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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 24 — Nov. 28, 2005
  • pp: 9881–9889
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Performance analysis of nanocluster-Si sensitized Er-doped waveguide amplifier using top-pumped 470nm LED

Hansuek Lee, Jung H. Shin, and Namkyoo Park  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 24, pp. 9881-9889 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.009881


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Abstract

We analyze the performance of nanocrystal-Si (nc-Si) sensitized Er-doped waveguide amplifier using coupled nc-Si-Erbium rate equation, and suggest novel structures / operation methods which can be used to enhance its performance figures. With 2-dimensional modified propagation equation applied for the pump / signal waves along with modest assumptions on design parameters, we show that 10dB of gain with 0dBm input signal can be achieved with currently available pump LED power.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Out of many approaches developed so far to achieve low-cost micro amplifiers (amplets) for the access / metro network, Erbium doped waveguide amplifier (EDWA) has been considered to be the most promising candidate due to its well known characteristics inherited from its relative, the EDFA. Unfortunately, there still exist two main drawbacks for EDWA/EDFA which hinder the ultimate performance/cost optimization for the amplet application: the need for an expensive pump laser tuned precisely to the narrow absorption band of an Er3+ ion, and the long interaction length between pump and signal resulting from the small pump absorption cross section.

A technique that has attracted a great attention as a possible solution to these problems is nanocrystal Si (nc-Si) sensitization of erbium [1–5

1 . Jung H. Shin , S-Y. Seo , S. Kim , and S. G. Bishop , “ Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 , 1999 – 2001 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

] in which nc-Si, acting as a co-dopant to Er ions, absorbs pump photons, creates photo-carriers, and finally transfers the energy to nearby Er ions through an Auger-like process [6

6 . Stefan Schmitt-Rink , Chandra M. Varma , and Anthony F. J. Levi , “ Excitation Mechanisms and Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Ions in Semiconductors ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 , 2782 – 2785 ( 1991 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As confirmed by numerous experimental reports, nc-Si differs from the other sensitizers for Erbium in that it has a strong, continuous, broad absorption band for the pump [1

1 . Jung H. Shin , S-Y. Seo , S. Kim , and S. G. Bishop , “ Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 , 1999 – 2001 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

, 4

4 . G. Franzo , V. Vinciguerra , and F. Priolo , “ The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals ,” Appl. Phys. A. 69 , 3 – 12 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

, 5

5 . A. J. Kenyon , C.E. Chryssou , C. W. Pitt , T. Shimizu-lwayama , D. E. Hole , N. Sharme , and C. J. Humphreys , “ Luminescence from erbium doped silicon nanocrystal in silica: excitation mechanisms ,” J. Appl. Phys. 91 , 367 – 374 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

], and that it gives orders of magnitude larger effective excitation cross-section for the Er ion [2–5

2 . Hak-Seung Han , Se-Young Seo , and Jung H. Shin , “ Optical gain at 1.54um in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 , 4568 – 4570 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

] enabling top pumping of the waveguide.

Fig. 1. Energy transfer diagram for NC-Si and Erbium interaction system with its coupled rate equation
Fig. 2. 2-dimensional propagation model for pump and signal waves
Fig. 3. Absorption and emission cross-section of Erbium in NC-Si/SiO2 host

Additional advantage from the co-doping of nc-Si also comes from the enhanced Er emission cross-sections at 1.5μm, enabling high gain without the need of high Er concentration - thus avoiding the performance degradation from the quenching effect [3

3 . Hak-Seung Han , Se-Young Seo , Jung H. Shin , and Namkyoo Park , “ Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 , 3720 – 3722 , ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

, 7

7 . P. G. Kik , “ Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser - the thin line between gain and loss ,” in Towards the First Silicon Laser, NATO Science Series II 93.

, 8

8 . P. G. Kik and A. Polman , “ Gain limiting processes in Er-doped Si nanocrystal waveguides in SiO2 ,” J. Appl. Phys. 91 , 534 – 536 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

]. Following these observations, the possibility of achieving positive optical gain has been demonstrated / assessed in terms of both experimental [9

9 . Jinku Lee , Jung H. Shin , and Namkyoo Park , “ Optical gain at 1.5um in Nanocrystal Si-Sensitized, Er-doped Silica Waveguide using Top-Pumping 470nm LEDs ,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23 , 19 – 25 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

, 10

10 . Hak-Seung Han “ Optical gain using nanocrystal sensitized erbium ,” NATO Science Series II , 2003 , 93 , Kluwer Academic Publishers Netherland .

] and theoretical means [7

7 . P. G. Kik , “ Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser - the thin line between gain and loss ,” in Towards the First Silicon Laser, NATO Science Series II 93.

, 11

11 . Domenico Pacifici , Giorgia Franzo , Francesco Priolo , Fabio Iacona , and Luca Dal Negro , “ Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals-Er interaction for optical amplification ,” Phys. Rev. B. 67 , 245301 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef]

]. Still, the analysis so far has remained in the fundamental domain confirming the optical gain in a top-pumped, nc-Si sensitized Er waveguide, and not yet in the practical domain with a realistic device as a target.

In this paper, we provide, for the first time a detailed performance analysis of an nc-Si co-doped Er waveguide amplifier (NC-EDWA) that targets a real application. Saturation output power, required pump density, optical gain and noise figure has been assessed in terms of the device structure and input signal strength, utilizing a newly developed 2-dimensioanl propagation equation and employing a coupled nc-Si-Erbium rate equation. Results show a high feasibility of achieving 10dBm of output power with 0dBm of signal input signal, using an array of commercially available high-power blue-green LEDs as the top-pumping nc-Si excitation source.

2. Model equations

Table 1. Parameters used in the analysis [7, 8, 9, 11, 18]

table-icon
View This Table

Fig. 4. Amplifier characteristics of 7×7μm core NC-EDWA: (a) gain as a function of active region length and pump power change (0dBm input signal power ), (b) gain as a function of input signal and pump power variations (for 5cm waveguide, with and without bottom mirror : solid and dashed lines)
Fig. 5. (a) NC-EDWA with expanded active area, with mode-converting taper structure for in/output coupling. (b) Mode profile in the adiabatically expanded NC-EDWA structure (width for the active area =50 μm)

3. Performance analysis

To test the feasibility of the NC-EDWA for amplet applications, we started with a waveguide structure with core dimension of 7 × 7 μm2, targeting a modest gain of 10dB for 0 dBm input signal power. The calculated gain values for 0dBm input signal power as a function of pump power and waveguide length are shown as dashed lines in Fig. 4 (a). Considering the maximum pump intensity currently available from commercial high power LEDs (26.7 W/cm2 from Cree C460XT290), this Fig. shows that it is difficult to achieve the target performance (10dB gain for 0 dBm input signal) with a reasonable length (~ 5cm) of NC-EDWA. Dashed lines in Fig. 4(b) show the gain characteristics for 5cm waveguide as a function of input signal power. For example, though 10dB or even higher gain can be easily achieved for small signal (< -10dBm) with currently available LEDs, impractically higher LED pump intensity is required in order to satisfy 10dB of gain value for large input signal power.

One of the conceivable solution for gain enhancement would be increasing the (Er : NC-Si) doping concentration. However, in order to avoid concentration induced quenching and to investigate the effect of structure optimization without adjusting other parameters, we plot, as solid lines in Fig. 4, the gain values obtained from the same structure but with a pump reflector (100%) at the bottom. The gain improvement from the reuse of unabsorbed pump (estimated ~65%) is evident, but was not sufficient to compose a practical device with commercially available LED. Another non-trivial but novel approach for the performance enhancement is increasing the width of the waveguide (Fig. 5). By introducing an adiabatically tapered mode converter into / out of the amplifying region, it was possible to effectively increase the pump collection area (50μm × 5cm, Fig. 5). Roughly speaking, with the increased pump-collection area, NC-EDWA now can be considered as a parallel integration of amplet arrays, with enhanced saturation characteristics - lowering the requirement on the pump intensity. More importantly, this performance enhancement does not require any additional pump LED cost, since the width of light emission area of commercial LED is much wider than the width of expanded waveguide (250 μm vs 50 μm). To determine the reasonable range of the waveguide width, we calculated for waveguide length meeting the target performance (10dB gain with 0dBm input signal and 25W/cm2 pump intensity, for various waveguide widths. Fig. 6(a)).

Fig. 6. (a) Calculated mode overlap factor and corresponding waveguide length for the NC-EDWA as a function of active waveguide width (to achieve 10dB of gain at 0dBm input signal), (b) Small signal gain and saturation input power (for 5cm of active waveguide length)
Fig. 7. NC-EDWA gain with 50×7μm active core, (a) plotted as a function of waveguide length and pump intensity (for 0dBm input signal), (b) plotted as a function of input signal power and pump intensity (for waveguide length 5cm). Solid and Dashed lines are the results with and without mirror, respectively.

As the mode conversion loss can be made very small (< ~0.1dB) with the introduction of the tapered structure, a waveguide width of 50μm was sufficient for the NC-Si EDWA to meet the target of a realistic amplet application with the current LED technology. The small signal gain and saturation characteristic for various widths of adiabatic NC-EDWA is also shown in Fig. 6(b). It should be pointed out that the small signal gain enhancement of the wider waveguide is mainly due to the increased core-mode overlap (Fig. 6 (a)). On the other hand, the increase in the saturation input power is mainly due to both the decrease in signal intensity in the expanded core, and increase in the incident pump power to the expanded pump collection area. The performance of NC-Si EDWA with 50×7μm2 active core with and without the bottom mirror is shown in Fig. 7 (solid and dashed line, respectively). As shown in this Fig., with 50×7μm2 active core and bottom mirror for the pump reflection, only 15.8 W/cm2 (8.8 W/cm2 for 100μm width) of pump intensity was sufficient to meet the target operating condition.

In Fig. 8 we also compare the inversion distributions of NC-Si EDWA, for the 4 types of EDWA structures under investigation. 0dBm input signal, 5cm gain medium and 25W/cm2 top-coupled pump intensity to the waveguide were assumed. As expected, mirrored waveguide with 50×7 μm2 core exhibited the highest inversion over the whole gain medium. Fig. 8(b)–(e) illustrates the spatial inversion distributions over the cross-sectional area of the waveguide, measured at 1 cm from the input of the amplifying section. The effect of pump reflection mirror on the increased inversion at the waveguide bottom (Fig. 8(c), 8(e)), and the effect of mode expansion (Fig. 8(d), 8(e)) is evident. As another key performance factor, we also calculated noise figures for different NC-Si EDWA structure. 6.9, 6.44, 5.23, 4.79 dB of NF (at 4.86, 5.67, 10.59, 12.02 of gain) have been obtained for 7×7, mirrored 7×7, 50×7, mirrored 50×7 μm2 waveguide structures, respectively. As an additional advantage achieved by the top-pumping configuration, we note that the inversion distribution of NC-Si EDWA can be easily adjusted by controlling intensity of each LED in the array [19

19 . Jung H. Shin , Jinku Lee , Hak-seung Han , Ji-Hong Jhe , Se-Young Seo , Hasuek Lee , and Namkyoo Park , “ Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

], for example, to achieve even better noise figure performances.

Fig. 8. (a) Inversion distribution along the waveguide length and (b–e) spatial inversion distribution over the cross-sectional area (measured at 1cm from input) for different NC-EDWA structures : (b) 7×7 (c) mirrored 7×7 (d) 50×7 (e) mirrored 50×7 μm2 active waveguide (for all, 5cm waveguide length, 0dBm input and 25W/cm2 pump intensity were assumed).

Finally, noting that there exist some uncertainties in the parameter values depending on the material preparation method/conditions, we also investigated the tolerance in the material parameter values achieving reasonable performance figures (with the given optimal NC-Si EDWA structure, 7 μm × 50 μm × 5cm with bottom mirror). Fig. 9 shows the gain and NF contour of NC-Si EDWA, plotted as a function of Er lifetime, signal emission/absorption cross-section, NC-Si to Er coupling coefficient, and pump absorption cross section. For the given target performance (10dB gain with low NF (~5dB) for 0dBm input, 25W/cm2 pump) of NC-Si EDWA, it was found that there exist sufficient margin for the variations in the material parameter values (shaded region in the Fig., cross mark: parameter value in table 1). For the change of only one parameter value out of four, ±40, ±43, ±60, ±64% of tolerance was estimated for the coupling coefficient, signal cross-section, lifetime and pump absorption cross-section respectively. Especially for the consideration of precise signal cross-section value under debate (5e-21 ~ 6e-19 cm2, [8

8 . P. G. Kik and A. Polman , “ Gain limiting processes in Er-doped Si nanocrystal waveguides in SiO2 ,” J. Appl. Phys. 91 , 534 – 536 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

, 9

9 . Jinku Lee , Jung H. Shin , and Namkyoo Park , “ Optical gain at 1.5um in Nanocrystal Si-Sensitized, Er-doped Silica Waveguide using Top-Pumping 470nm LEDs ,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23 , 19 – 25 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

, 11

11 . Domenico Pacifici , Giorgia Franzo , Francesco Priolo , Fabio Iacona , and Luca Dal Negro , “ Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals-Er interaction for optical amplification ,” Phys. Rev. B. 67 , 245301 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef]

, 20

20 . N. Daldosso , D. Navarro-Urrios , M. Melchiorri , L. Pavesi , F. Gourbilleau , M. Carrada , R. Rizk , C. Garcia , P. Pellegrino , B. Garrido , and L. Cognolato , “ Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 , 261103 ( 2005 ) [CrossRef]

, 21

21 . Domenico Pacifici , Luca Lanzano , Giorgia Franzo , Francesco Priolo , and Fabio Iacona , “ Revealing the sequential nature of the Si-nanocluster-Er interaction by variable pulse duration excitation ,” Phys. Rev. B. 72 , 045349 ( 2005 ) [CrossRef]

]), the minimum signal cross-section required to achieve the target performance was found to be 3.4e-20 cm2, under the given amplet structure and material parameters.

Fig. 9. (a) gain and (b) noise figure contour as a function of Er meta-state lifetime and signal emission/absorption cross-section. (c) gain and (d) noise figure contour as a function of pump absorption cross-section and NC-Si to Er coupling coefficient (5cm waveguide length, 50 × 7 μm2 active core with bottom mirror, 0dBm input and 25W/cm2 pump intensity were assumed). Cross mark for parameter values in table I. Shaded area shows the regions of acceptable parameter range providing the NC-EDWA target performance.

4. Conclusion

To summarize, we have analyzed the performance of NC-EDWA in terms of their device structure, and suggested also novel means of increasing its performance factors. Analysis has been carried out utilizing a modified signal / pump propagation equation to accommodate the top-pumping condition, and employing a coupled Nc-Si-Erbium rate equation. For 4 types of EDWA (rectangular core without/with mirror and expanded core without/with mirror), 130.4 W/cm2, 90.6 W/cm2, 21.9 W/cm2 and 15.8 W/cm2 of pump intensity was required to achieve 10dB of gain with 0 dBm of input signal power. The noise figure stayed well below 5dB for the suggested structures. Considering the pump intensity / cost available from a commercial LED, it is expected that the NC-EDWA possesses good feasibility to work as a future cost-effective, small form factor amplet arrays for metro application.

References and links

1 .

Jung H. Shin , S-Y. Seo , S. Kim , and S. G. Bishop , “ Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 , 1999 – 2001 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

2 .

Hak-Seung Han , Se-Young Seo , and Jung H. Shin , “ Optical gain at 1.54um in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 , 4568 – 4570 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

3 .

Hak-Seung Han , Se-Young Seo , Jung H. Shin , and Namkyoo Park , “ Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 , 3720 – 3722 , ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

4 .

G. Franzo , V. Vinciguerra , and F. Priolo , “ The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals ,” Appl. Phys. A. 69 , 3 – 12 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

5 .

A. J. Kenyon , C.E. Chryssou , C. W. Pitt , T. Shimizu-lwayama , D. E. Hole , N. Sharme , and C. J. Humphreys , “ Luminescence from erbium doped silicon nanocrystal in silica: excitation mechanisms ,” J. Appl. Phys. 91 , 367 – 374 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

6 .

Stefan Schmitt-Rink , Chandra M. Varma , and Anthony F. J. Levi , “ Excitation Mechanisms and Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Ions in Semiconductors ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 , 2782 – 2785 ( 1991 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7 .

P. G. Kik , “ Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser - the thin line between gain and loss ,” in Towards the First Silicon Laser, NATO Science Series II 93.

8 .

P. G. Kik and A. Polman , “ Gain limiting processes in Er-doped Si nanocrystal waveguides in SiO2 ,” J. Appl. Phys. 91 , 534 – 536 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

9 .

Jinku Lee , Jung H. Shin , and Namkyoo Park , “ Optical gain at 1.5um in Nanocrystal Si-Sensitized, Er-doped Silica Waveguide using Top-Pumping 470nm LEDs ,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23 , 19 – 25 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

10 .

Hak-Seung Han “ Optical gain using nanocrystal sensitized erbium ,” NATO Science Series II , 2003 , 93 , Kluwer Academic Publishers Netherland .

11 .

Domenico Pacifici , Giorgia Franzo , Francesco Priolo , Fabio Iacona , and Luca Dal Negro , “ Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals-Er interaction for optical amplification ,” Phys. Rev. B. 67 , 245301 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef]

12 .

F. Gourbilleau , M. Levalois , C. Dufour , J. Vicens , and R. Rizk , “ Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-um emission ,” J. Appl. Phys. 95 , 3717 – 3722 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

13 .

Minoru Fujii , Kenji Imakita , Kei Watanabe , and Shinji Hayashi , “ Coexistence of two different energy transfer processes in SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er ,” J. Appl. Phys. 95 , 272 – 280 ( 2004 ) [CrossRef]

14 .

F. Pirioli , Giorgia Franzò , Domenico Pacifici , Vincenzo Vinciguerra , Fabio Iacona , and Alessia Irrera , “ Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals ,” J. Appl. Phys. 89 , 264 – 272 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

15 .

Fabio Iacona , Giorgia Franzò , and Corrado Spinella , “ Correlation between Iuminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals ,” J. Appl. Phys. 87 , 1295 – 1303 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

16 .

Kei Watanabe , Minoru Fujii , and Shinji Hayashi , “ Resonant excitation of Er3+ by the energy transfer from Si nanocrystals ,” J. Appl. Phys. 90 , 4761 – 4767 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef]

17 .

C. Randy Giles and Emmanuel Desurvire , “ Modeling Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers ,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9 , 271 – 283 ( 1991 ). [CrossRef]

18 .

O. Lumholt , T. Rasmussen , and A. Bjarklev , “ Modeling of extremely high concentration Erbium-doped silica waveguides ,” Electron. Lett. 29 , 495 – 496 ( 1993 ). [CrossRef]

19 .

Jung H. Shin , Jinku Lee , Hak-seung Han , Ji-Hong Jhe , Se-Young Seo , Hasuek Lee , and Namkyoo Park , “ Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

20 .

N. Daldosso , D. Navarro-Urrios , M. Melchiorri , L. Pavesi , F. Gourbilleau , M. Carrada , R. Rizk , C. Garcia , P. Pellegrino , B. Garrido , and L. Cognolato , “ Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 , 261103 ( 2005 ) [CrossRef]

21 .

Domenico Pacifici , Luca Lanzano , Giorgia Franzo , Francesco Priolo , and Fabio Iacona , “ Revealing the sequential nature of the Si-nanocluster-Er interaction by variable pulse duration excitation ,” Phys. Rev. B. 72 , 045349 ( 2005 ) [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: September 26, 2005
Revised Manuscript: September 26, 2005
Published: November 28, 2005

Citation
Hansuek Lee, Jung Shin, and Namkyoo Park, "Performance analysis of nanocluster-Si sensitized Er-doped waveguide amplifier using top-pumped 470nm LED," Opt. Express 13, 9881-9889 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-24-9881


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References

  1. Jung H. Shin, S-Y. Seo, S. Kim, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of erbiumdoped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1999-2001 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. Hak-Seung Han, Se-Young Seo, and Jung H. Shin, “Optical gain at 1.54um in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4568-4570 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. Hak-Seung Han, Se-Young Seo, Jung H. Shin, and Namkyoo Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720-3722, (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Franzo, V. Vinciguerra, and F. Priolo, “The excitation mechanism of rare-earth ions in silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. A. 69, 3-12 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Kenyon, C.E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt , T. Shimizu-lwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharme , and C. J. Humphreys, “Luminescence from erbium doped silicon nanocrystal in silica: excitation mechanisms, ” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. Stefan Schmitt-Rink, Chandra M. Varma, and Anthony F. J. Levi, “Excitation Mechanisms and Optical Properties of Rare-Earth Ions in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2782-2785 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. G. Kik, “Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser – the thin line between gain and loss,” in Towards the First Silicon Laser, NATO Science Series II 93.
  8. P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Gain limiting processes in Er-doped Si nanocrystal waveguides in SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 534-536 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. Jinku Lee, Jung H. Shin, and Namkyoo Park, “Optical gain at 1.5um in Nanocrystal Si-Sensitized, Er-doped Silica Waveguide using Top-Pumping 470nm LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 19-25 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. Hak-Seung Han “Optical gain using nanocrystal sensitized erbium,” NATO Science Series II, 2003, 93, Kluwer Academic Publishers Netherland.
  11. Domenico Pacifici, Giorgia Franzo, Francesco Priolo, Fabio Iacona, and Luca Dal Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals-Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B. 67, 245301 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. F. Gourbilleau, M. Levalois, C. Dufour, J. Vicens, and R. Rizk, “Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-um emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3717-3722 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. Minoru Fujii, Kenji Imakita, Kei Watanabe, and Shinji Hayashi, “Coexistence of two different energy transfer processes in SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 272-280 (2004) [CrossRef]
  14. F. Pirioli, Giorgia Franzò, Domenico Pacifici, Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Fabio Iacona, and Alessia Irrera, “Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. Fabio Iacona, Giorgia Franzò, and Corrado Spinella, “Correlation between Iuminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1295-1303 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. Kei Watanabe, Minoru Fujii, and Shinji Hayashi, “Resonant excitation of Er3+ by the energy transfer from Si nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4761-4767 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Randy Giles and Emmanuel Desurvire, “ Modeling Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991). [CrossRef]
  18. O. Lumholt, T. Rasmussen, A. Bjarklev, “Modeling of extremely high concentration Erbium-doped silica waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 495-496 (1993). [CrossRef]
  19. Jung H. Shin, Jinku Lee, Hak-seung Han, Ji-Hong Jhe, Se-Young Seo, Hasuek Lee, and Namkyoo Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  20. N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, “Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005) [CrossRef]
  21. Domenico Pacifici, Luca Lanzano, Giorgia Franzo, Francesco Priolo and Fabio Iacona, “Revealing the sequential nature of the Si-nanocluster-Er interaction by variable pulse duration excitation,” Phys. Rev. B. 72, 045349 (2005) [CrossRef]

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