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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 25 — Dec. 12, 2005
  • pp: 10266–10271
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Observation of strong stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber

Kazi S. Abedin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 25, pp. 10266-10271 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.010266


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Abstract

Strong stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber is observed using a cw laser at 1.55 μm wavelength region. Brillouin threshold for a 5-m-long fiber is as small as 85 mW. The Brillouin frequency shift vB and the gain linewidth ΔvB are 7.95 GHz and 13.2 MHz, respectively, measured with heterodyne detection and an RF spectrum analyzer. A Brillouin gain coefficient gB of 6.0 × 10-9 m/W, about 134 times larger than that of fused silica fiber, is obtained for As2Se3 single mode fiber from measurements of Brillouin threshold power and the gain linewidth.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

When a narrow band laser radiation is propagated through optical fiber, a part of light is seen to scatter in the backward direction when the power exceeds a certain limit [1

1 . E. P. Ippen and R.H. Stolen , “ Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21 , 539 – 540 ( 1972 ). [CrossRef]

]. This phenomenon known as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) imposes a limit to the amount of optical power that can be transmitted thorough an optical fiber and has been considered detrimental to optical communication systems and in many nonlinear fiber-optic applications involving cw light. However, the SBS can be useful to amplify a narrow band optical signal by propagating in a direction opposite to the pump, and this has lead applications in many places such as Brillouin amplifiers, lasers, distributed fiber sensors, as well as phase conjugators [2

2 . G. P. Agrawal , Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, California , 1995 .

]. Using the intensity-dependent refractive index change associated with SBS process, tunable optical delays via slowing of light has been demonstrated in optical fiber [3

3 . Y. Okawachi , J. E. Sharping , A. L. Gaeta , M. S. Bigelow , A. Schweinsberg , R. W. Boyd , Z. Zhu , and D. J. Gauthier , “ Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber ,” CLEO 2005 , Baltimore, MD, CMCC3.

], which has drawn considerable attention lately for its potential applications in optical networks. For applications involving SBS, it is desirable to have medium that has large Brillouin gain coefficient, g B in order to reduce the threshold power and also the device length. Although many crystals and organic materials are reported to have large Brillouin gain coefficients [4

4 . H. Yoshida , M. Nakatsuka , H. Fujita , T. Sasaki , and K. Yoshida , “ High-energy operation of a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror in an L-Arginine phosphate monohydrate crystal ,” Appl. Opt. 36 , 7783 – 7787 ( 1997 ). [CrossRef]

], many are difficult to draw in the form of optical fibers. So far a number of non-silica based fibers are successfully drawn into optical fibers, which include tellurite, bismuth and chalcogenide glass fibers. These fibers are reported to have large nonlinear Kerr and Raman gain coefficients, and already found to have potential applications in high-speed optical signal processing [5

5 . J. H. Lee , T. Tanemura , T. Nagashima , T. Hasegawa , S. Ohara , N. Sugimoto , and K. Kikuchi , “ Use of 1-m Bi 2 O 3 nonlinear fiber for 160-Gbit/s optical-time division demultiplexing based on polarization rotation and wavelength shift induced by cross-phase modulation ,” Opt. Lett. 30 , 1267 – 1269 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6 . M. Asobe , T. Kanamori , and K. I. Kubodera , “ Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29 , 2325 – 2333 ( 1993 ). [CrossRef]

].

The chalcogenide glasses contain S, Se that has transparency beyond 2 μm and nonlinear coefficients over two-three order of magnitudes larger than that of silica glass [6–9

6 . M. Asobe , T. Kanamori , and K. I. Kubodera , “ Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29 , 2325 – 2333 ( 1993 ). [CrossRef]

]. Within the As-S-Se chalcogenide glass family, As2Se3 glass is reported to have 500 times larger nonlinear coefficient n 2 than that of silica [7

7 . G. Lens , J. Zimmermann , T. Katsufuji , M. E. Lines , H. Y. Hwang , S. Spalter , R. E. Slusher , S.-W. Cheong , J. S. Sanghera , and I. D. Aggarwal , Large Kerr-effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses ,” Opt. Lett. 25 , 254 – 257 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

]. Low loss multimode As2Se3 fiber has been fabricated that exhibited large Raman gain coefficients [9

9 . R. E. Slusher , G. Lenz , J. Hodelin , J. Sanghera , L. B. Shaw , and I. D. Aggarwal , “ Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As 2 Se 3 chalcogenide fibers ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21 , 1146 – 1155 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

,10

10 . P. A. Thielen , L. B. Shaw , P. C. Pureza , V. Q. Nguyen , J. S. Sanghera , and I. D. Aggarwal , “ Small-core As-Se fiber for Raman amplification ,” Opt. Lett. 28 , 1406 – 1408 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Also optical regeneration in single mode As2Se3 fiber is also been demonstrated recently using the large Kerr nonlinearity [11

11 . L. B. Fu , M. Rochette , V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Investigation of self-phase modulation based optical regenerator in single mode As 2 Se 3 chalcogenide glass fiber ,” Opt. Express 13 , 7637 – 7644 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-19-7637 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Besides, Ogusu et al. estimated the Brillouin gain coefficient in As2Se3 glass using the phonon lifetime time and reported a value about 25 times large than that of fused silica [12

12 . K. Ogusu , H. Li , and M. Kitao , “ Brillouin-gain coefficient of chalcogenide glasses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21 , 1302 – 1304 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

]. However, to our knowledge so far no experimental observation of Brillouin scattering effect and its characterization in As2Se3 optical fiber has been reported.

This paper reports the first observation of SBS in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber in the 1.55 μm wavelength region. Strong SBS is observed from a fiber merely 5 m in length when pumped with a continuous wave (cw) laser with a threshold power of only 85 mW. The Brillouin frequency shift is 7.95 GHz that has a 3-dB linewidth of 13.2 MHz. A Brillouin gain coefficient g B of 6.2 × 10-9 m/W, as much as 134 times larger than fused silica fiber is measured.

2. Experiment

The chalcogenide fiber was drawn at CorActive HighTech Inc. from high-purity material using double-crucible process [13

13 . R. Mossadegh , J. S. Sanghera , D. Schaafsma , B. J. Cole , V. Q. Nguyen , R. E. Miklos , and I. D. Aggarwal , “ Fabrication of single-mode chalcogenide optical fiber ,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16 , 214 – 217 ( 1998 ). [CrossRef]

], where the core was made from As39Se61 and the cladding from one that had slightly reduced As content [9

9 . R. E. Slusher , G. Lenz , J. Hodelin , J. Sanghera , L. B. Shaw , and I. D. Aggarwal , “ Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As 2 Se 3 chalcogenide fibers ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21 , 1146 – 1155 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

]. The core diameter of the fiber was 6 μm and the NA was 0.18, which resulted in a V number of 2.2, and allowed the lowest mode to propagate through the fiber in the 1.55 μm wavelength. Because of the large refractive index of ~2.8 in chalcogenide glass, the fibers had large Fresnel reflection (22%), which was suppressed by antireflection coating for operation at 1.55μn. Two pieces of single mode silica fibers, tapered at their ends, were used to couple light into and out from the fiber.

Since the index of chalcogenide glass is relatively large compared to silica, light that did not coupled into the core could partly reached the other end of the fiber. However, by coupling light at the output of AS2Se3 fiber using a lensed fiber, it was possible to accurately determine the light that travel in a single mode inside the core. Using a superluminescence laser source, the transmission spectra were measured for two pieces of As2Se3 fibers, 2 and 10 m in length, and were used for determining the transmission loss α in the 1360-1660 nm region and also the coupling loss.

The experimental setup used to study the Brillouin scattering in As2Se3 fiber is shown in Fig. 1. Light from an external cavity tunable cw laser operating at 1560 nm was amplified and launched into the fiber though am optical circulator, and light that was backscattered from the As2Se3 fiber was collected at the port #3 of the circulator and used for diagnosis. The intensity of Stokes component could be measured using an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution of 0.01 nm. The pump power was gradually changed while the peak of the Stokes component was recorded using the optical spectrum analyzer. From the threshold power we determined the Brillouin gain coefficients using the small-signal steady-state theory of stimulated Brillouin scattering [14

14 . R. G Smith , “ Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering ,” Appl. Opt. 11 , 2489 – 2494 ( 1972 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15 . D. Cotter , “ Observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in low-loss silica fiber at 1.3 μm ,” Electron. Lett. 18 , 495 – 496 ( 1982 ). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 1. Experimental setup used for observation of Brillouin Scattering in chalcogenide fiber (a) and linewidth measurement using heterodyne detection (b).

We also performed a heterodyne detection to measure the Brillouin shift with a higher resolution and also the gain linewidth [16

16 . R. W. Tkach , A. R. Chraplyvy , and R. M. Derosier , “ Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode optical-fiber characterization ,” Electron. Lett. 22 , 1011 – 1013 ( 1986 ). [CrossRef]

]. The backscattered light was amplified using an erbium amplifier and detected using a fast photodiode and broadband electrical amplifier as shown in Fig. 1(b). The Stokes component and a fraction of light pump light reflected in the backward direction from the coupling optics caused optical beating, which could be observed in an RF spectrum analyzer. We could measure the Brillouin gain spectrum with high resolution (300 KHz), which yielded the gain linewidth.

3. Results

Figure 2 shows the loss per meter versus wavelength, which indicates a loss lower than 1.0 dB/m over a wide wavelength range. The transmission loss at 1.55 μm is about 0.84 dB/m. The coupling loss between single mode fiber (SMF28) and the As2Se3 fiber was estimated to be 2.2 dB.

Fig. 2. Transmission loss of single-mode As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber.

Figure 3 shows the optical spectra of the back-scattered light from a 4.92-m (effective length L eff is 3.2 m) long fiber observed with pump powers of 60 and 88 mW. A Stokes wavelength component at a separation of 0.06 nm in the longer wavelength side could be seen in the optical spectra. Figure 4 plots the power level of the light back scattered from the fiber as a function of the launched pump power. We could see the Stokes component with pump power as small as 6 mW. Brillouin threshold was observed at a power of 85 mW, when a sharp increase in the Stokes component could be seen.

Fig. 3. Optical spectra of output from As2Se3 fiber in the backward direction for different pump power level.

gBK(Pth/Aeff)Leff21
(1)

Here Pth is power corresponding to the Brillouin threshold, A eff is the effective cross sectional area defined as Aeff = πωo2o is the 1/e2-intensity radius of a Gaussian distribution), Leff is the effective length defined as Leff = α-1(1-exp[-αL]), and K is a constant that depends on the polarization property of the fiber which is 1 if the polarization is maintained and 0.5 otherwise [17

17 . R. H. Stolen , “ Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15 , 1157 – 1160 ( 1979 ). [CrossRef]

]. Note that with this definition of Aeff , the exponential Brillouin gain along a fiber becomes g B LeffP/Aeff (P is the incident pump power). Radius ωo can be calculated from the core radius a and the V parameter using, ωoa(0.65+1.619/V1.5+2.879/V6) [18

18 . A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan , Introduction to fiber optics, Cambridge University Press, NewYork , 1998 .

]

Fig. 4. Power of light backscattered from the 4.9 m long chalcogenide fiber.

Using, P th = 85 mW, A eff = 39 μm2, Leff = 3.17 m and K = 0.5 in Eq. (1) we obtained the peak Brillouin gain coefficient gB = 6.0 × 10-9 m/W.

Brillouin shift and linewidth could be observed with a higher resolution from the heterodyne measurement. The RF spectra that resulted from the beating between the pump laser and the Stokes component is shown in Fig. 5. The Brillouin gain spectrum shows a peak at 7.95 GHz (ν B) and a 3-dB linewidth of Brillouin scattering (Δν B) of 13.2 MHz.

Fig. 5. RF spectrum of the beat signal obtained by heterodyne detection for a pump power of 71 mw.

We also calculated the peak value of Brillouin gain coefficient from the linewidth of Brillouin gain using the following equation [15

15 . D. Cotter , “ Observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in low-loss silica fiber at 1.3 μm ,” Electron. Lett. 18 , 495 – 496 ( 1982 ). [CrossRef]

].

gB=2πn7p122cλP2ρvaΔνB
(2)

where n is the refractive index, p12 is the longitudinal elastooptic coefficient, c is the velocity of light, λ is the wavelength, ρ is the material density, V A is the acoustic velocity, Δν B is the linewidth of spontaneous Brillouin scattering. Using the measured value of Δν B = 13.2 MHz, and also the published values of n = 2.81, ρ = 4.64 × 103 kg/m3, v A= 2250 m/s, p12 = 0.266, gB for As2Se3 was determined to be 6.08 × 10-9 m/W.

3. Discussion

The Brillouin gain coefficients measured experimentally using linewidth and threshold of single pass Brillouin scattering are in agreement with each other. The following table compares the Brillouin gain coefficients for As2Se3 and silica glass fiber and the parameters that are used to calculate the gain coefficients. As shown in the table the Brillouin gain in As2Se3 single mode fiber is about 134 times larger than that of fused silica.

Table 1. Brillouin shift, linewidth and gain coefficients of As2Se3 and fused silica at 1.56 μm

table-icon
View This Table

It is worth comparing the experimental value of gB with that estimated recently by Ogusu et al. for bulk As2Se3 glass in Ref. 12. They calculated the Brillouin gain coefficient from phonon lifetime T B, which was estimated from the attenuation coefficient αA reported for acoustic wave at 200 MHz for bulk As2Se3 [20

20 . Y. Ohmachi and N. Uchida , “ Vitreous As 2 Se 3 : Investigation of acousto-optical properties and application to infrared modulator ,” J. Appl. Phys. 43 , 1709 – 1712 ( 1972 ). [CrossRef]

] and the acoustic velocity v A [19

19 . N. Uchida and N. Niizeki , “ Acoustooptic deflection materials and techniques ,” Proceedings of IEEE 61 , 1073 – 1092 ( 1973 ). [CrossRef]

]. As the experimental data αA of acoustic waves in the 11 GHz range was not available, it was approximated from αA measured at 200 MHz through an extrapolation made under the assumption that αAvB2. They obtained a g B in bulk As2Se3 that was 25 times larger than that of bulk silica.

We can think of several possible sources that might have caused this discrepancy between the estimated g B for bulk As2Se3, and experimentally determined g B for single mode As2Se3 fiber, which include differences in the exact guided nature of optical modes (transverse distribution of the electric field) and damping time of acoustic waves between bulk sample and cylindrical optical waveguide [2

2 . G. P. Agrawal , Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, California , 1995 .

, 22

22 . T. C. Rich and D. A. Pinnow , “ Evaluation of fiber optical waveguides using Brillouin spectroscopy ,” Appl. Opt. 13 , 1376 ( 1974 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], exact composition (e.g. As39Se61 in the core of the fiber we used) of the core and clad, the purity of material, and also any possible deviation in the estimation of attenuation coefficient for higher acoustic frequency using αAvB2. For example the gB estimated for fused silica (2.24 × 10-11 m/W) in Ref. 12 from αA is about half of what measured in fused silica fiber [1

1 . E. P. Ippen and R.H. Stolen , “ Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21 , 539 – 540 ( 1972 ). [CrossRef]

]. Also equation 2 is derived under the assumption of no reflections from the Brillouin fiber. However, there can exist some weak feedback due to residual reflections from the fiber ends despite the ends being antireflection coated, which might effect the threshold power measurements [23

23 . J. Bar-Joseph , A. A. Friesem , E. Lichtman , and R.G. Warris , “ Steady and relaxation oscillations of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2 , 1606 – 1611 ( 1985 ). [CrossRef]

] and the calculated value of the gain coefficient. These effects are currently under investigation.

4. Summary

In conclusion, we report our observation of a strong SBS from As2Se3 single mode optical fiber. The threshold power for single Brillouin scattering from a 4.92 m long fiber was about 80 mW. The Brillouin shift was measured to be 7.95 GHz, which has a bandwidth of 13.2 MHz. A Brillouin gain coefficient of 6.0 × 10-9 m/W, about 134 times larger than that of fused silica fiber, was obtained from both the gain linewidth and Brillouin threshold measurements.

References and links

1 .

E. P. Ippen and R.H. Stolen , “ Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21 , 539 – 540 ( 1972 ). [CrossRef]

2 .

G. P. Agrawal , Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, California , 1995 .

3 .

Y. Okawachi , J. E. Sharping , A. L. Gaeta , M. S. Bigelow , A. Schweinsberg , R. W. Boyd , Z. Zhu , and D. J. Gauthier , “ Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber ,” CLEO 2005 , Baltimore, MD, CMCC3.

4 .

H. Yoshida , M. Nakatsuka , H. Fujita , T. Sasaki , and K. Yoshida , “ High-energy operation of a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror in an L-Arginine phosphate monohydrate crystal ,” Appl. Opt. 36 , 7783 – 7787 ( 1997 ). [CrossRef]

5 .

J. H. Lee , T. Tanemura , T. Nagashima , T. Hasegawa , S. Ohara , N. Sugimoto , and K. Kikuchi , “ Use of 1-m Bi 2 O 3 nonlinear fiber for 160-Gbit/s optical-time division demultiplexing based on polarization rotation and wavelength shift induced by cross-phase modulation ,” Opt. Lett. 30 , 1267 – 1269 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6 .

M. Asobe , T. Kanamori , and K. I. Kubodera , “ Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29 , 2325 – 2333 ( 1993 ). [CrossRef]

7 .

G. Lens , J. Zimmermann , T. Katsufuji , M. E. Lines , H. Y. Hwang , S. Spalter , R. E. Slusher , S.-W. Cheong , J. S. Sanghera , and I. D. Aggarwal , Large Kerr-effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses ,” Opt. Lett. 25 , 254 – 257 ( 2000 ). [CrossRef]

8 .

J. M. Harbold , F. O. IIday , F. W. Wise , J. S. Sanghera , V. Q. Nguyen , L. B. Shaw , and I. D. Aggarwal , “ Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching ,” Opt. Lett. 27 , 119 – 121 ( 2002 ). [CrossRef]

9 .

R. E. Slusher , G. Lenz , J. Hodelin , J. Sanghera , L. B. Shaw , and I. D. Aggarwal , “ Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As 2 Se 3 chalcogenide fibers ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21 , 1146 – 1155 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

10 .

P. A. Thielen , L. B. Shaw , P. C. Pureza , V. Q. Nguyen , J. S. Sanghera , and I. D. Aggarwal , “ Small-core As-Se fiber for Raman amplification ,” Opt. Lett. 28 , 1406 – 1408 ( 2003 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11 .

L. B. Fu , M. Rochette , V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , and B. J. Eggleton , “ Investigation of self-phase modulation based optical regenerator in single mode As 2 Se 3 chalcogenide glass fiber ,” Opt. Express 13 , 7637 – 7644 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-19-7637 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12 .

K. Ogusu , H. Li , and M. Kitao , “ Brillouin-gain coefficient of chalcogenide glasses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21 , 1302 – 1304 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

13 .

R. Mossadegh , J. S. Sanghera , D. Schaafsma , B. J. Cole , V. Q. Nguyen , R. E. Miklos , and I. D. Aggarwal , “ Fabrication of single-mode chalcogenide optical fiber ,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16 , 214 – 217 ( 1998 ). [CrossRef]

14 .

R. G Smith , “ Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering ,” Appl. Opt. 11 , 2489 – 2494 ( 1972 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15 .

D. Cotter , “ Observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in low-loss silica fiber at 1.3 μm ,” Electron. Lett. 18 , 495 – 496 ( 1982 ). [CrossRef]

16 .

R. W. Tkach , A. R. Chraplyvy , and R. M. Derosier , “ Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode optical-fiber characterization ,” Electron. Lett. 22 , 1011 – 1013 ( 1986 ). [CrossRef]

17 .

R. H. Stolen , “ Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15 , 1157 – 1160 ( 1979 ). [CrossRef]

18 .

A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan , Introduction to fiber optics, Cambridge University Press, NewYork , 1998 .

19 .

N. Uchida and N. Niizeki , “ Acoustooptic deflection materials and techniques ,” Proceedings of IEEE 61 , 1073 – 1092 ( 1973 ). [CrossRef]

20 .

Y. Ohmachi and N. Uchida , “ Vitreous As 2 Se 3 : Investigation of acousto-optical properties and application to infrared modulator ,” J. Appl. Phys. 43 , 1709 – 1712 ( 1972 ). [CrossRef]

21 .

G. W. Faris , L. E. Jusinski , and A. P. Hickman , “ High resolution stimulated Brillouin spectroscopy in glasses and crystals ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10 , 587 – 599 ( 1993 ). [CrossRef]

22 .

T. C. Rich and D. A. Pinnow , “ Evaluation of fiber optical waveguides using Brillouin spectroscopy ,” Appl. Opt. 13 , 1376 ( 1974 ). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23 .

J. Bar-Joseph , A. A. Friesem , E. Lichtman , and R.G. Warris , “ Steady and relaxation oscillations of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2 , 1606 – 1611 ( 1985 ). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2400) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber properties
(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(290.5900) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Brillouin

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Citation
Kazi S. Abedin, "Observation of strong stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber," Opt. Express 13, 10266-10271 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10266


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References

  1. E. P. Ippen and R.H. Stolen, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 539-540 (1972). [CrossRef]
  2. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, California, 1995.
  3. Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, M. S. Bigelow, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, and D. J. Gauthier, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," CLEO 2005, Baltimore, MD, CMCC3.
  4. H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, H. Fujita, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "High-energy operation of a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror in an L-Arginine phosphate monohydrate crystal," Appl. Opt. 36, 7783-7787 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Lee, T. Tanemura, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Use of 1-m Bi2O3 nonlinear fiber for 160-Gbit/s optical-time division demultiplexing based on polarization rotation and wavelength shift induced by cross-phase modulation," Opt. Lett. 30, 1267-1269 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Asobe, T, Kanamori, and K. I. Kubodera, "Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325-2333 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Lens, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y, Hwang, S. Spalter, R. E. Slusher, S.-W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Kerr-effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses," Opt. Lett. 25, 254-257 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Harbold, F. O. IIday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw and I. D. Aggarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146-1155 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. P. A. Thielen, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Small-core As-Se fiber for Raman amplification," Opt. Lett. 28, 1406-1408 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. B. Fu, M. Rochette, V. G. Ta'eed, D. J. Moss and B. J. Eggleton, "Investigation of self-phase modulation based optical regenerator in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7637-7644 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-19-7637">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-19-7637</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Ogusu, H. Li, and M. Kitao, "Brillouin-gain coefficient of chalcogenide glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1302-1304 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Mossadegh, J. S. Sanghera, D. Schaafsma, B. J. Cole, V. Q. Nguyen, R. E. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Fabrication of single-mode chalcogenide optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 214-217 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. R. G Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 2489-2494 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Cotter, "Observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in low-loss silica fiber at 1.3 µm," Electron. Lett. 18, 495-496 (1982). [CrossRef]
  16. R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and R. M. Derosier, "Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode optical-fiber characterization," Electron. Lett. 22, 1011-1013 (1986). [CrossRef]
  17. R. H. Stolen, "Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1157-1160 (1979). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to fiber optics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998.
  19. N. Uchida and N. Niizeki, "Acoustooptic deflection materials and techniques," Proceedings of IEEE 61, 1073-1092 (1973). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Ohmachi and N. Uchida, "Vitreous As2Se3: Investigation of acousto-optical properties and application to infrared modulator," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1709-1712 (1972). [CrossRef]
  21. G. W. Faris, L. E. Jusinski, and A. P. Hickman, "High resolution stimulated Brillouin spectroscopy in glasses and crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 587-599 (1993). [CrossRef]
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