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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 25 — Dec. 12, 2005
  • pp: 10230–10237
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High-power generation and transmission in a left-handed planar waveguide excited by an electric dipole

Qiang Cheng and Tie Jun Cui  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 25, pp. 10230-10237 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.010230


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Abstract

We show that a planar waveguide excited by a three-dimensional linear electric dipole exhibits unusual physical properties if it is filled with two equal-thickness layers, where one layer is air and the other layer is a specialized left-handed material (LHM) with the relative permittivity -1/(1 + δ) + ε and permeability -(1 + δ) + μ (δ, γε and γμ are all small parameters). In such a LHM waveguide, extremely high power densities are generated and transmitted under the excitation of the electric dipole no matter whether the LHM layer is lossless or lossy. We also show that a dominant mode always exists in the waveguide, which is not restricted by the guidance condition and the waveguide geometry. The guidance condition only determines the existence of higher guided modes. Numerical experiments verify the above conclusions.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Recently a new kind of artificial material, known as metamaterial or left-handed material (LHM), has attracted much attention due to its numerous novel electromagnetic properties, such as the negative refraction and reversed Cerenkov radiation [1

1 . V. G. Veselago ,“ The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of εand μ ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10 , 509 ( 1968 ). [CrossRef]

]. Pendry has shown that a LHM slab could act as a superlens and therefore break the Rayleigh limit [2

2 . J. B. Pendry , “ Negative refraction makes a perfect lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 , 3966 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which aroused great interests in scientific communities. Different approaches have been proposed to realize such a material with simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability, including the periodic arrays of split ring resonators (SRR) and metallic wires adopted by Shelby et al. [3

3 . R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , and S. Schultz , “ Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction ,” Science 292 , 77 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and the transmission line (TL) network with series capacitors and shunt inductors introduced by Eleftheriades’ group [4

4 . A. Grbic and G. V. Eleftheriades , “ Overcoming the diffraction limit. with a planar left-handed transmission-line lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 , 117403 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Recently, a planar electromagnetic waveguide excited by a two-dimensional (2D) line source has been proposed [5

5 . Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

], where extremely high power densities can be generated and transmitted along the waveguide. The planar waveguide is a bilayer structure, where one layer is filled with air and the other filled with a specialized LHM. In the 2D case, an infinitely-long line source is placed in the waveguide to excite guided modes travelling along the waveguide without attenuation. However, such a line source is not applicable in the real-world problems. In practice, it is often necessary to employ a probe or microstrip to excite power into the waveguide. Hence it is quite important to study whether the extremely high power densities can still be generated and transmitted in the waveguide under the excitation of a three-dimensional linear electric dipole instead of the 2D point source which has been used in Ref. [5

5 . Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we will present detailed analysis of the field and power distributions inside the waveguide excited by an electrical dipole. We show that the guided modes excited by the dipole are quite different from those in the 2D case [5

5 . Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

], and a dominant mode always exists in the waveguide. Such a dominant mode is not restricted by the guidance condition and the waveguide geometry. Again, extremely high power densities are generated and transmitted along the waveguide, which however experience a slow attenuation. Numerical results validate our conclusions.

2. Theoretical analysis

We consider a planar parallel-plate waveguide, which is filled with air in Region 0 and a LHM slab in Region 1, as shown in Fig. 1. The relative permittivity and relative permeability are denoted by εri and μri (i = 0,1), respectively. The perfectly conducting boundaries of the waveguide are located at z = d 0 and z = d 2, and the interface of the two layers lies at z = d 1. An electric dipole directing to the z-direction with a dipole moment Il is placed at the origin of the Cartesian coordinate system. Here, Region 0 is occupied by air where ε r0 = μ r0 = 1, and Region 1 is a specialized LHM characterized by

εr1=1/(1+δ)+iγε,μr1=(1+δ)+iγμ

where δ stands for a retardation of LHM, and γε and γμ represent the permittivity loss and permeability loss, respectively. All of δ, γε and γμ are small parameters. We assume the two layers to have equal thickness, i.e. d 0 + d 2 = 2d 1.

From the electromagnetic theory [6

6 . W. C. Chew , Waves and Fields in Inhomogenous Media ( Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York , 1990 ).

], the transverse magnetic (TM) to z waves are produced due to the excitation of the z-directed electric dipole. Hence the magnetic field in the waveguide has only ϕ component under the cylindrical coordinate system shown in Fig. 1, while the electric field has both ρ and z components. The components of the electromagnetic fields EiZ , E and H can then be written as

Eiz=Il8πωε0kρ3k0zE˜izH0(1)(kρρ)dkρ,
(1)
E=iIl8πωε0kρ2E˜H1(1)(kρρ)dkρ,
(2)
H=iIl8πkρ2k0zE˜izH1(1)(kρρ)dkρ,
(3)

where the subscripts iz, and represent the z, ρ and ϕ components of the fields in the rth region, Il is the momentum of the dipole, and

E˜0z=eik0zz+R+eik0zz+Reik0zz,
(4)
Fig. 1. A three-dimensional linear electric dipole located in a planar waveguide filled with two-layered media.
E˜1z=Ceik1zz+C+eik1zz,
(5)
E˜0ρ=zeik0zzz+R+eik0zzReik0zz,
(6)
E˜1ρ=Ceik1zz+C+eik1zz.
(7)

In above equations, R + and C + represent the coefficients of forward waves in Region 0 and 1 due to the contributions of stratified media and boundaries, while R - and C - are coefficients of backward waves in the two regions:

R+=(acp+a+c+)D,
(8)
R=1+R+ei2k0zd0,
(9)
C=(aba+b+)εr0(εr1D),
(10)
C+=Cei2k1zd2,
(11)

in which kiz=ki2kρ2 is the longitudinal wavenumber in Region i, and the denominator D is expressed as

D=(pb+c+bc+)k0z,
(12)

where

a±=eik0zd1±eik0zd1,
(13)
b±=eik0zd1±eik0z(d12d0),
(14)
c±=eik1zd1±eik1z(d12d2),
(15)
p=(εr0k1z)(εr1k0z).
(16)

Since the electric and magnetic field components mentioned above are totally different from those in the 2D case [5

5 . Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

], the corresponding Poynting vector will possess both ρ and z components, which is also different from the 2D case.

First we consider a conventional air-filled waveguide, i. e, ε r1 = μ r1 = 1. After simple derivations, we obtain the denominator in coefficients R ± and C ± as

D=(22ei2k0z(d0d2))k0z.
(17)

From the above equation, we easily obtain that

k0z=(d2d0),(n=1,2…)
(18)

Ez=Aeik0zzH0(1)(kρρ),
(19)

where A is the mode amplitude. When k 0z = 0, we easily have

E0z=AH0(1)(kρρ).
(20)

Obviously the dominant mode is invariant in the transverse direction, but has a 1/√ρ decay in the ρ direction as it travels along the waveguide. The above conclusion is quite different from the 2D case [5

5 . Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

], where the condition k 0z = 0 does not correspond to a physical mode supported by the planar waveguide under the excitation of an infinitely-long line source. Another important feature is that the dominant mode always exists in the planar waveguide excited by the electric dipole, without restrictions to the size of waveguide. When (d 2 - d 0) < λ 0/2, only the dominant mode exists in the waveguide. When (d 2 - d 0) ≥ λ 0/2, however, higher modes are excited.

Now we consider the two-layer-filled waveguide. If Region 1 is a specialized lossless LHM, where

εr1=1(1+δ),μr1=(1+δ),

we have k 1z = -k 0z for the propagating waves. Therefore the denominator for above coefficients is simplified as

D=δk0z(ei2k0zd2ei2k0zd0)(1+δ).
(21)

After simple derivations, we notice that the air-LHM waveguide has the same locations of poles as the conventional air-filled waveguide. However, the denominator is proportional to δ, which results in huge amplitudes of power densities proportioning to 1/δ 2, as we will see from numerical results later.

We remark that k 0z = 0 is also a pole of the second order for the waveguide, which corresponds to the dominant mode. In the dominant mode, the electromagnetic fields are unchanged in the z direction in both Regions 0 and 1. Unlike the conventional case, however, the amplitude of E 0z is not equal to that of E 1z since the boundary condition requires continuity of the normal components of the electric flux density Diz . Similarly, the poles k 0z = /(d 2 - d 0), (n= 1,2…) determine the higher guided modes for the waveguide.

Note that the dominant mode is actually the TM0 to z mode which can never be supported under the excitation of a 2D point source [5

5 . Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

], and this is why the power-density distributions within the waveguide seem quite differently from those in Ref. [5

5 . Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

], as we will see in the numerical results.

Fig. 2. The time-averaged power density in the waveguide along the region 3000 mm ≤ y ≤ 3600 mm. (a) Conventional air-filled waveguide. (b) Air-LHM-filled waveguide with δ = 10-4 and γε = γμ = 0.

3. Numerical results

In order to show the power propagation inside the waveguide, we have computed the real part of the Poynting vector 〈Sρ〉 = 12 Re(Ez Hϕ*), which represents the time-averaged power density. In the yoz plane, Sρ = Sy .

First we choose d 0 = -30 mm, d 1 = 30 mm, and d 2 = 90 mm, which ensures that only the dominant mode is guided along the waveguide. The z-directed electric dipole with the dipole moment Il = 1 mA·m is located at the origin of the coordinate system, and the operating frequency is 1 GHz. The observation region is set 10 λ away from the source, at x = 0 and y ∈ [3, 3.6] m.

When the waveguide is totally filled with air, the time-averaged power density propagating along the waveguide is illustrated in Fig. 2(a). From this figure, a relatively small power density is observed, whose maximum is around 3.6 mW/m2. When the waveguide is partially filled with a lossless LHM with δ = 10-4, the power density propagating along the waveguide are shown in Fig. 2(b), which is as large as 1.5 × 109 mW/m2. The negative power flow in Fig. 2(b) indicates that the power flow of the dominant mode in Region 1 is actually in the -y direction.

Note that the power flows remain constants in the z direction in the two regions, as expected. Hence we conclude that extremely high-power generation and transmission can still be realized under the excitation of the electric dipole. However, the power flows experience a slow spatial decay in the propagation due to the Hankel’s function, which could be clearly seen in Fig. 2. We remark that the decay is not significant. For example, the power density observed at y = 15 m (50 λ) is 2.9 × 108 mW/m2. Similarly, the energy conservation is not violated like the 2D case [5

5 . Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

] since the power flows in Region 0 and 1 have similar amplitudes but opposite directions. The net power flow along the waveguide is actually not very large.

Fig. 3. The time averaged power density in the lossy air-LHM-filled waveguide along the region 3000 mm ≤ y ≤ 3600 mm. (a) δ = -10-4 and γε = γμ = 10-6. (b) δ = -10-2, γε = γμ = 10-4.

We have computed the time-averaged power density in a lossy air-LHM-filled waveguide with δ = -10-4 and γε = γμ = 10-6, as illustrated in Fig. 3(a). As expected, extremely high power densities are observed, but their amplitude is smaller than that in Fig. 2(b) due to the presence of loss. Even when the loss increases to γε = γμ = 10-4 and the retardation is as large as δ = -10-2, the time-averaged power density is still 4 × 104 mW/m2 at the observation point 10 λ away from the source, as shown in Fig. 3(b). This makes the waveguide more practical. Similar to the lossless case, the amplitude of the power density is nearly linear to 1/δ 2.

When we change the waveguide dimensions to d 0 = -60 mm, d 1 = 60 mm, and d 2 = 180 mm, two guided modes with k 0z = 0 and k 0z = π/(d 2 - d 0) are allowed to propagate in the waveguide. In the case of 2D source, only one mode is permitted under the same waveguide dimensions [5

5 . Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

]. Since the internal fields are the sum of two guided modes with different propagation constants, the final power density distributions may behave quite differently. This can be understood since the electric field of the guided modes in Region 1 in the planar waveguide can be written as

Fig. 4. The time averaged power density in the air-filled and lossless air-LHM-filled waveguides along the region 3000 mm ≤ y ≤ 4000 mm when two guided modes exist. (a) Conventional air-filled waveguide. (b) lossless air-LHM-filled waveguide with δ = 10-4 and γε = γμ = 0.
E1z=(Acosk1zz+Bsink1zz)H0(1)(kρρ),

where A and B are coefficients. In the far distance where ρ is very large, the Hankel function behaves like an exponential function eikρρ. When two modes exist within the waveguide, the sum of two exponential functions behaves some period-like properties.

Figure 4 has demonstrated the time averaged power densities inside the conventional air-filled waveguide and the air-LHM-filled waveguide along a region from 3 m to 4 m in the y direction, where δ = 10-4 in the later case. From Fig. 4, we clearly see that the power patterns have been changed significantly due to the interactions of two guided modes. However, extremely high power densities are still generated and transmitted in the air-LHM-filled waveguide when two guided modes exist, which is nearly 4 × 108 times larger than that in the conventional air-filled waveguide.

When LHM is slightly lossy, we have also computed the distributions of power flows along the planar waveguide, as shown in Fig. 5. Here, δ = -10-4, γε = γμ = 10-6 and δ = -10-2, γε = γμ = 10-4, respectively. The power patterns seem differently from those in Fig. 4 since the fields in the waveguide are actually the sum of a few modes with different complex propagation constants instead of two modes with real propagation constants. However, the phenomenon of high power generation and transmission still exists as expected, and the amplitude of the power density is also proportional to 1/δ 2.

Fig. 5. The time averaged power density in the lossy air-LHM-filled waveguide along the region 3000 mm ≤ y ≤ 4000 mm when two guided modes exist. (a) δ = -10-4 and γε = γμ = 10-6. (b) δ = -10-2 and γε = γμ = 10-4.

4. Conclusions

In conclusions, we have shown that a two-layered planar waveguide can exhibit unusual physical properties under the excitation of a three-dimensional linear electric dipole when the layers have the same thickness and filled with air and a specialized LHM, respectively. Very high power flows can be generated and transmitted within the composite waveguide even when the LHM layer is slightly lossy. A dominant mode always exists under such excitation and higher-order modes appear when the guidance condition is satisfied. Numerical results validate our conclusions.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the National Basic Research Program (973) of China under Grant No. 2004CB719802, in part by the National Science Foundation of China for Distinguished Young Scholars under Grant No. 60225001, in part by the National Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 60496317, in part by the National Doctoral Foundation of China under Grant No. 20040286010, and in part by the foundation for Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of Southeast University.

References and links

1 .

V. G. Veselago ,“ The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of εand μ ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10 , 509 ( 1968 ). [CrossRef]

2 .

J. B. Pendry , “ Negative refraction makes a perfect lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 , 3966 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3 .

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , and S. Schultz , “ Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction ,” Science 292 , 77 ( 2001 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4 .

A. Grbic and G. V. Eleftheriades , “ Overcoming the diffraction limit. with a planar left-handed transmission-line lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 , 117403 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5 .

Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui , “ High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material ,” Phys. Rev. B , 72 , 113112 , 2005 . [CrossRef]

6 .

W. C. Chew , Waves and Fields in Inhomogenous Media ( Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York , 1990 ).

OCIS Codes
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Citation
Qiang Cheng and Tie Jun Cui, "High-power generation and transmission in a left-handed planar waveguide excited by an electric dipole," Opt. Express 13, 10230-10237 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10230


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References

  1. V. G. Veselago,"The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968). [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Grbic and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Overcoming the diffraction limit. with a planar left-handed transmission-line lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 117403 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui, "High power generation and transmission through a left-handed material," Phys. Rev. B, 72, 113112, 2005. [CrossRef]
  6. W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogenous Media (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990).

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