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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 4 — Feb. 21, 2005
  • pp: 1172–1177
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Raman oscillation on a new vibrational mode setup in phosphosilicate binary glass systems

Yahua Li, Brian Ashton, and Stuart D. Jackson  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 4, pp. 1172-1177 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.001172


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Abstract

We demonstrate Raman oscillation at a wavelength of 1158 nm using a new vibrational mode in a phosphosilicate-glass system when pumped at a 1060-nm wavelength. The lower energy P-O vibration located at 640 cm-1 associated with pure phosphate glass system is comparatively weaker and is shifted to higher energy at 800 cm-1 in the phosphosilicate binary glass. Despite the relative weakness of this vibrational mode, we obtained an efficient Raman fiber laser with the use of fiber Bragg gratings used to select laser oscillation using this mode. The measured slope efficiency with respect to the launched pump power was 60.4% and a maximum laser power of 1.8 W was produced.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Stimulated Raman scattering is an efficient nonlinearity in germanosilicate or phosphosilicate glass optical fibre and can be used to effectively generate downshifted wavelengths. The long interaction length and large light intensity associated with the small core dimension of typical optical fibres provides the conditions for efficient conversion. In particular, the phosphosilicate glass system is generally used to construct fibres for Raman fibre lasers (RFL’s) [1

1. Z. Xiong, N. Moore, Z.G. Li, G.C. Lim, D.M. Liu, and D.X. Huang, “Experimental optimization of high power Raman fiber lasers at 1495 nm using phosphosilicate fibres,” Opt. Commun. 239, 137–145 (2004). [CrossRef]

4

4. M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and E. M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorous-doped fibres for Raman lasers,” Advances in Fiber Optics , E. M. Dianov, Ed., Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).

] because of the large Stokes shift, which scatters an incident photon to lower energy by 1330 cm-1 [5

5. N. Shibata, M. Horigudhi, and T. Edahiro, “Raman spectrum of binary high-silica glasses and fibres containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3,” J. Non-Crystalline. Solids. 45, 115–126 (1981). [CrossRef]

7

7. K. Suzuki, K. Noguchi, and N. Uesugi, “Selective Stimulated Raman-Scattering in Highly P2O5-Doped Silica Single-Mode Fibres,” Opt. Lett. 11, 656–658 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition to the direct use of this high energy P-O vibration, many other wavelengths can be generated when the Si-O vibration and the P-O vibration are used consecutively [6

6. E. M. Dianov and A. M. Prokhorov, “Medium-Power CW Raman Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 1022–1028 (2000). [CrossRef]

,7

7. K. Suzuki, K. Noguchi, and N. Uesugi, “Selective Stimulated Raman-Scattering in Highly P2O5-Doped Silica Single-Mode Fibres,” Opt. Lett. 11, 656–658 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 1. Measured spontaneous Raman spectrum of the phosphosilicate preform.

2. Experiment

The preform used to make the fibre was fabricated by the standard MCVD technique. The phosphorous concentration was estimated to be 8 mol.% using the refractive index profile of the preform. The fibre used for the RFL experiments had a core diameter of 4.6 µm and a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.14 and therefore supported single mode operation down to 850 nm. The fibres used in the experiment have a length of 500 m or 1500m.

The spontaneous Raman scattering spectrum of phosphosilicate glass preform was measured with a Renishaw Raman Systems 2000 that used Argon ion laser excitation at 514 nm. Fig. 1 displays the normalized Raman spectrum. The Raman spectrum relating to the binary glass does not result from the linear superposition of the individual Raman spectra relating to the pure silica and pure phosphate glasses [10

10. F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978). [CrossRef]

]. As compared to the vibration modes relevant to pure silica and pure phosphate glasses, there contains in the binary glass spectrum additional peaks at 608 cm-1 and 800 cm-1 and a small peak at 1124 cm-1. The Raman vibration at 640 cm-1, which exists in pure phosphate glass, however, is now not present. The peaks at 420 cm-1 and 490 cm-1 in the binary system relate to pure silica glass [7

7. K. Suzuki, K. Noguchi, and N. Uesugi, “Selective Stimulated Raman-Scattering in Highly P2O5-Doped Silica Single-Mode Fibres,” Opt. Lett. 11, 656–658 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], however, the peak at 420 cm-1 is now narrower and more defined as compared to the case of pure silica glass. The Raman peak at 1330 cm-1 has a similar energy to the pure phosphate glass case, which is normally located at 1390 cm-1. The correspondence of this vibration in the phosphosilicate glass system with the pure phosphate glass system is not unexpected since this vibration relates to the double (terminating) bond between phosphorous and oxygen. The lower energy P-O vibration, however, relates to bonding to bridging oxygen atoms, which normally bond with other phosphorous atoms. In the phosphosilicate glass system these bridging oxygen atoms may bridge silicon with phosphorous and the phosphosilicate glass has additional and shifted Raman vibrations as compared to the pure glass systems.

Figure 2 shows schematically the experimental RFL configuration that used a diode-pumped Nd3+-doped fibre laser as the pump source. The Nd3+-doped fibre laser was pumped at a wavelength of 805 nm and a broadband dielectric mirror (labelled M) butted against the input end to the Nd3+-doped fibre in conjunction with a Bragg grating (R=27%) which had a bandwidth of 0.4 nm at the central Bragg wavelength of 1060 nm (labelled λp) together formed the pump resonator. The maximum output power exiting from the pump source was ~5 W. The first Raman fibre laser cavity that was tested was created between the mirror M and the cleaved fibre at the output end of the phosphosilicate fibre (PSF). In a second arrangement, a pair of Bragg gratings were used, one with a high reflectivity (R>99.9%, FBG2) and one with a partial reflectivity (R=30%, FBG3) at the wavelength of 1158 nm (λs). In a third configuration, the output end was angularly cleaved to remove Fresnel back reflection. The optical spectrum of the output was measured with an Anritsu MS9710C spectrum analyser with a resolution of 0.05 nm.

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the RFL system. M: dielectric mirror; DCFL: double-clad fiber laser; HR: high reflector; FER: Fresnel end reflector; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; PM: power meter.

3. Results

The first experiment was conducted at low launched pump power levels of less than 3.8 W under a free running setup. In this arrangement, all the Raman emissions share the same resonator, i.e., between mirror M and fibre end reflector, FER. The evolution of the output spectrum as a function of launched pump power is shown in Fig. 3. The first Stokes emission that relates to the Si-O vibration at 420 cm-1 (this emission is labelled S1,420), which is emitted at a wavelength of 1109 nm initially grows faster than the second Stokes emission at a wavelength of 1118 nm, which relates to the Si-O vibration at 490 cm-1. As the pump power P1060 (the subscript indicates the wavelength in nm) is further increased, Stokes emission at 1118 nm begins to dominate the spectrum. The 1109 nm emission acts at the pump source for Stokes emission at 1118 nm in an amplifier type configuration. Stokes emission at 1158 nm was not observed with this setup.

The second experiment used FBG’s for feedback and Fig.4 shows the output spectrum measured at 3.92 W launched pump power. In addition to the residual pump emission, P1060, there appeared emissions at 1118 nm, 1158 nm (S1,800), 1175 nm (S2,420) and 1183 nm (S2,490). It is clear that whilst gratings designed for 1158 nm were incorporated, competition between a numbers of Stokes emissions was evident when the cleaved output end of the PSF was perpendicular to the axis of the fibre.

With a 10° angle cleave placed at the output end of the PSF, the emissions at 1118 nm, 1175 nm and 1183 nm were not generated, and only 1158 nm resulted. Fig.5 shows the spectrum measured at the 3.80 W launched pump level and with a vertically logarithmic scale, and the inset indicates in detail the spectrum of 1158 nm emission with a FWHM of ~0.1 nm. Fig.6 shows the measured output power with a slope efficiency of ~60% as a function of the launched pump. The maximum output power generated at 1158 nm was pump limited at 1.8 W.

Fig. 3. The output spectrum evolution as a function of the launched pump power in the first setup.
Fig. 4. The output spectrum measured at a launched pump power of 3.92 W in the second setup.

4. Discussion

The absence of the lower energy vibrational mode of pure phosphate glass at 640 cm-1, which can be considered as a vibration mode involving a bridging oxygen and two phosphorous atoms (a P-O-P mode) indicates that in the binary phosphosilicate glass system there contains few oxygen atoms that bridge two phosphorous atoms. Little to no phase separation is present in this binary glass. The vibration modes of the phosphosilicate glass system at 608 cm-1 and 800 cm-1 are clearly the result of adding phosphorous to the silica glass system or silica to the phosphate glass system. One possible new vibration mode would involve an oxygen atom that bridges a phosphorous atom and a silicon atom (a P-O-Si mode). This may give rise to the vibrational mode at 800 cm-1 because the vibrations involving bridging oxygen atoms in the pure phosphate glass are relatively strong compared to the vibrational mode relating to the double bond.

The large Raman scattering cross-section at 1330 cm-1 of phosphosilicate glass suggests that there should exhibit a strong Stokes emission at the wavelength of 1234 nm in the free-running arrangement. This emission however was not observed in the experiments. The absence of this Stokes emission can be attributed to the following facts. The estimated fiber loss of 6 dB/km at the wavelength of 1234 nm is nearly twice as high as the loss at wavelengths from 1000 to 1190 nm. In addition, the reflectivity of mirror M is ~18% at a wavelength of 1234 nm compared to the ~99% reflectivity for wavelengths 1000 to 1190 nm.

Fig. 5. The spectrum in the third setup at a 3.8 W pump power. The inset displays the 1158 nm only.
Fig. 6. The measured output power versus the launched pump power relevant to the third setup.

Table 1. Raman peak position and gain intensity in binary phosphosilicate fibre

table-icon
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5. Conclusion

We have investigated and experimentally demonstrated Raman oscillations on a new vibrational mode that is setup in a phosphosilicate glass system. The lower energy P-O vibration at 640 cm-1 in pure phosphate glass is shifted to higher energy at 800 cm-1 in our binary phosphosilicate glass. Utilising this lower energy P-O vibration, oscillation at a wavelength of 1158 nm is generated for the first time when the phosphosilicate glass fibre is pumped at a wavelength of 1060 nm. We generated a maximum output power of 1.8W and measured a slope efficiency of 60.4% with respect to the launched pump power. With optimizing the experimental configuration, the output power of 1158 nm can be further scaled.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for discussions with Simon Fleming and the fibre fabrication skills of Tom Ryan. The authors also appreciate Mattias Aslund and Nathaniel Groothoff for providing FBGs. The Australian Photonics CRC and the Australian Research Council supported this work. Yahua Li is supported by the International Postgraduate Research Scholarship (IPRS) granted by the Department of Education, Science and Training, Australia.

References and links

1.

Z. Xiong, N. Moore, Z.G. Li, G.C. Lim, D.M. Liu, and D.X. Huang, “Experimental optimization of high power Raman fiber lasers at 1495 nm using phosphosilicate fibres,” Opt. Commun. 239, 137–145 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Rini, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Numerical Modeling and Optimization of Cascaded CW Raman Fiber Lasers,” IEEE, J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1117–1121 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shrakawa, and K. Ueda, “Generation of 10.5 W, 1178nm Laser Based on Phosphosilicate Raman Fiber Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1439–1441 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, and E. M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorous-doped fibres for Raman lasers,” Advances in Fiber Optics , E. M. Dianov, Ed., Proc. SPIE 4083, 12–22 (2000).

5.

N. Shibata, M. Horigudhi, and T. Edahiro, “Raman spectrum of binary high-silica glasses and fibres containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3,” J. Non-Crystalline. Solids. 45, 115–126 (1981). [CrossRef]

6.

E. M. Dianov and A. M. Prokhorov, “Medium-Power CW Raman Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 1022–1028 (2000). [CrossRef]

7.

K. Suzuki, K. Noguchi, and N. Uesugi, “Selective Stimulated Raman-Scattering in Highly P2O5-Doped Silica Single-Mode Fibres,” Opt. Lett. 11, 656–658 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Dianov, O. I. Medvedkov, G. A. Ivanov, V. A. Aksenov, V. M. Paramonov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. V. Pershina, “Efficient silica-based Ho3+ fibre laser for 2 µm spectral region pumped at 1.15µm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1015–1016, 2000. [CrossRef]

9.

S. D. Jackson, “2.7-W Ho3+-doped silica fibre laser pumped at 1100 nm and operating at 2.1 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 793–795, 2003. [CrossRef]

10.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(140.3550) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Raman
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.2640) Nonlinear optics : Stimulated scattering, modulation, etc.
(230.1480) Optical devices : Bragg reflectors
(290.5860) Scattering : Scattering, Raman

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: November 18, 2004
Revised Manuscript: November 17, 2004
Published: February 21, 2005

Citation
Yahua Li, Brian Ashton, and Stuart Jackson, "Raman oscillation on a new vibrational mode setup in phosphosilicate binary glass systems," Opt. Express 13, 1172-1177 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-4-1172


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References

  1. Z. Xiong, N. Moore, Z.G. Li, G.C. Lim, D.M. Liu, D.X. Huang, “ Experimental optimization of high power Raman fiber lasers at 1495 nm using phosphosilicate fibres,” Opt. Commun. 239, 137-145 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Rini, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Numerical Modeling and Optimization of Cascaded CW Raman Fiber Lasers,” IEEE, J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1117-1121 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shrakawa and K. Ueda, “Generation of 10.5 W, 1178nm Laser Based on Phosphosilicate Raman Fiber Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1439–1441 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. M. M. Bubnov, E. M. Dianov, O. N. Egorova, S. L. Semjonov, A. N. Guryanov, V. F. Khopin, E. M. DeLiso, “Fabrication and investigation of single-mode highly phosphorous-doped fibres for Raman lasers,” Advances in Fiber Optics, E. M. Dianov, Ed., Proc. SPIE 4083, 12-22 (2000).
  5. N. Shibata, M. Horigudhi, and T. Edahiro, “Raman spectrum of binary high-silica glasses and fibres containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3,” J. Non-Crystalline. Solids. 45, 115-126 (1981). [CrossRef]
  6. E. M. Dianov and A. M. Prokhorov, “Medium-Power CW Raman Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 1022-1028 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Suzuki, K. Noguchi, and N. Uesugi, “Selective Stimulated Raman-Scattering in Highly P2O5-Doped Silica Single-Mode Fibres,” Opt. Lett. 11, 656-658 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Dianov, O. I. Medvedkov, G. A. Ivanov, V. A. Aksenov, V. M. Paramonov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. V. Pershina, "Efficient silica-based Ho3+ fibre laser for 2 µm spectral region pumped at 1.15 µm," Electron. Lett. 36, 1015-1016, 2000. [CrossRef]
  9. S. D. Jackson, "2.7-W Ho3+-doped silica fibre laser pumped at 1100 nm and operating at 2.1 µm," Appl. Phys. B 76, 793-795, 2003. [CrossRef]
  10. F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978). [CrossRef]

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