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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 26 — Dec. 26, 2005
  • pp: 10608–10615
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3.9–4.8 μm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature

J. Kernal, V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S. B. Mirov, and V. V. Badikov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 26, pp. 10608-10615 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.010608


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Abstract

We report a room temperature Fe:ZnSe laser in gain-switched operation and tuning over the 3.9 – 4.8μm spectral range. Mid-IR emission of Fe2+:ZnSe was studied under three regimes of excitation: ordinary optical (2.92μm) excitation of 5T2 excited state of Fe2+; excitation via 5E level of Cr co-dopant (1.56μm); and excitation via photo-ionization transition of Fe2+ (0.532μm). The energy transfer from Cr2+ (5E level) to Fe+ (5T2 level) under 1.56μm wavelength excitation was observed and resulted in simultaneous room temperature emission of Fe:Cr:ZnSe crystal over ultra-broadband spectral range of 2–3 and 3.5–5μm. We also report the observation of mid-IR emission at 3.5–5μm induced by 2+->3+->-2+ ionization transitions of the iron ions in Fe:ZnSe.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

There is a growing demand for affordable mid-infrared sources for use in a variety of applications including eye-safe laser radar, remote sensing of atmospheric constituents, trace gas analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial control, eye-safe medical laser sources for non-invasive medical diagnostics, optical communication, and numerous military applications such as target designation, obstacle avoidance and infrared counter measures.

DeLoach et al. [1

1 . L. D. DeLoach , R. H. Page , G. D. Wilke , S. A. Payne , and W. F. Krupke , “ Transition Metal-Doped Zinc Chalcogenides: Spectroscopy and Laser Demonstration of a New Class of Gain Media ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32 , 885 – 895 ( 1996 ). [CrossRef]

] and Page et al. [2

2 . R. H. Page , K. I. Schaffers , L. D. DeLoach , G. D. Wilke , F. D. Patel , J. B. Tassano , S. A. Payne , W. F. Krupke , K. T. Chen , and A. Burger , “ Cr 2+ -Doped Zinc Chalcogenides as Efficient, Widely Tunable Mid-Infrared Lasers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33/4 , 609 – 617 ( 1997 ). [CrossRef]

] have performed detailed spectroscopic studies of several II –VI chalcogenides with different divalent transition metal (TM) ions as potential mid-IR laser materials. These publications [1

1 . L. D. DeLoach , R. H. Page , G. D. Wilke , S. A. Payne , and W. F. Krupke , “ Transition Metal-Doped Zinc Chalcogenides: Spectroscopy and Laser Demonstration of a New Class of Gain Media ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32 , 885 – 895 ( 1996 ). [CrossRef]

, 2

2 . R. H. Page , K. I. Schaffers , L. D. DeLoach , G. D. Wilke , F. D. Patel , J. B. Tassano , S. A. Payne , W. F. Krupke , K. T. Chen , and A. Burger , “ Cr 2+ -Doped Zinc Chalcogenides as Efficient, Widely Tunable Mid-Infrared Lasers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33/4 , 609 – 617 ( 1997 ). [CrossRef]

] introduced to the laser community a new class of mid-IR laser media. Since then, lasers based on Cr:ZnS, Cr:ZnSe, Cr:Cd1-xMnxTe, and Cr:CdSe crystals working with efficiency exceeding 60% in CW, free-running long pulse, Q-switched and mode-locked regimes of operation and tunable over the 2–3.5 μm spectral region were reported (see review [3

3 . I. T. Sorokina , “ Cr 2+ -doped II–VI materials for lasers and nonlinear optics ,” Opt. Mater. 26 , 395 – 412 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

] and references herein).

Similar to Cr2+ (3d4) ions, the ground and first excited levels of Fe2+ (3d6) ions have the same spin, and therefore will have a relatively high cross-section of emission. Furthermore, higher lying levels of Cr2+ and Fe2+ - have spins that are lower than the ground and first excited levels, greatly reducing the probability for significant excited state absorption at the pump or laser transition wavelengths. The lowest term 5D of the Fe2+ (3d6) free ion is split into an orbital doublet 5E (ground state) and an orbital triplet 5T2 (higher level) by the tetrahedral symmetry crystal field (point group Td) when the Fe2+ ion substitutes for a Zn ion in the lattice. The Jahn-Teller, spin-orbit interactions further provide 15-fold and 10-fold splitting of the 5T2 and 5E states, respectively. The crystal field splitting for Fe2+ ions in the tetrahedral fields of the II–VI crystals is smaller than for Cr2+ ions, so for a Fe2+ doped crystal, the laser operates in a longer wavelength range (3.7–5.0 μm), which is important for many applications.

Unfortunately, mid-IR transition in Fe2+:ZnSe crystal demonstrates multi-phonon quenching at room temperature, as a result untill now the lasing of Fe2+:ZnSe crystals have been achieved only for temperatures below 180K. The first lasing action from an Fe-doped semiconductor at 2K was demonstrated by Klein et al.[4

4 . P. B. Klein , J. E. Furneaux , and R. L. Henry , “ Laser oscillation at 3.53 μm from Fe 2+ in n-InP:Fe ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42 , 638 ( 1983 ). [CrossRef]

], who observed laser oscillations at 3.53 μm in n–InP crystal. The first tunable lasing of Fe:ZnSe crystal in 3.98–4.5 μm spectral range was demonstrated in [5

5 . J. J. Adams , C. Bibeau , R. H. Page , D. M. Krol , L. H. Furu , and S. A. Payne , “ 4.0–4.5μm lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180 K, a new mid-infrared laser material ,” Opt. Lett. 24 , 1720 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

] for temperatures ranging from 15 to 180 K. Recently an IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable over 3.98–4.5 μm spectral range was demonstrated in [6

6 . V. A. Akimov , A. A. Voronov , V. I. Kozlovskii , Yu. V. Korostelin , A. I. Landman , Yu. P. Podmar’kov , and M. P. Frolov , “ Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 μm ,” Quantum Electron. 34(10) , 912 – 914 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

,7

7 . A. A. Voronov , V. I. Kozlovskii , Yu. V. Korostelin , A. I. Landman , Yu. P. Podmar’kov , and M. P. Frolov , “ Laser parameters of a Fe:ZnSe laser crystal in the 85–255K temperature range ,” Quantum Electron. 35(9) , 809 – 812 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

] at 255K.

In this study we extend our effort to develop high optical density and high quality Fe2+:ZnSe and demonstrate the feasibility of Fe2+:ZnSe crystals for gain-switched lasing at room temperature (RT).

2. Experimental procedures

The undoped polycrystalline samples ZnSe were grown by chemical vapor deposition and doping of the 1–3 mm thick ZnSe polycrystalline wafers was performed by after growth thermal diffusion of Fe and/or Cr. Doping of ZnSe samples was achieved by inserting ZnSe crystals together with FeSe or CrSe powder into quartz ampoules that were evacuated and sealed under 10-4 Torr pressure. The sealed ampoules were then placed in a furnace and annealed at 820–1120°C for 5–14 days. Once removed from the furnace and cooled, doped crystals were extracted from the ampoules and polished.

Unpolarized absorption spectra were measured at low temperatures with a close-cycle helium cryostat and a computer-controlled 0.75m Acton Research “SpectraPro-750” spectrometer. Room temperature absorption measurements in visible and mid-infrared spectral regions were performed with Shimadzu UV-VIS-NIR-3101PC” and Bruker “Tensor-27” FTIR spectrophotometers.

Fig. 1. Experimental set-up for spectroscopic and laser characterization of Fe:ZnSe.

3. Spectroscopic characterization

The absorption spectra of 5E→5T2 transition are depicted in Fig. 2. The maximum absorption coefficients of the crystals at room temperature were k=6–9 cm -1 (at λ=3200 nm). The concentration in the doped samples was estimated using absorption cross section (σab=0.65 ×1018 cm2) at 2.698 μm reported in [5

5 . J. J. Adams , C. Bibeau , R. H. Page , D. M. Krol , L. H. Furu , and S. A. Payne , “ 4.0–4.5μm lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180 K, a new mid-infrared laser material ,” Opt. Lett. 24 , 1720 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

]. The calculated Fe concentration in these crystals was about (6–9)×1018 cm3 and varied in some crystals from 1018 to 1020 cm-3. Figure 2 curve (ii) demonstrates the absorption spectrum of Fe and Cr co-doped ZnSe crystals. As one can see, these crystals feature a characteristic Cr2+ 5T25E band at 1770 nm with a maximum absorption coefficient of 1.8 cm-1 in addition to the absorption band of Fe. At T=20K (Fig. 2, curve (iii)) the absorption spectrum of Fe:ZnSe reveals structure of the 5E→5T2 transition with a zero-phonon line near 2725 cm-1.

Fig. 2. Absorption spectra of Fe:ZnSe (i) at RT, Fe:Cr:ZnSe (ii) at RT and Fe:ZnSe (iii) at 20K.

The room temperature emission spectra (measured in units proportional to (W ×nm -1 m 2 × srad -1) over 3100–5500 nm spectral range are shown in Fig. 3. A. As one can see, at room temperature all the samples feature a broadband (3500-5500 nm) luminescence with a dip in the middle of the emission spectra around 4300 nm, caused by absorption of atmospheric CO2. The radiative lifetime measurement at room temperature was limited by the temporal response of the InSb detector and was estimated to be less than 1μs.

We also studied mid-IR luminescence of Cr:ZnSe, Fe:Cr:ZnSe, as well as Fe:ZnSe under excitation with the D2 Raman shifted radiation (1st Stokes 1.56μm) of a Nd:YAG laser. This excitation overlaps with the absorption band of Cr2+ (see Fig. 2) and results in a strong room temperature luminescence of Cr2+ over the 2000–3300 nm spectral range detected in both Cr:ZnSe and Fe:Cr:ZnSe crystals. There was no Fe2+ luminescence detected in Fe:ZnSe crystals under 1.56μm excitation. Interestingly, in addition to Cr2+, the Fe2+ luminescence under 1.56μm excitation was observed in Fe:Cr:ZnSe crystals. Figure 3.B demonstrates room temperature luminescence spectra of Cr:ZnSe and Fe:Cr:ZnSe crystals under 1.56μm wavelength excitation measured in the same experimental conditions. Absence of the Fe2+ luminescence in the Fe:ZnSe and Cr:ZnSe crystals and existence of the Fe2+ luminescence in the Fe:Cr:ZnSe samples indicate that Fe2+ in ZnSe could be excited via Cr2+→Fe2+ energy transfer process.

Chromium and iron mid-IR luminescence in Fe:ZnSe crystals were also measured under 532nm excitation at cryogenic temperatures (~20K). We believe that this luminescence is induced by photo-ionization excitation of TM ions in ZnSe. The ionization mechanisms of chromium ions under 532 nm excitation leading to strong mid-IR emission and lasing has been recently discussed in [8

8 . V. Yu. Ivanov , M. Godlewski , A. Szczerbakow , A. Omel’chuk , A. Davydov , N. Zhavoronkov , and G. Raciukaitis , “ Optically Pumped Mid - Infrared Stimulated Emission of ZnSe: Cr Crystals ,” Acta Physica Polonica A 105(6) , 553 – 558 ( 2004 ).

, 9

9 . A. Gallian , V. V. Fedorov , J. Kernal , S. B. Mirov , and V. V. Badikov , “ Laser Oscillation at 2.4 μm from Cr 2+ in ZnSe Optically Pumped over Cr Ionization Transitions ,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2005 Technical Digest on CD-ROM ( The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 2005 ), MB12.

]. The ionization of the iron ions from a 2+ to a 3+ state under the 532nm radiation and then a recombination with an electron from the conduction band will eventually leave the Fe ion in an 2+ 5T2 excited state that will be the same as with direct intra-shell excitation [4

4 . P. B. Klein , J. E. Furneaux , and R. L. Henry , “ Laser oscillation at 3.53 μm from Fe 2+ in n-InP:Fe ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42 , 638 ( 1983 ). [CrossRef]

]. A similar technique was used with Cr:ZnSe and at RT resulted in mid-IR lasing [9

9 . A. Gallian , V. V. Fedorov , J. Kernal , S. B. Mirov , and V. V. Badikov , “ Laser Oscillation at 2.4 μm from Cr 2+ in ZnSe Optically Pumped over Cr Ionization Transitions ,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2005 Technical Digest on CD-ROM ( The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 2005 ), MB12.

].

The absorption cross section was obtained from absorption measurement and using the known absorption cross section at 2.698 μm [5

5 . J. J. Adams , C. Bibeau , R. H. Page , D. M. Krol , L. H. Furu , and S. A. Payne , “ 4.0–4.5μm lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180 K, a new mid-infrared laser material ,” Opt. Lett. 24 , 1720 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

]. Emission cross sections at room temperature are determined using either the reciprocity method (RM) or the Fuchtbauer-Landenburg (FL) equation [10

10 . D. E. McCumber , “ Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra ,” Phys. Rev. 136(4A) , 954 – 957 ( 1964 ). [CrossRef]

, 11

11 . S. A. Payne , L. L. Chase , L. K. Smith , W. L. Kway , and W. Krupke , “ Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er 3+ , Tm 3+ , and Ho 3+ ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28 , 2619 – 2630 ( 1992 ). [CrossRef]

]. Using a fundamental relationship between spontaneous and stimulated processes, the FL equation can be written as

σem(λ)=λ5I(λ)8πcn2τradI(λ)λdλ,
(1)

where σem(λ) is emission cross section, λ-emission wavelength, n - refractive index, c-speed of light, τrad- radiative emission life-time, and I -energy per area per time. The radiative lifetime was estimated from the absorption measurements as follows:

τrad=gugl18πn2c1λ4σab(ν)
(2)

Fig. 3. (a) Room temperature emission of Fe:ZnSe crystal under 2.92 μm excitation ((i) Epump= 2 mJ, (ii) Epump=5 mJ, (iii) Epump=8 mJ); (b) Emission of Fe:Cr:ZnSe (iv) and Cr:ZnSe (v) crystal under 1.56 μm excitation.
Fig. 4. Room temperature absorption (i) and emission cross-sections (ii) and (iii). Emission cross-section calculated using reciprocity method (ii) and Fuchtbauer-Landenburg equation (iii)
σem(ν)=σab(ν)ZlZuexp([Ezl]kT),
(3)

where Ezl-is energy separation between the lowest crystal field components of the upper and lower states, Zu,Zl are partition functions, that can be obtained using the energy gap (EiEj) from the lowest crystal field level of each manifold and (gi, gj) energy-level degeneracies by the following equations:

Zu=jgjexp(EjkT)
(4)
Zl=igiexp(EikT)
(5)

The Zl/Zu factor depends on temperature but does not contain any spectral dependence. Emission cross section calculated according to RM with factor Zl/Zu=1.5 is shown in the Fig. 4. The difference in the Zl/Zu factor from gl/gu ratio is caused by bigger upper level splitting (5T2) in comparison to the ground state level (5E) and thermal energy E=kT. As one can see from Fig. 4, both methods (FL and RT) demonstrate a wide amplification band at RT with maximum at ~4300nm and a bandwidth of ~1100nm. However, the spectral shapes of the curves are not identical. This difference can be explained by several reasons. First of all, RM is very sensitive to the accuracy of the absorption measurements for transitions with a large Stocks shift due to an exponential factor. From the other side, the FL method is valid when all the transitions have the same strength regardless of the components involved. But according to [5

5 . J. J. Adams , C. Bibeau , R. H. Page , D. M. Krol , L. H. Furu , and S. A. Payne , “ 4.0–4.5μm lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180 K, a new mid-infrared laser material ,” Opt. Lett. 24 , 1720 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

], the measured Fe2+ lifetime increases in the 12K–120K temperature range and this increase could be a result of very different radiative lifetimes of the components of the 5E→5T2 transition. In addition, measured emission spectra can be of slightly suppressed intensity at the short wavelength tail of the spectrum due to the re-absorption process. In spite of the minor differences, both techniques demonstrate close values for the position of the maximum and linewidth of the amplification band of Fe2+ ions at room temperature.

4. RT gain-switched lasing

As one can see from the Fe:ZnSe emission spectra depicted in Fig. 3 curve-(iii), an increase of pump energy above the threshold level of 7–8 mJ results in Fe stimulated emission at 4400nm accompanied by a sharp line narrowing from 1100nm down to 200nm. This threshold corresponds to lasing due to Fresnel reflections from the crystal surfaces. A setup for room temperature laser experiments is shown in Fig. 1. As a pump source we used the 2nd Stokes output of the Nd3+:YAG laser described above. The pump radiation at 2.92 μm with a beam diameter of 1.5mm excited the Fe2+:ZnSe crystal at Brewster angle of incidence. The crystal temperature remained 300K during all laser measurements. In nonselective laser experiments the cavity was formed by a gold mirror (M2) and Fresnel reflection from the output face of the Fe2+:ZnSe crystal. Figure 5 shows the Fe2+:ZnSe laser output as a function of pump energy. A linear approximation of the experimental data estimates the threshold value of the pump energy to be 2.5mJ. In this experiment the laser spectral line was centered at 4350nm with a linewidth of 150nm. The maximum output energy measured with a J3-02 Molectron Joule meter was estimated to be ~ 1μJ. Obtaining high output energy at RT was not the goal of this initial experiment. The lasing efficiency was small due to the following reasons. First, small optical density of the crystal resulted in a small efficiency of pump absorption. Second, output coupler formed by Fresnel reflection from the crystal facet was not optimal. Later experiments will optimize crystal geometry, doping densities, and the output coupler to increase the output energy.

Fig. 5. Input-output curve for RT gain-switched Fe:ZnSe lasing in nonselective cavity.
Fig. 6. Tuning curve of RT gain-switched Fe:ZnSe laser.

In the laser wavelength tuning experiment a Littrow mount cavity of 10 cm length was utilized (see Fig. 1). Wavelength tuning was realized using a diffraction grating with 150 grooves/mm blazed at 2 μm and operating in an auto-collimation regime for the first diffraction order. Zero order of diffraction served as an output coupler. A wavelength tuning over the 3.9– 4.8 μm spectral region was realized (see Fig. 6). The output of the Fe2+ laser oscillation had a linewidth of approximately 70nm (FWHM) and was limited by nonselective reflection from the crystal surfaces. The peak efficiency of the tunable output was centered at 4150 nm and was shifted to a shorter wavelength when compared to the non-selective regime. This shift could be due to higher diffraction grating efficiency at shorter wavelength. As one can see from the Fig. 6, the measured tuning curve has a deep dip around 4300 nm due to atmospheric absorption of CO2. So, to achieve continuous wavelength tuning at this spectral range the laser cavity should be purged with N2 or other gases. A sharp drop of stimulated emission at the short wavelength tail of the tuning curve could be due to an increase of absorption losses in this part of spectral region.

5. Summary

In conclusion, the absorption and luminescence properties of Fe:ZnSe and Fe:Cr:ZnSe crystals in the middle infrared spectral range were studied at room and low temperatures. Room temperature emission cross-section of 5E→5T2 transition of iron ions was estimated from spectroscopic measurements. Middle infrared emission of Fe2+ in ZnSe was studied under three different regimes of excitation: ordinary optical (2.92 μm) excitation of 5T2 first excited state of Fe2+; excitation via 5E level of Cr co-dopant (1.56 μm); and excitation via photo-ionization transition of Fe2+ (0.532 μm). For the first time the energy transfer from Cr2+ (5E level) to Fe2+ (5T2 level) under 1.56μm wavelength excitation was observed and resulted in simultaneous room temperature emission of Fe:Cr:ZnSe crystal over ultra-broadband spectral range of 2–3 and 3.5–5 um. We also report the first observation of middle infrared emission at 3.5–5 um induced by 2+-3+-2+ ionization transitions of iron ions in Fe2+:ZnSe. This result is essential for optical pumping of Fe2+:ZnSe by easily available and efficient visible lasers, and, most importantly, opens a pathway for Fe2+:ZnSe broadband middle-infrared lasing under direct injection of free electrons and holes. The first room temperature gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe crystal at 4.4 um was demonstrated in a nonselective cavity under 2.92 um excitation with a pulse duration of 5 ns. Selective cavity experiments were also performed in a Littrow mount configuration. Tunable oscillation of Fe:ZnSe crystal over 3.9–4.8 μm spectral range was demonstrated at room temperature.

Acknowledgments

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. ECS-0424310 and EPS-0447675. This work was also partially supported by the Light Age, Inc-UAB year 2004 Research Agreement. We are thankful to Dr. Stanishevsky for providing FTIR spectrophotometer.

Footnotes

*Tragically before this paper was completed, John Kernal died in a car accident on 10 June 2005.

References and Links

1 .

L. D. DeLoach , R. H. Page , G. D. Wilke , S. A. Payne , and W. F. Krupke , “ Transition Metal-Doped Zinc Chalcogenides: Spectroscopy and Laser Demonstration of a New Class of Gain Media ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32 , 885 – 895 ( 1996 ). [CrossRef]

2 .

R. H. Page , K. I. Schaffers , L. D. DeLoach , G. D. Wilke , F. D. Patel , J. B. Tassano , S. A. Payne , W. F. Krupke , K. T. Chen , and A. Burger , “ Cr 2+ -Doped Zinc Chalcogenides as Efficient, Widely Tunable Mid-Infrared Lasers ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33/4 , 609 – 617 ( 1997 ). [CrossRef]

3 .

I. T. Sorokina , “ Cr 2+ -doped II–VI materials for lasers and nonlinear optics ,” Opt. Mater. 26 , 395 – 412 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

4 .

P. B. Klein , J. E. Furneaux , and R. L. Henry , “ Laser oscillation at 3.53 μm from Fe 2+ in n-InP:Fe ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42 , 638 ( 1983 ). [CrossRef]

5 .

J. J. Adams , C. Bibeau , R. H. Page , D. M. Krol , L. H. Furu , and S. A. Payne , “ 4.0–4.5μm lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180 K, a new mid-infrared laser material ,” Opt. Lett. 24 , 1720 ( 1999 ). [CrossRef]

6 .

V. A. Akimov , A. A. Voronov , V. I. Kozlovskii , Yu. V. Korostelin , A. I. Landman , Yu. P. Podmar’kov , and M. P. Frolov , “ Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 μm ,” Quantum Electron. 34(10) , 912 – 914 ( 2004 ). [CrossRef]

7 .

A. A. Voronov , V. I. Kozlovskii , Yu. V. Korostelin , A. I. Landman , Yu. P. Podmar’kov , and M. P. Frolov , “ Laser parameters of a Fe:ZnSe laser crystal in the 85–255K temperature range ,” Quantum Electron. 35(9) , 809 – 812 ( 2005 ). [CrossRef]

8 .

V. Yu. Ivanov , M. Godlewski , A. Szczerbakow , A. Omel’chuk , A. Davydov , N. Zhavoronkov , and G. Raciukaitis , “ Optically Pumped Mid - Infrared Stimulated Emission of ZnSe: Cr Crystals ,” Acta Physica Polonica A 105(6) , 553 – 558 ( 2004 ).

9 .

A. Gallian , V. V. Fedorov , J. Kernal , S. B. Mirov , and V. V. Badikov , “ Laser Oscillation at 2.4 μm from Cr 2+ in ZnSe Optically Pumped over Cr Ionization Transitions ,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2005 Technical Digest on CD-ROM ( The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC , 2005 ), MB12.

10 .

D. E. McCumber , “ Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra ,” Phys. Rev. 136(4A) , 954 – 957 ( 1964 ). [CrossRef]

11 .

S. A. Payne , L. L. Chase , L. K. Smith , W. L. Kway , and W. Krupke , “ Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er 3+ , Tm 3+ , and Ho 3+ ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28 , 2619 – 2630 ( 1992 ). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(140.5680) Lasers and laser optics : Rare earth and transition metal solid-state lasers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Citation
J. Kernal, V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S. B. Mirov, and V. V. Badikov, "3.9-4.8 µm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature," Opt. Express 13, 10608-10615 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-26-10608


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References

  1. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, "Transition Metal-Doped Zinc Chalcogenides: Spectroscopy and Laser Demonstration of a New Class of Gain Media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 885-895 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, "Cr2+-Doped Zinc Chalcogenides as Efficient, Widely Tunable Mid-Infrared Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33/4, 609-617 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. I. T. Sorokina, "Cr2+-doped II-VI materials for lasers and nonlinear optics," Opt. Mater. 26, 395-412 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Klein, J. E. Furneaux, and R. L. Henry, "Laser oscillation at 3.53 m from Fe2+ in n-InP:Fe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 638 (1983). [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Adams, C. Bibeau, R. H. Page, D. M. Krol, L. H. Furu, and S. A. Payne, "4.0-4.5 m lasing of Fe:ZnSe below 180 K, a new mid-infrared laser material," Opt. Lett. 24, 1720 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. V. A. Akimov, A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Yu. P. Podmar'kov, M. P. Frolov, "Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 ìm," Quantum Electron. 34(10), 912-914 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovskii, Yu. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Yu. P. Podmar'kov, M. P. Frolov, "Laser parameters of a Fe:ZnSe laser crystal in the 85-255K temperature range," Quantum Electron. 35(9), 809-812 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. V. Yu. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, A. Szczerbakow, A. Omel'chuk, A. Davydov, N. Zhavoronkov, G. Raciukaitis, "Optically Pumped Mid - Infrared Stimulated Emission of ZnSe: Cr Crystals," Acta Physica Polonica A 105(6), 553-558 (2004).
  9. A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, S. B. Mirov, V. V. Badikov, "Laser Oscillation at 2.4 µm from Cr2+ in ZnSe Optically Pumped over Cr Ionization Transitions," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2005 Technical Digest on CD-ROM (The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2005), MB12.
  10. D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136(4A), 954-957 (1964). [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. Krupke, "Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619-2630 (1992). [CrossRef]

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