OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 4 — Feb. 21, 2005
  • pp: 1144–1149
« Show journal navigation

Raman gain measurements of thallium-tellurium oxide glasses

Robert Stegeman, Clara Rivero, Kathleen Richardson, George Stegeman, Peter Delfyett, Jr., Yu Guo, April Pope, Alfons Schulte, Thierry Cardinal, Philippe Thomas, and Jean-Claude Champarnaud-Mesjard  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 4, pp. 1144-1149 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.001144


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (119 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Several different compositions of tellurium-thallium oxide glasses were fabricated and tested for their Raman gain performance. The addition of PbO to the glass matrix increased the surface optical damage threshold by 60–230%. The maximum material Raman gain coefficient experimentally obtained was (58±3) times higher than the peak Raman gain of a 3.18 mm thick Corning 7980-2F fused silica sample (Δν=13.2 THz). The highest peak in the Raman gain spectrum of the tellurium-thallium glass is attributed to the presence of TeO3 and TeO3+1 structural units with thallium ions in the vicinity at a frequency shift near 21.3 THz.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Raman amplification is an important technology that has made an impact on currently deployed commercial optical transmission systems. Current transmission systems use distributed Raman amplification in order to improve the noise figure [1

1. M.N. Islam, “Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548– 559 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Discrete Raman amplification is used in the form of germanium-doped silica fibers that also serve as dispersion compensation devices [2

2. P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification or loss compensation in dispersion compensating fibre modules,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1136–1137 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. However, all of these devices utilize silica-based fibers, and it is well known that silicates are one of the weakest nonlinear glasses for Raman gain [3

3. F.L Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978). [CrossRef]

]. Theoretical predictions and Raman scattering experiments have been made on both oxide and non-oxide glasses to find materials that exhibit higher nonlinearities than silicates [4

4. M. E. Lines, “Raman gain estimates for high-gain optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4363–4370 (1987) [CrossRef]

6

6. M. E. Lines, “Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876– 6884 (1991). [CrossRef]

]. Chalcogenide glass is known to have the highest non-resonant nonlinearities of all glasses, but it also has high attenuation coefficients (on the order of meter-1) and low optical damage thresholds [7

7. K. A. Richardson, T. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 10, 155–159 (1998). [CrossRef]

10

10. R. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. Brandon Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146–1155 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Tellurite glass has been thoroughly researched in terms of the role of its structure on optical nonlinearities and these glasses have exhibited some of the highest nonlinearities in oxide glasses known to date [11

11. T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, “Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128–144 (1992). [CrossRef]

22

22. B. Jeansannetas, P. Marchet, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and B. Frit, “New investigations within the TeO2-rich part of the Tl2O-TeO2 system,” J. of Mat. Chem. 8 (4), 1039–1042 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. It has been shown that introducing thallium into a tellurite glass matrix can further increase the nonlinearity [12

12. B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium(I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999). [CrossRef]

,20

20. J. Dexpert-Ghys, B. Pirio, S. Rossignol, J. M. Réau, B. Tanguy, J. J. Videau, and J. Portier, “Investigations by Raman scattering of the [TeO2-RMO0.5] (M=Ag or Tl) glasses and of the related ionic conductors [TeO2-RMO0.5](1-x)[AgI]x,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 167–174 (1994). [CrossRef]

,21

21. B. Jeansannetas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and B. Frit, “Crystal structure of Tl2Te3O7,” Mat. Res. Bull. 32 (1), 51–58 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Here we report on the impact on the Raman gain by varying the tellurium to thallium ratio in a binary glass, and also the impact of adding PbO to the matrix for both Raman gain and surface optical damage threshold enhancement.

2. Glass elaboration

Glassy pellets were prepared by first melting the appropriate quantities of reagent grade chemicals - PbO (Aldrich, 99.5%), TeO2 (prepared by decomposition at 550°C of commercial H6TeO6 (Aldrich, 99.9%)) and Tl2TeO3 (synthesised by heating at 350°C for 18 hours an intimate mixture of TeO2 and Tl2CO3 under a nitrogen atmosphere) in platinum crucibles for half an hour at 800°C. The melts were then quickly quenched by flattening between two brass blocks separated by a brass ring to obtain cylindrical samples 10 mm wide and 1–3 mm thick and a cooling rate of about 104°K/s was utilized.

Seven samples from two different families (TeO2-TlO0.5 and TeO2-TlO0.5-PbO) were prepared using this technique. Figure 1 displays the dispersion in the absorption coefficient measured with a Cary 500 spectrophotometer for the tellurite glasses in this paper and in [18

18. R. Stegeman, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, C. Rivero, G. Stegeman, K. Richardson, P. Delfyett, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, and T. Cardinal, “Tellurite glasses with peak absolute Raman gain coefficients up to 30 times that of fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1126–1128 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The samples were optically polished to allow optical beams of 125 µm beam waist to pass through 1–3 mm of the glass with minimum scattering. The glasses reported in [12

12. B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium(I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999). [CrossRef]

,30

30. M. Dutreilh-Colas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and E. Fargin “New TeO2 based glasses for nonlinear optical applications: study of the Tl2O-TeO2-Bi2O3, Tl2O-TeO2-PbO and Tl2O-TeO2-Ga2O3 systems,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 44, 349–352 (2003).

] and reported here were fabricated by the same research group. The density, glass transition and crystallization temperatures, and thermal stability of the different glass samples have been reported elsewhere [22

22. B. Jeansannetas, P. Marchet, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and B. Frit, “New investigations within the TeO2-rich part of the Tl2O-TeO2 system,” J. of Mat. Chem. 8 (4), 1039–1042 (1998). [CrossRef]

24

24. M. Dutreilh-Colas, “Nouveaux matériaux pour l’optique nonlinéaire: synthèse et étude structurale de quelques phases cristallisées et vitreuses appartenant aux systèmes TeO2-Tl2O-Ga2O3 et TeO2-Tl2O-PbO,” Thesis (University of Limoges2001).

].

Fig. 1. Dispersion in the absorption coefficient for the tellurite glasses tested for Raman gain.

3. Experimental procedure

The procedure to test for Raman gain in bulk glass samples has been reported previously and further clarification is currently being provided [18

18. R. Stegeman, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, C. Rivero, G. Stegeman, K. Richardson, P. Delfyett, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, and T. Cardinal, “Tellurite glasses with peak absolute Raman gain coefficients up to 30 times that of fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1126–1128 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. R. Stegeman, C. Rivero, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, K. Richardson, G. Stegeman, and P. Delfyett Jr., “Raman gain measurements in bulk glass samples,” manuscript in preparation.

]. In summary, picosecond pulses of high irradiance at 1064 nm are used as a pump source and a wavelength tunable source from an OPG/OPA is used as the amplified probe. A femtosecond source was avoided because the response time of the Raman vibrations is reported to be on the order of hundreds of femtoseconds [26

26. R. H. Stolen, J. P Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silica-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159–1166 (1989). [CrossRef]

,27

27. I. Kang, T. Krauss, and F. Wise, “Sensitive measurement of nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption by spectrally resolved two-beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1077–1079 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since Raman gain is primarily a polarization-sensitive process, the probe is linearly polarized 45° with respect to the linear pump polarization. The polarization of the probe beam parallel to the pump beam polarization is used to detect approximately 10% gain, while the polarization of the probe beam orthogonal to the pump beam polarization is the “effective” input energy. The depolarization ratio (VV/VH) - obtained from spontaneous Raman scattering experiments on the same glasses - is used as a correction factor since the probe beam polarization orthogonal to the pump beam polarization does experience minor Raman excitations in these glasses [11

11. T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, “Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128–144 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. After propagation through the sample a monochromator is used to filter the pump from the probe wavelength, and the two probe polarizations enter two identical, calibrated germanium detectors via a polarizing beam splitter. In concert with a calibrated silicon detector for the 1064 nm pump, Raman gain can be measured on a shot-to-shot basis, and averaging is done over hundreds of shots. An in-depth overview of this approach and procedure will be provided in [25

25. R. Stegeman, C. Rivero, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, K. Richardson, G. Stegeman, and P. Delfyett Jr., “Raman gain measurements in bulk glass samples,” manuscript in preparation.

]. The experimental apparatus is calibrated on a 3.18mm thick Corning 7980-2F fused silica sample (peak Raman gain=1.1×10-13 m/W in good agreement with published values), and corrections are made for Fresnel reflections at the surfaces with the corresponding index of refraction data and depolarization ratio [28

28. R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys.Lett. 22, 273–276 (1972).

,29

29. R. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, and T.-T. Yang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964–967 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. The Raman gain data published in [18

18. R. Stegeman, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, C. Rivero, G. Stegeman, K. Richardson, P. Delfyett, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, and T. Cardinal, “Tellurite glasses with peak absolute Raman gain coefficients up to 30 times that of fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1126–1128 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been compared to cross-section calculations based on spontaneous Raman scattering experiments and have shown to be in good agreement for the Δν=20 THz frequency shift studied [19

19. C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman Gain Coefficients in Tellurite Glasses,” J. of Non-Cryst. Solids 345–356, 396–401 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

4. Results and interpretation

Figs. 2. (a), (b), and (c). Raman gain curve of (a) 59.5TeO2 – 25.5TlO0.5 – 15PbO, (b) 63TeO2 – 27TlO0.5 – 10PbO, and (c) 66.5TeO2 – 28.5TlO0.5 – 5PbO

Table 1. Raman gain coefficients of TeO4ν=20 THz) units and TeO3 and/or TeO3+1 units (Δν=21.3 THz) resonances and optical surface damage thresholds

table-icon
View This Table

The damage threshold of the binary TeO2-TlO0.5 glasses was low enough to produce unreliable data off of the main Δν=20 THz and Δν=21.3 THz peaks in the Raman gain spectrum. Most attempts to measure Raman gain away from these main peaks resulted in surface optical damage after less than five minutes of exposure to the 10 Hz system. Nevertheless, Raman gain measurements were made over the Δν=20 THz and Δν=21.3 THz bands for all four binary compositions and agree with structural variation analysis of these glasses [11

11. T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, “Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128–144 (1992). [CrossRef]

,12

12. B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium(I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999). [CrossRef]

,19

19. C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman Gain Coefficients in Tellurite Glasses,” J. of Non-Cryst. Solids 345–356, 396–401 (2004). [CrossRef]

21

21. B. Jeansannetas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and B. Frit, “Crystal structure of Tl2Te3O7,” Mat. Res. Bull. 32 (1), 51–58 (1997). [CrossRef]

].

As the ratio of tellurium oxide to thallium oxide is varied, the Δν=20 THz and Δν=21.3 THz bands vary in terms of strength in the Raman gain curve. A peak Raman gain coefficient of (58±3) times that of the peak Raman gain of the fused silica sample is reported for the binary sample containing 50% mole of TlO0.5. This represents the highest directly measured and reported peak Raman gain coefficient to date in oxide glasses known to the authors. With the band edges below 500 nm for all of the samples tested, it is reasonable to expect similar performance at the telecommunication wavelengths of 1280–1625 nm because the Raman gain measurements were made with 1064 nm pumping which avoids any resonantly enhanced Raman effects. Furthermore, the increased peak Raman gain coefficient with increasing thallium oxide content reported here shows a trend of increasing non-resonant nonlinearity with increasing thallium content in the glass matrix, in partial agreement with the trend listed in Table 1 in [30

30. M. Dutreilh-Colas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and E. Fargin “New TeO2 based glasses for nonlinear optical applications: study of the Tl2O-TeO2-Bi2O3, Tl2O-TeO2-PbO and Tl2O-TeO2-Ga2O3 systems,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 44, 349–352 (2003).

] for purely real electronic χ (3) measurements. The reasons for some of the discrepancies reported in this work and in [30

30. M. Dutreilh-Colas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and E. Fargin “New TeO2 based glasses for nonlinear optical applications: study of the Tl2O-TeO2-Bi2O3, Tl2O-TeO2-PbO and Tl2O-TeO2-Ga2O3 systems,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 44, 349–352 (2003).

] are currently being investigated.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This work was carried out with the support of numerous research, equipment, and educational grants, including NSF grants ECS-0123484, ECS-0225930, and NSF Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT) grant DGE-0114418. The US authors also acknowledge the assistance and financial support of the College of Optics and Photonics and the Student Government Association (SGA) at the University of Central Florida, as well as an equipment donation from JDS Uniphase. The work in France was supported by NSF-CNRS # 13050. Special thanks to David Morgan for the fruitful discussions and assistance in the laboratory.

References and links

1.

M.N. Islam, “Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548– 559 (2002). [CrossRef]

2.

P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification or loss compensation in dispersion compensating fibre modules,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1136–1137 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

F.L Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978). [CrossRef]

4.

M. E. Lines, “Raman gain estimates for high-gain optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4363–4370 (1987) [CrossRef]

5.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, “The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289–307 (1988). [CrossRef]

6.

M. E. Lines, “Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876– 6884 (1991). [CrossRef]

7.

K. A. Richardson, T. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 10, 155–159 (1998). [CrossRef]

8.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 119–121 (2002). [CrossRef]

9.

P. A. Thielen, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Small-core As-Se fiber for Raman amplification,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1406–1408 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

R. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. Brandon Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146–1155 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, “Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128–144 (1992). [CrossRef]

12.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium(I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999). [CrossRef]

13.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and F. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mat. 3, 187– 203 (1994). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-wideband tellurite-based Raman fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1142–1143 (2001). [CrossRef]

15.

V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 2641–2645 (2003). [CrossRef]

16.

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, and F. D’Amore, “TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5, TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011–1013 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, V. O. Sokolov, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Grishin, and M. F. Churbanov, “Raman band intensities of tellurite glasses,” manuscript in preparation.

18.

R. Stegeman, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, C. Rivero, G. Stegeman, K. Richardson, P. Delfyett, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, and T. Cardinal, “Tellurite glasses with peak absolute Raman gain coefficients up to 30 times that of fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1126–1128 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman Gain Coefficients in Tellurite Glasses,” J. of Non-Cryst. Solids 345–356, 396–401 (2004). [CrossRef]

20.

J. Dexpert-Ghys, B. Pirio, S. Rossignol, J. M. Réau, B. Tanguy, J. J. Videau, and J. Portier, “Investigations by Raman scattering of the [TeO2-RMO0.5] (M=Ag or Tl) glasses and of the related ionic conductors [TeO2-RMO0.5](1-x)[AgI]x,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 167–174 (1994). [CrossRef]

21.

B. Jeansannetas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and B. Frit, “Crystal structure of Tl2Te3O7,” Mat. Res. Bull. 32 (1), 51–58 (1997). [CrossRef]

22.

B. Jeansannetas, P. Marchet, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and B. Frit, “New investigations within the TeO2-rich part of the Tl2O-TeO2 system,” J. of Mat. Chem. 8 (4), 1039–1042 (1998). [CrossRef]

23.

B. Jeansannetas, “Synthèse et caractérisation de quelques phases cristallisées et vitreuses du ternaire thallium-tellure-oxygène: vers de nouveaux matériaux por l’optique nonlinéaire,” Thesis (University of Limoge1998).

24.

M. Dutreilh-Colas, “Nouveaux matériaux pour l’optique nonlinéaire: synthèse et étude structurale de quelques phases cristallisées et vitreuses appartenant aux systèmes TeO2-Tl2O-Ga2O3 et TeO2-Tl2O-PbO,” Thesis (University of Limoges2001).

25.

R. Stegeman, C. Rivero, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, K. Richardson, G. Stegeman, and P. Delfyett Jr., “Raman gain measurements in bulk glass samples,” manuscript in preparation.

26.

R. H. Stolen, J. P Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silica-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159–1166 (1989). [CrossRef]

27.

I. Kang, T. Krauss, and F. Wise, “Sensitive measurement of nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption by spectrally resolved two-beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1077–1079 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys.Lett. 22, 273–276 (1972).

29.

R. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, and T.-T. Yang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964–967 (1975). [CrossRef]

30.

M. Dutreilh-Colas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, and E. Fargin “New TeO2 based glasses for nonlinear optical applications: study of the Tl2O-TeO2-Bi2O3, Tl2O-TeO2-PbO and Tl2O-TeO2-Ga2O3 systems,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 44, 349–352 (2003).

31.

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villezusanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, and L. Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2-Nb2O5 and TeO2-Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 126, 143–151 (1996). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.5650) Nonlinear optics : Raman effect
(190.5890) Nonlinear optics : Scattering, stimulated

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: December 10, 2004
Revised Manuscript: December 10, 2004
Published: February 21, 2005

Citation
Robert Stegeman, Clara Rivero, Kathleen Richardson, George Stegeman, Peter Delfyett, Jr., Yu Guo, April Pope, Alfons Schulte, Thierry Cardinal, Philippe Thomas, and Jean-Claude Champarnaud-Mesjard, "Raman gain measurements of thallium-tellurium oxide glasses," Opt. Express 13, 1144-1149 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-4-1144


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M.N. Islam, “Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548- 559 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Grüner-Nielsen, A. J. Stentz, “Raman amplification or loss compensation in dispersion compensating fibre modules,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1136-1137 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. F.L Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen Jr., R. H. Geils, W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978). [CrossRef]
  4. M. E. Lines, “Raman gain estimates for high-gain optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4363-4370 (1987) [CrossRef]
  5. A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, M. E. Lines, “The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988). [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Lines, “Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876-6884 (1991). [CrossRef]
  7. K. A. Richardson, T. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. . P. A. Thielen, L. B. Shaw, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Small-core As-Se fiber for Raman amplification,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1406-1408 (2003 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. Brandon Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146-1155 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, M. Tonokawa, “Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992). [CrossRef]
  12. B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Sarger, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium(I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, F. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mat. 3, 187-203 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, K. Oikawa, K. Kato, M. Shimizu, “Ultra-wideband tellurite-based Raman fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1142-1143 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 2641-2645 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, F. D’Amore, “TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5, TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, V. O. Sokolov, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Grishin, M. F. Churbanov, “Raman band intensities of tellurite glasses,” manuscript in preparation.
  18. R. Stegeman, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, C. Rivero, G. Stegeman, K. Richardson, P. Delfyett, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, T. Cardinal, “Tellurite glasses with peak absolute Raman gain coefficients up to 30 times that of fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1126-1128 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, “Quantifying Raman Gain Coefficients in Tellurite Glasses,” J. of Non-Cryst. Solids 345-356, 396-401 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Dexpert-Ghys, B. Pirio, S. Rossignol, J. M. Réau, B. Tanguy, J. J. Videau, J. Portier, “Investigations by Raman scattering of the [TeO2-RMO0.5] (M = Ag or Tl) glasses and of the related ionic conductors [TeO2-RMO0.5](1-x)[AgI]x,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 167-174 (1994). [CrossRef]
  21. B. Jeansannetas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, B. Frit, “Crystal structure of Tl2Te3O7,” Mat. Res. Bull. 32 (1), 51-58 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. B. Jeansannetas, P. Marchet, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, B. Frit, “New investigations within the TeO2-rich part of the Tl2O-TeO2 system,” J. of Mat. Chem. 8 (4), 1039-1042 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. B. Jeansannetas, “Synthèse et caractérisation de quelques phases cristallisées et vitreuses du ternaire thallium-tellure-oxygène: vers de nouveaux matériaux por l’optique nonlinéaire," Thesis (University of Limoge 1998).
  24. M. Dutreilh-Colas, "Nouveaux matériaux pour l’optique nonlinéaire: synthèse et étude structurale de quelques phases cristallisées et vitreuses appartenant aux systèmes TeO2-Tl2O-Ga2O3 et TeO2-Tl2O-PbO," Thesis (University of Limoges 2001).
  25. R. Stegeman, C. Rivero, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, K. Richardson, G. Stegeman, P. Delfyett, Jr., “Raman gain measurements in bulk glass samples,” manuscript in preparation.
  26. R. H. Stolen, J. P Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silica-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159-1166 (1989). [CrossRef]
  27. I. Kang, T. Krauss, F. Wise, “Sensitive measurement of nonlinear refraction and two-photon absorption by spectrally resolved two-beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1077-1079 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 273-276 (1972). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Dutreilh-Colas, P. Thomas, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, E. Fargin “New TeO2 based glasses for nonlinear optical applications: study of the Tl2O-TeO2-Bi2O3, Tl2O-TeO2-PbO and Tl2O-TeO2-Ga2O3 systems,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 44, 349-352 (2003).
  30. A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villezusanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, L.Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2-Nb2O5 and TeO2-Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Sol. St. Chem. 126, 143-151 (1996). [CrossRef]
  31. R. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, T.-T. Yang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964- 967 (1975).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1. Figs. 2.
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited