ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40 , 1531 – 1535 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

, 20

20 . L. P. Shi , T. C. Chong , X. S. Miao , P. K. Tan , and J. M. Li , “ A new structure of super-resolution near-field phase-change optical disk with a Sb 2 Te 3 mask layer ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40 , 1649 – 1650 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

, 21

21 . L. P. Shi , T. C. Chong , H. B. Yao , P. K. Tan , and X. S. Miao , “ Super-resolution near-field optical disk with an additional localized surface plasmon coupling layer ,” J, Appl. Phys. 91 , 10209 – 10211 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

, 22

22 . W.-C. Liu and D. P. Tsai , “ Nonlinear near-field optical effects of the AgO x -type super-resolution near-field structure ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 , 1031 – 1032 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef]

, 23

23 . W.-C. Liu , M.-Y. Ng , and D. P. Tsai , “ Surface plasmon effects on the far-field signals of Ago x -type super-resolution near-field structure ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43 , 4713 – 4717 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

, 24

24 . W.-C. Liu , M.-Y. Ng , and D. P. Tsai , “ Enhanced resolution of AgO x -type super-RENS disks with periodic silver nanoclusters ,” Scanning , 26 , I98 – I101 ( 2004 ). [PubMed]

, 25

25 . T. C. Chu , W.-C. Liu , and D. P. Tsai , “ Enhanced resolution induced by random silver nanoparticles in near-field optical disks ,” Opt. Commun. 246 , 561 – 567 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

] indicate that the main working mechanism of light-scattering-center-type super-RENS based on the photo-dissociated metallic nanoparticles in the AgOx or PtOx layer generated by laser beam in readout or write process. The collective effects of local field enhancement around metallic nanoparticles because of localized surface plasmon resonances formed strongly scattering center. These nanoparticles function as the fiber tip of conventional scanning near-field microscope. The evanescent waves from subwavelength structures in the recording layer couple with metallic nanoparticles and is transferred into propagating waves which is detectable in far-field regime[26

26 . E. Wolf and M. Nieto-Vesperinas , “ Analyticity of the angular spectrum amplitude of scattered fields and some of its consequences ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A , 2 , 886 – 890 ( 1985 ). [CrossRef]

]. Surface plasmon effects from those randomly distributed metallic nanoparticles further enhance the efficiency of evanescent waves coupling and therefore super-RENS disks can efficiently reach the spatial resolution beyond diffraction limit. There is a wide range of applications associated with super-resolution of super-RENS, including lithography[27

27 . M. Kuwahara , T. Nakano , J. Tominaga , M. B. Lee , and N. Atoda , “ High-speed optical near-field photolithography by super resolution near-field structure ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38 , L1079 – L1081 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

] and nano-scale device fabrication[28

28 . J. Tominaga , C. Mihalcea , D. Buechel , H. Fukuda , T. Nakano , N. Atoda , H. Fuji , and T. Kikukawa , “ Local plasmon photonic transistor ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 , 2417 – 2419 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

].

Surface plasmon resonance is usually sensitive to the frequency of incident light. For single silver nanoparticle, strong light absorbing and scattering occurs at plasmon resonance frequency and high local fields were excited around the nanoparticle. However, in a system consisting of randomly distributed metallic nanoparticles, the surface plasmon resonance is considerably broaden and resonant condition is modified for particle-particle interaction. It is necessary to study the frequency-dependent responses of the AgOx-type super-RENS disk to understand the roles of surface plasmon effect and particle-particle interaction. In this paper, we used finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to study the near-field and far-field optical responses of the AgOx-type super-RENS disk with randomly distributed silver nanoparticles embedded in the AgOx layer at different frequencies. Near-field enhancement and the resolution of the AgOx-type super-RENS disks was influenced by the frequency of incident light. The silver nanoparticles in the AgOx layer with high scattering efficiency increased the intensity of the far-field detectable signal. Our simulation results indicated that the super-resolution capability of the AgOx-type super-RENS disks was connected with the frequency-dependent scattering cross section of single silver nanoparticle.

2. Simulation model

The complex interaction between electromagnetic wave and dispersive materials was simulated by two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD). FDTD method treats complex materials and geometrical shapes without extra difficulty and is suitable to study the complicated interaction between randomly distributed metallic nanoparticles. The FDTD method directly solves two curl Maxwell’s equations which are discretized directly in time and spatial domains[29

29 . A. Taflove , “ Computational Electrodynamics ” ( Artech House. Boston-London , 1995 ).

]. In our simulation, the computational region was 4800 by 600 nm and the grid size was 1 nm. The permittivity of the silver nanoparticles was set by the bulk experimental optical constant[30

30 . Edward D. Palik ed., “ Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids ” ( Academic, Orlando, Fla. , 1985 ).

] and the dispersion behavior of dispersive materials was simulated by the Lorentz dispersion model [31

31 . J.B. Judkins and R. W. Ziolkowski , “ Finite-difference time-domain modeling of nonperfectly conducting metallic thin-film gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12 , 1974 – 1983 ( 1995 ). [CrossRef]

]. The Lorentz dispersion model consists with the free electron model or Drude model for metallic materials in the limit ω >> ω 0. Although the imaginary part of permittivity of silver nanoparticles is dependent of particle size [32

32 . K.-P. Charle , L. Konig , S. Nepijko , I. Rabin , and W. Schulze , “ The surface plasmon resonance in free and embedded Ag-cluster in the size range 1.5 nm < D < 30 nm ,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33 , 1085 – 1096 ( 1998 ). [CrossRef]

], however, according to experimental results, the surface contribution in our case is not significant. A TM-mode Gaussian beam (the direction of the electric field was in the plane of incident) illuminated from above. The numerical aperture (NA) of incident Gaussian laser beam was 0.6. To simulate the electromagnetic wave propagating in free space, the uniaxial perfect matched layer (UPML) was used as radiation boundary condition.[33

33 . S. D. Gedney , “ The perfectly matched layer absorbing medium ,” in ” Advances in Computational Electrodynamics ”, A. Taflove ed. ( Artech House, Boston, MA , 1998 ).

]

Fig. 1. Scheme of the AgOx-type super-RENS disk with random silver nanoparticles.

The structure of the AgOx-type super-RENS disk with random distribution of silver nanoparticles embedded in the AgOx layer and with recording marks of different lengths is shown in Fig. 1. The multilayer structure of the AgOx-type super-RENS disk is air/ disk substrate/ ZnS-SiO2 (20 nm)/ AgOx (15 nm)/ ZnS-SiO2 (20 nm)/ Ge2Sb2Te5 (15nm)/ air. The ZnS-SiO2 layers with refractive index about 2.25 are protective dielectric layers to prevent abrasion and to hold the released oxygen from the decomposition reaction of AgOx. The AgOx layer is between two ZnS-SiO2 layers and its refractive index is about 2.8. In our simulation, we set Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) as phase change recording material. The refractive index of GST depends on frequency of incident light. Here, to maintain a uniform recording efficiency, we assumed the refractive index of GST was 4.45 + 1.65i (amorphous) and 4.01 + 3.16i (crystalline) for all frequency [19

19 . T. Nakano , Y. Yamakawa , J. Tominaga , and N. Atoda , “ Near-field optical simulation of super-resolution near-field structure disks ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40 , 1531 – 1535 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

]. The silver nanoparticles in the AgOx layer are possibly generated in two ways: in fabrication process and in photo-dissociation reaction. In the fabrication process, the AgOx layer is deposited by sputtering technology and the nanoparticles distribute in uniform random distribution. On the other hand, the silver nanoparticles in the AgOx layer will be dissociated by laser beam in readout and writing processes and the distribution of AgOx is Gaussian random distribution according to the field intensity distribution of laser beam. In our simulation, there were total 560 silver nanoparticles in AgOx layer, 500 nanoparticles in uniform random distribution and 60 ones in Gaussian random distribution. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Gaussian distribution was 424 nm. The far-field signals of the AgOx-type super-RENS disks were calculated from near fields by near-to-far-field transformation based on equivalence theorem and Green’s theorem.[29

29 . A. Taflove , “ Computational Electrodynamics ” ( Artech House. Boston-London , 1995 ).

, 31

31 . J.B. Judkins and R. W. Ziolkowski , “ Finite-difference time-domain modeling of nonperfectly conducting metallic thin-film gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12 , 1974 – 1983 ( 1995 ). [CrossRef]

]. The method is accurate within the limits of the Kirchhoff approximation. Fourier transformation was applied to the transverse components of near fields close to the boundaries of simulation region to obtain the angular distribution of the radiation in the far-field. The intensities were integrated within the numerical aperture of the objective lens. To simulate the reading process of the super-RENS disk, in which the laser beam focuses on the mark and off the mark alternatively, we took the far-field signal difference between the on-mark state and off-mark state as a representation of the readout signals from the super-RENS disks. The on-mark state and off-mark state means that the laser beam focuses on the recording mark and between two recording mark, respectively. The far-field difference signal indicates the resolution of the super-RENS disk.

3. Results and discussion

Fig. 2. Movie of the TM-mode near-field distributions of the AgOx-type super-RENS disk with random silver nanoparticles. The wavelength of incident light is from 400 nm to 827 nm. Front picture presents the case of 650 nm wavelength. The Gaussian beam focused at the recording mark and the size of recording mark was 100 nm. The local fields were enhanced around silver nanoparticles. [Media 1]

In this work, the near-field and far-field optical responses of the AgOx-type super-RENS disk with random silver nanoparticles embedded in the AgOx layer were simulated systematically at different illumination frequencies. The TM-mode near-field distributions in Fig. 2 show that when a Gaussian beam focused on the recording mark, there were highly enhanced local fields around the silver nanoparticles in the AgOx layer, since localized surface plasmon were excited. With the same distribution of silver nanoparticles, the enhanced local fields around silver nanoparticles varied considerably when they were illuminated by light of different frequencies (wavelengths). Generally, local fields with illumination wavelengths of 400 nm and 690 nm had higher intensity than those of 540 nm and 827 nm. In addition to the wavelength of incident light, the local fields were influenced by particle-particle interaction and exhibited different distributions at different frequencies. Similar phenomenon has been observed in the enhanced local fields of fractal metallic surface.[4

4 . V. M. Shalaev , ed., “ Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media ” ( Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 2002 ).

] Like the fiber tip of a scanning near-field optical microscope, the silver nanoparticles can transfer the evanescent waves into propagating waves and the local field enhancements around nanoparticles should have a direct influence on the far-field intensity of detectable signals.

Fig. 3. Far-field difference signals of the AgOx-type super-RENS disk with and without silver nanoparticles. The wavelength of incident light was (a) 400 nm, (b) 540 nm, (c) 650 nm, (d) 775 nm.

Fig. 4. Far-field difference signals of the AgOx-type super-RENS disk with silver nanoparticles as a function of wavelength of incident light. The size of recording marks was larger than diffraction limit of visible light in (a) and smaller than diffraction limit in (b).

In Fig. 4, the far-field difference signals of each recording mark size were redrawn as a function of illuminating wavelength. In Fig. 4(a), when mark size was larger than diffraction limit of visible light, i.e., around 200 nm for visible wavelength, the far-field difference signals were subject to optical diffraction and became weaker for smaller recording marks. There were two peaks in the far-field signals, one was around 477 nm and another was around 730 nm. There was possibly another peak in the ultraviolet regime. When the mark size was below optical diffraction limit, the far-field signals became complicated and the double-peak feature was also presented in Fig. 4(b). Nonetheless, the peak wavelengths of each smaller recording mark were not the same. The far-field signals of larger mark size were not always stronger than those of smaller mark size in Fig. 4(b). The recording marks of subwavelength size were still distinguishable, since the evanescent light generated by small recording marks was transferred to propagating light by silver nanoparticles. It was noted that the trend of the far-field difference signals was consistent with the trend of the near-field enhancements at different wavelengths.

The optical responses of those randomly distributed silver nanoparticles is complicated, however, one of key points to comprehend those effects is to distinguish the contributions from each nanoparticle and from particle-particle interaction. Here we can compare the far-field signals from random nanoparticles to those from single silver nanoparticle. The scattering efficiency of silver nanoparticles was controllable by particle size, surrounding medium and incident light wavelength, and was important to understand the simulation far-field signals. For single silver spherical nanoparticle, there was one surface plasmon resonance peak in the visible regime. Nevertheless, metallic nanoparticle of different shapes exhibits double (elliptical) or multiple (triangular) surface plasmon resonance. Figure 5 shows that the simulation results of scattering efficiency of single silver nanocylinder in the AgOx layer. The scattering efficiency with different wavelength exhibited double peaks since the geometric shape of single silver nanoparticle is not perfectly circle in our FDTD numerical simulation and the exact shape of nanoparticle is between a circle and a square. To verify the effect of geometric shape, the scattering efficiency of single silver nanocylinder with increasing diameter was tested. When the diameter of nanocylinder was increased from 3 nm to 10 nm and the shape became closer to a circle, the two peaks graduatedly merged into one peak and the peak wavelength agreed with the theoretical resonant wavelength of a silver nanocylinder.

Fig. 5. Scattering efficiency of single silver nanoparticle. The scattering efficiency at different wavelengths exhibited double peaks since the geometric shape of single silver nanoparticle was not perfectly circular in the FDTD numerical simulation.

4. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Science Council and the Ministry of Economical Affair (94-EC-17-A-08-S1-0006) of Taiwan, Republic of China.

References and links

1 .

M. Ohtsu , K. Kobayashi , T. Kawazoe , S. Sangu , and T. Yatsui , “ Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8 , 839 – 862 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

2 .

P. N. Prasad , “ Nanophotonics ” ( Wiley, Hoboken, NJ , 2004 ).

3 .

T. W. Ebbesen , H. J. Lezec , H. F. Ghaemi , T. Thio , and P. A. Wolff , “ Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays ,” Nature , 391 , 667 – 669 ( 1998 ). [CrossRef]

4 .

V. M. Shalaev , ed., “ Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media ” ( Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 2002 ).

5 .

Antoly V Zayats and Igor O Smolyaninov , “ Near-field photonic: surface plasmon polaritons and locallized surface plasmons ,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5 , S16 – S50 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef]

6 .

C. Bohren and D. Huffman , “ Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles ” ( Wiley, New York , 1983 ).

7 .

D. A. Schultz ,“ Plasmon resonant particles for biological detection ,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 14 , 13 – 22 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8 .

S. A. Maier , M. L. Brongersma , P. G. Kik , S. Meltzer , A. A. G. Requicha , and H. A. Atwater , “ Plasmonics - A route to nanoscale optical devices ,” Adv. Mater. 13 , 1501 – 1505 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

9 .

S. Hell and J. Wichmann , “ Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy ,” Opt. Lett. 19 , 780 – 782 ( 1994 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10 .

T. A. Klar , S. Jakobs , M. Dyba , A. Egner , and S. W. Hell , “ Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission ,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97 , 8206 – 8210 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11 .

E. Betzig , J. Trautman , and J. R. Wolfe , “ Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61 , 142 – 144 ( 1992 ). [CrossRef]

12 .

B. D. Terris , H. J. Mamin , D. Rugar , W. R. Studenmund , and G. S. Kino , “ Near-field optical data storage using a solid immersion lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 , 388 – 390 ( 1994 ). [CrossRef]

13 .

J. Tominaga , T. Nakano , and N. Atoda , “ An approach for recording and readout beyond the diffraction limit with an Sb thin film ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 , 2078 – 2080 ( 1998 ). [CrossRef]

14 .

H. Fuji , J. Tominaga , L. Men , and T. Nakano , “ A near-field recording and readout technology using a metallic probe in an optical disk ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 , 980 – 981 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

15 .

T. Kikukawa , T. Nakano , T. Shima , and J. Tominaga , “ Rigid bubble pit formation and huge signal enhancement in super-resolution near-field structure disk with platinum-oxide layer ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 , 4697 – 4699 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

16 .

L. Shi , T. C. Chong , P. K. Tan , J. Li , X. Hu , X. Miao , and Q. Wang , “ Investigation on super-resolution near-field blu-ray-type phase-change optical disk with Sb 2 Te 3 mask layer ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44 , 3615 – 3619 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

17 .

T. Shima , T. Nakano , J. Kim , and J. Tominaga , “ Super-RENS disk for blue laser system retrieving signals from polycarbonate substrate side ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44 , 3631 – 3633 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

18 .

W.-C. Liu , C.-Y. Wen , K.-H. Chen , W. C. Lin , and D. P. Tsai , “ Near-field images of the AgO x -type super-resolution near-field structure ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 , 685 – 687 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

19 .

T. Nakano , Y. Yamakawa , J. Tominaga , and N. Atoda , “ Near-field optical simulation of super-resolution near-field structure disks ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40 , 1531 – 1535 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

20 .

L. P. Shi , T. C. Chong , X. S. Miao , P. K. Tan , and J. M. Li , “ A new structure of super-resolution near-field phase-change optical disk with a Sb 2 Te 3 mask layer ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40 , 1649 – 1650 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

21 .

L. P. Shi , T. C. Chong , H. B. Yao , P. K. Tan , and X. S. Miao , “ Super-resolution near-field optical disk with an additional localized surface plasmon coupling layer ,” J, Appl. Phys. 91 , 10209 – 10211 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

22 .

W.-C. Liu and D. P. Tsai , “ Nonlinear near-field optical effects of the AgO x -type super-resolution near-field structure ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 , 1031 – 1032 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef]

23 .

W.-C. Liu , M.-Y. Ng , and D. P. Tsai , “ Surface plasmon effects on the far-field signals of Ago x -type super-resolution near-field structure ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43 , 4713 – 4717 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

24 .

W.-C. Liu , M.-Y. Ng , and D. P. Tsai , “ Enhanced resolution of AgO x -type super-RENS disks with periodic silver nanoclusters ,” Scanning , 26 , I98 – I101 ( 2004 ). [PubMed]

25 .

T. C. Chu , W.-C. Liu , and D. P. Tsai , “ Enhanced resolution induced by random silver nanoparticles in near-field optical disks ,” Opt. Commun. 246 , 561 – 567 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

26 .

E. Wolf and M. Nieto-Vesperinas , “ Analyticity of the angular spectrum amplitude of scattered fields and some of its consequences ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A , 2 , 886 – 890 ( 1985 ). [CrossRef]

27 .

M. Kuwahara , T. Nakano , J. Tominaga , M. B. Lee , and N. Atoda , “ High-speed optical near-field photolithography by super resolution near-field structure ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38 , L1079 – L1081 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

28 .

J. Tominaga , C. Mihalcea , D. Buechel , H. Fukuda , T. Nakano , N. Atoda , H. Fuji , and T. Kikukawa , “ Local plasmon photonic transistor ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 , 2417 – 2419 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

29 .

A. Taflove , “ Computational Electrodynamics ” ( Artech House. Boston-London , 1995 ).

30 .

Edward D. Palik ed., “ Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids ” ( Academic, Orlando, Fla. , 1985 ).

31 .

J.B. Judkins and R. W. Ziolkowski , “ Finite-difference time-domain modeling of nonperfectly conducting metallic thin-film gratings ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12 , 1974 – 1983 ( 1995 ). [CrossRef]

32 .

K.-P. Charle , L. Konig , S. Nepijko , I. Rabin , and W. Schulze , “ The surface plasmon resonance in free and embedded Ag-cluster in the size range 1.5 nm < D < 30 nm ,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33 , 1085 – 1096 ( 1998 ). [CrossRef]

33 .

S. D. Gedney , “ The perfectly matched layer absorbing medium ,” in ” Advances in Computational Electrodynamics ”, A. Taflove ed. ( Artech House, Boston, MA , 1998 ).

34 .

J. Tominaga , T. Shima , M. Kuwahara , T. Fukaya , A. Kolobov , and T. Nakano , “ Ferroelectric catastrophe: beyond nanometre-scale optical resolution ,” Nanotechnology 15 , 411 – 415 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

35 .

A. V. Kolobov , P. Fons , A. I. Frenkel , A. L. Ankudinov , J. Tominaga , and T. Uruga , “ Understanding the phase-change mechanism of rewritable optical media ,” Nat. Mater. 3 , 703 – 708 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(210.0210) Optical data storage : Optical data storage
(210.4590) Optical data storage : Optical disks
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(260.3910) Physical optics : Metal optics

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: September 13, 2005
Revised Manuscript: November 2, 2005
Published: November 14, 2005

Citation
Ming-Yaw Ng and Wei-Chih Liu, "Super-resolution and frequency-dependent efficiency of near-field optical disks with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Express 13, 9422-9430 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9422


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References

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  32. K.-P. Charle, L. Konig, S. Nepijko, I. Rabin, and W. Schulze, �??The surface plasmon resonance in free and embedded Ag-cluster in the size range 1.5 nm < D < 30 nm,�?? Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 1085-1096 (1998). [CrossRef]
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