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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 5 — Mar. 7, 2005
  • pp: 1643–1650
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Near infrared distributed feedback lasers based on LDS dye-doped zirconia-organically modified silicate channel waveguides

Fei Chen, Jun Wang, Chao Ye, Weihai Ni, Jacklynn Chan, Yu Yang, and Dennis Lo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 5, pp. 1643-1650 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.001643


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Abstract

LDS dyes were doped into zirconia-organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) materials prepared by low temperature sol-gel technique. Embedded channel waveguides were fabricated using wet etching of glass substrates followed by deposition of the LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL in the channel. Near infrared distributed feedback (DFB) laser action was induced in the LDS 925-doped sol-gel channel waveguide. Narrow line-width (<0.5 nm) tuning of the output wavelength was achieved by varying the period of the gain modulation generated by a nanosecond neodymium:YAG laser at 532 nm. Tuning range was from 787 nm to 933 nm. The dispersion behavior of the laser output was checked by comparing experiments with the predictions of Marcatili’s theory. Additionally, near infrared (NIR) wide-band tuning and high-order DFB lasing operation were realized in LDS dye-doped planar waveguides.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The active device such as laser is a critical enabling technology to integrated optics. Thin film waveguide lasers are desired for their efficient coupling with planar lightwave circuit. The sol-gel method is particularly relevant for the fabrication of active devices since large number of functional components (e.g., rare-earth elements [1

1. M. Benatsou, B. Capoen, M. Bouazaoui, W. Tchana, and J. P. Vilcot, “Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived Er3+:Al2O3-SiO2 planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 428 (1997). [CrossRef]

], semiconductors [2

2. G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, “Sol-gel glass waveguides,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8, 991 (1997). [CrossRef]

], organic dyes [3

3. Y. Sorek, R. Reisfeld, I. Finkelstein, and S. Ruschin, “Light amplification in a dye-doped glass planar waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1169 (1995). [CrossRef]

]) can be introduced into the glass matrix. Laser action from thin film structure can be induced using the distributed feedback (DFB) configuration [4

4. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971). [CrossRef]

]. DFB waveguide lasers have been realized in dye-doped polymers [5

5. V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Denis, C. Fiorini, J.M. Nunzi, F. Sobel, B. Sahraoui, and D. Gindre, “Polymer thin-film distributed feedback tunable lasers,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 279 (2000). [CrossRef]

7

7. Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Maeda, and N. Nasa, “Multiwavelength distributed-feedback dye laser array and its application to spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1220 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and in photopolymers [8

8. G.A. Turnbull, T.F. Krauss, W.L. Barnes, and I.D.W. Samuel, “Tuneable distributed feedback lasing in MEH-PPV films,” Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. G. Kranzelbinder, E. Tousssaere, J. Zyss, A. Pogantsch, E.W.J. List, H. Tillman, and H.H. Horhold, “Optically written solid-state lasers with broadly tunable mode emission based on improved poly (2,5-dialkoxy-phenylene-vinylene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 716 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. We demonstrated DFB laser action in sol-gel silica slabs [10

10. X.-L. Zhu and D. Lo, “Distributed-feedback sol-gel dye laser tunable in the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2647 (2000). [CrossRef]

], in titania-silica films [11

11. X.-L. Zhu and D. Lo, “Sol-gel glass distributed feedback waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 917 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and in zirconia and zirconia-organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) films [12

12. D. Lo, L. Shi, J. Wang, G. Zhang, and X.-L. Zhu, “Zirconia and zirconia-organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers tunable in the visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2707 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X.-L. Zhu, “Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003). [CrossRef]

] on glass or fused quartz substrates. Multimode lasing and wide-band tuning were achieved in these sol-gel DFB waveguide lasers [13

13. C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X.-L. Zhu, “Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

In most practical applications in integrated optics, the rectangular dielectric waveguide is the most commonly used structure on which many of the active or passive devices (i.e., waveguide filters, optical switches, multiplexers, etc.) are in fact based. The rectangular waveguides are usually rectangular dielectric strips embedded in other dielectrics of lower refractive index. Active centers or junction structure must be built in the dielectric strips to render the waveguides optically active (e.g., waveguide lasers). Casalboni et al. reported light amplification in dye-doped sol-gel channel waveguides [14

14. M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Merlo, P. Prosposito, R. Russo, and S. Schutzmann, “1.3 µm light amplification in dye-doped hybrid sol-gel channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 416 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. We recently fabricated dye-doped zirconia channel waveguides upon quartz substrates and achieved DFB lasing in rectangular channel waveguides with width at as narrow as 5µm and depth at 3µm [15

15. F. Chen, J. Wang, C. Ye, D. Lo, and X.-L. Zhu, “Distributed feedback sol-gel zirconia channel waveguide lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4284 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

LDS (Styryl) series dyes show positive gain from red to near infrared (NIR) spectral range and thus are useful for applications that require NIR laser sources. In 1980s, NIR dye lasers based on LDS dye-doped solution were extensively researched [16

16. K. Kato, “Ar-Ion-Laser-Pumped Infrared Dye Laser at 875–1084nm,” Opt. Lett. 9(12), 544 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21

21. K.D. Bonin and T.J. Mcllrath, “Dye Laser Radiation in the 605–725nm Region Pumped by a 544nm Fluorescein Dye Laser,” Appl. Opt. 23(17), 2854 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, relatively little work has been reported on the properties of solid-state LDS dye lasers. M. Zevin and R. Reisfeld prepared LDS 730-doped zirconia thin films and observed the strong fluorescence emission [22

22. M. Zevin and R. Reisfeld, “Preparation and properties of active waveguides based on zirconia glasses,” Opt. Mater. 8, 37 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Y. Oki et al. demonstrated NIR DFB laser action in LDS dye-doped plastic thin films [23

23. Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N.J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Tanaka, D. Zuo, and M. Maeda, “Long lifetime and high repetition rate operation from distributed feedback plastic waveguided dye lasers” Opt. Commun. 214, 277 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. T. Kobayashi et al. realized the NIR laser emission from LDS 821-doped plastic waveguides [25

25. T. Kobayashi, J.B. Savatier, G. Jordan, W.J. Blau, Y. Suzuki, and T. Kaino, “Near-infrared laser emission from luminescent plastic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 185 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In this work we report the fabrication of LDS dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL channel waveguides using sol-gel method and the demonstration of DFB laser action in the waveguides tunable in the NIR. The dispersion behavior of the laser output was checked by comparing experiments with the predictions of Marcatili’s theory. Additionally, narrow line-width DFB laser action was achieved for the first, second and third Bragg orders in LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL planar waveguides. NIR wide-band continuous tuning was demonstrated by using four types of LDS dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL planar waveguides (viz., LDS 759, LDS 798, LDS 867 and LDS 925).

2. Experimental

Dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL thin films of high optical quality were used in the DFB laser experiments. Undoped zirconia-ORMOSIL thin film shows excellent optical transmission from visible to NIR range. The sol-gel method for the preparation of dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL layer was reported previously [12

12. D. Lo, L. Shi, J. Wang, G. Zhang, and X.-L. Zhu, “Zirconia and zirconia-organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers tunable in the visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2707 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. M. Zevin and R. Reisfeld, “Preparation and properties of active waveguides based on zirconia glasses,” Opt. Mater. 8, 37 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Briefly the starting solutions consisted of zirconium n-propoxide and acetic acid. After the solutions were magnetically stirred for an hour, a few drops of 2-propanol were added to adjust the viscosity that in combination with the speed of spin coating determined the thickness of the films. Then γ-glycidyloxypropyltimethoxysilane (GLYMO) was introduced to make the glass matrix more flexible and crack-free. The molar ratio of zirconium n-propoxide to GLYMO was kept 1:1. The water needed for hydrolysis was mixed with acetic acid (1:3 by volume) and introduced drop by drop to the solutions. The molar ratio of zirconium n-propoxide to acetic acid was about 1:4 in the final solutions. Finally, laser dyes were added until the desired concentration was reached while some propylene-carbonate (PC) was dropped in since that PC was a better agent for fabricating films of LDS dyes in high concentration. Four types of LDS dyes were adopted in this experiment, viz. LDS 759, 798, 867 and 925. Typical dye concentration was 5×10-3 M. Prepared at room temperature, the refractive index of the zirconia-ORMOSIL layer was around 1.53 determined by a commercial prism coupler (Metricon model 2010) at 633 nm.

By adopting the wet etching approach, channels in glass substrates were created. The refractive index of the glass substrates was 1.51. Using the standard photolithographic technique to make a photo-mask and the subsequent isotropic etching of the glass substrates in HF: NH4F: H2O solution, we obtained channels with half-round cross-section. The dimensions of the channels in glass substrates were examined by alpha-step profiler and optical microscopy. The width of the top ranged from 50 to 13 µm. Unlike the wet etching of silicon wafers, the isotropic wet etching of the glass substrates will create the channels with depth less than half of the width. A microscopy image of the cross-section of a channel with the top width of 30 µm and depth of 12 µm is shown in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 1. Microscope images of a 30-µm-wide channel waveguide in glass (b) and its cross-section (a).

The dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL layer was then deposited on top of the glass substrate by spin coating. The zirconia-ORMOSIL layer outside of the channel was removed leaving that inside to serve as the laser medium. The spin speed and the viscosity of the sol-gel solution determined the depth of the dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL layer. It typically was 2–4 µm. A microscope image is shown in Fig. 1(b) for a wet-etched channel with the top width of 30 µm. Visually the dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL layer stood out in red tone against a transparent background. At room temperature, the zirconia-ORMOSIL channel waveguides can be kept crack-free over ten days.

A home-made scanning ellipsometer fitted with synchronously rotating polarizer and analyzer [26

26. L.Y. Chen, X.-W. Feng, Y. Su, H.-Z. Ma, and Y.-H. Qian, “Design of a scanning ellipsometer by synchronous rotation of the polarizer and analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1299 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 27

27. C. Ye, J. Wang, L. Shi, and D. Lo, “Polarization and threshold energy variation of distributed feedback lasing of oxazine dye in zirconia waveguides and in solutions,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 189 (2004). [CrossRef]

] was used to measure the refractive index and the extinction coefficient (n and k) of the LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL films from 400 nm to 1200 nm. Three types of detectors, viz. photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu R1104), photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu R316) and InGaAs detector (Oriel 70348), were used in different spectral regions. The scanning ellipsometer approach yields spectroscopic information for n and k, both critical parameters that define the propagation and loss of an optical wave in the waveguide [28

28. G. Wang and F. Gan, “Optical parameters and absorption studies of azo dye-doped polymer thin films on silicon,” Mater. Lett. 43, 6 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The prism coupler (Metricon 2010) was also used to measure the waveguiding behavior [29

29. J. Wang, G.-X. Zhang, L. Shi, D. Lo, and X.-L. Zhu, “Tunable multiwavelength distributed-feedback zirconia waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 90 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Silicon wafers were used as substrates. The measurements followed the standard procedures of ellipsometry. From the ratio of the intensities of the reflected polarized beams, the values of elliptical azimuth Ψ and phase angle Δ were extracted. n and k were then determined at 10 nm interval by a numerical routine [26

26. L.Y. Chen, X.-W. Feng, Y. Su, H.-Z. Ma, and Y.-H. Qian, “Design of a scanning ellipsometer by synchronous rotation of the polarizer and analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1299 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The ellipsometry results for a 0.9-µm-thick zirconia-ORMOSIL film with an LDS 925 concentration of 5×10-3 M are illustrated in Fig. 2. n and k were 1.523 and 7×10-4 around 900 nm, respectively. Hence the LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL layer surrounded by the glass substrate of lower refractive index behaved as an embedded channel waveguide with low propagation loss.

Fig. 2. Variation of n (refractive index) (a) and k (extinction coefficient) (b) from 400 nm to 1200 nm taken at 10-nm interval.

3. Results and discussions

Figure 3 shows the traces of absorption, fluorescence and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the LDS 925-doped zirconia-OMORSIL film. Fluorescence and ASE were measured along the optical axis of the waveguides. The thickness of the film was 1 µm and the refractive index was 1.53 at 633 nm. LDS 925 concentration was 5×10-3 M. The absorption peak was at 490 nm which was identical with the measurement result of the ellipsometer shown in Fig. 2(b). Wide absorption band allowed the relative efficient pumping at 532 nm by frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. Broad fluorescence emission centered at 746 nm with a line width of about 153 nm was observed. At higher pump energy (≥150 µJ), narrowing of the spectral width (down to 35 nm) indicative of ASE was achieved. The peak of ASE was at 841 nm. Compared with the peak of the fluorescence, ASE redward shifted 95 nm, which can effectively extend the output wavelength of DFB lasers.

Fig. 3. Absorption, fluorescence and amplified spontaneous emission spectra for an LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL waveguide.

DFB laser action was observed in LDS 925-doped channel waveguides in glass substrates when the pump laser energy exceeded 300 µJ. Accounting for diffraction and transmission loss, the actual energy deposited in the film was about 20 µJ. Figure 4 shows the DFB laser emission spectrum and the angle tuning results for a zirconia-ORMOSIL channel waveguide with a width of 30 µm and a depth of 4 µm embedded in a glass substrate. The line width of the DFB laser was less than 0.5 nm, which was the resolution limit of the spectrograph/ICCD system. The tuning data followed the solid line, which is the prediction by the Bragg resonance condition (M=2) for a zirconia-ORMOSIL layer with a refractive index of 1.53. η takes on the value of the effective index for E11x mode, which is deduced by the well-known Marcatili theory by approximating the half-round channel waveguide to a rectangular channel waveguide [31

31. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

].

The DFB laser output wavelength for channels of various widths and a fixed depth of 1.8 µm at an intersection angle of 28.7° was plotted in Fig. 5. The solid line is the prediction based on the Marcatili theory of rectangular waveguides [31

31. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

]. The prediction was for E11x mode for a rectangular waveguide of a depth of 1.8 µm. Refractive index for zirconia-ORMOSIL was 1.53 and that for glass was 1.51. Experimental data correspond to channel waveguides with widths at 15.6 µm, 25 µm and 30 µm, respectively. Reasonable agreement between theory and experiments is observed, attesting to the high optical quality of the sol-gel zirconia-ORMOSIL channel waveguides.

Fig. 4. DFB waveguide laser tuning data (a) and output spectrum (b) for a 30-µm-wide, 4-µm-deep channel waveguide. The dye concentration was 0.005 M.
Fig. 5. DFB laser output wavelength for channels of various width and a depth of 1.8 µm. The solid line is prediction based on Marcatili’s theory.

DFB lasers operated at high Bragg orders has been reported in the early work of DFB lasers [32

32. J.E. Bjorkholm and C.V. Shank, “Higher-Order Distributed Feedback Oscillators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 306 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. We studied DFB lasing of LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL thin films at first, second and third orders of the Bragg condition. The films were obtained by spin-coating glass substrates with the dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL sol-gel solution. Cladded on one side by the low index substrate and the other by air, the film on substrate structure behaved as an asymmetric waveguide. DFB lasing at first, second and third orders was achieved by crossing the pump beams at the intersection angles required by the Bragg condition. The results of the tuning of DFB lasing at different Bragg orders are summarized in Fig. 6(a). For first-order Bragg operation, tuning from 825 nm to 943 nm was realized. For the second Bragg order, the tuning range was from 809 nm to 932 nm. The larger intersection angle (>76°) limited the short-wavelength tuning of DFB lasing at first Bragg order. For the third Bragg order, the tuning range was from 809 nm to 881 nm. The tuning narrowed considerably as the Bragg order increased, corresponding to a decrease of the intersection angle. High-order DFB lasing operation can be employed to realize the surface-emitting lasers [33

33. S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 34

34. S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26, 593 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

We also demonstrated the NIR wide-band tuning of DFB waveguide lasers. By adopting four types of LDS dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL thin films (viz., LDS 759, LDS 798, LDS 867 and LDS 925), continuous tuning from 696 nm to 932 nm was obtained for the second Bragg order. Figure 6(b) shows the experimental data of the angle tuning versus the theoretical fit of Bragg condition (solid line), the refractive indices were determined independently by the prism coupler. Good agreement was seen.

Fig. 6. (a) Wavelength tuning of first-, second- and third-order DFB lasing of LDS 925-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL waveguide laser. (b) NIR wide-band wavelength tuning vs theoretical fit for LDS dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL waveguide laser.

4. Conclusion

In this work, we fabricated LDS dye-doped zirconia-ORMOSIL channel waveguides using the sol-gel methods. Tunable NIR DFB laser action was demonstrated in the channel waveguides. Dispersion characteristics were studied. NIR wide-band tuning was achieved and DFB lasing at both low and high Bragg orders (up to the third) was observed.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported in part by RGC Earmarked Research Grant of the Hong Kong SAR Government 4233/03E.

References and links

1.

M. Benatsou, B. Capoen, M. Bouazaoui, W. Tchana, and J. P. Vilcot, “Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived Er3+:Al2O3-SiO2 planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 428 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, “Sol-gel glass waveguides,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8, 991 (1997). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. Sorek, R. Reisfeld, I. Finkelstein, and S. Ruschin, “Light amplification in a dye-doped glass planar waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1169 (1995). [CrossRef]

4.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Stimulated emission in a periodic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971). [CrossRef]

5.

V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Denis, C. Fiorini, J.M. Nunzi, F. Sobel, B. Sahraoui, and D. Gindre, “Polymer thin-film distributed feedback tunable lasers,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 279 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Schade, “A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 105 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Maeda, and N. Nasa, “Multiwavelength distributed-feedback dye laser array and its application to spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1220 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

G.A. Turnbull, T.F. Krauss, W.L. Barnes, and I.D.W. Samuel, “Tuneable distributed feedback lasing in MEH-PPV films,” Synth. Met. 121, 1757 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Tousssaere, J. Zyss, A. Pogantsch, E.W.J. List, H. Tillman, and H.H. Horhold, “Optically written solid-state lasers with broadly tunable mode emission based on improved poly (2,5-dialkoxy-phenylene-vinylene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 716 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

X.-L. Zhu and D. Lo, “Distributed-feedback sol-gel dye laser tunable in the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2647 (2000). [CrossRef]

11.

X.-L. Zhu and D. Lo, “Sol-gel glass distributed feedback waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 917 (2002). [CrossRef]

12.

D. Lo, L. Shi, J. Wang, G. Zhang, and X.-L. Zhu, “Zirconia and zirconia-organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers tunable in the visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2707 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X.-L. Zhu, “Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Merlo, P. Prosposito, R. Russo, and S. Schutzmann, “1.3 µm light amplification in dye-doped hybrid sol-gel channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 416 (2003). [CrossRef]

15.

F. Chen, J. Wang, C. Ye, D. Lo, and X.-L. Zhu, “Distributed feedback sol-gel zirconia channel waveguide lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4284 (2004). [CrossRef]

16.

K. Kato, “Ar-Ion-Laser-Pumped Infrared Dye Laser at 875–1084nm,” Opt. Lett. 9(12), 544 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

M. Broyer, J. Chevaleyre, G. Delacretaz, and L. Wöste, “CVL-Pumped Dye Laser For Spectroscopic Application,” App. Phys. B 35, 31 (1984). [CrossRef]

18.

P. Bado, C. Dupuy, K.R. Wilson, R. Boggy, J. Bowen, and S. Westra, “High Efficiency Picosecond Pulse Generation in the 675–930nm Region from a Dye Laser Synchronously Pumped by an Argon-Ion Laser,” Opt. Commun. 46(3, 4), 241 (1983). [CrossRef]

19.

J. Hoffnagle, L. Ph. Roesch, N. Schlumpf, and A. Weis, “Cw Operation of Laser Dyes Styryl-9 and Styryl-11,” Opt. Commun. 42, 267 (1982). [CrossRef]

20.

K. Matsutani, A. Shinpoh, M. Uchiumi, T. Okada, M. Maeda, K. Muraoka, and M. Akazaki, “Laser Action in New Styryl Dyes and Their Tuning Characteristics,” Oyo Butsuri. 59(8), 1089 (1990).

21.

K.D. Bonin and T.J. Mcllrath, “Dye Laser Radiation in the 605–725nm Region Pumped by a 544nm Fluorescein Dye Laser,” Appl. Opt. 23(17), 2854 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. Zevin and R. Reisfeld, “Preparation and properties of active waveguides based on zirconia glasses,” Opt. Mater. 8, 37 (1997). [CrossRef]

23.

Y. Oki, K. Aso, D. Zuo, N.J. Vasa, and M. Maeda, “Wide-wavelength-range operation of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a plastic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6370 (2002). [CrossRef]

24.

Y. Oki, S. Miyamoto, M. Tanaka, D. Zuo, and M. Maeda, “Long lifetime and high repetition rate operation from distributed feedback plastic waveguided dye lasers” Opt. Commun. 214, 277 (2002). [CrossRef]

25.

T. Kobayashi, J.B. Savatier, G. Jordan, W.J. Blau, Y. Suzuki, and T. Kaino, “Near-infrared laser emission from luminescent plastic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 185 (2004). [CrossRef]

26.

L.Y. Chen, X.-W. Feng, Y. Su, H.-Z. Ma, and Y.-H. Qian, “Design of a scanning ellipsometer by synchronous rotation of the polarizer and analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1299 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

C. Ye, J. Wang, L. Shi, and D. Lo, “Polarization and threshold energy variation of distributed feedback lasing of oxazine dye in zirconia waveguides and in solutions,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 189 (2004). [CrossRef]

28.

G. Wang and F. Gan, “Optical parameters and absorption studies of azo dye-doped polymer thin films on silicon,” Mater. Lett. 43, 6 (2000). [CrossRef]

29.

J. Wang, G.-X. Zhang, L. Shi, D. Lo, and X.-L. Zhu, “Tunable multiwavelength distributed-feedback zirconia waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 90 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

C. R. Pollack, Fundamentals of Optoelectronics (Irwin, Chicago, 1995), Chap. 8.

31.

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

32.

J.E. Bjorkholm and C.V. Shank, “Higher-Order Distributed Feedback Oscillators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 306 (1972). [CrossRef]

33.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, “A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310 (2000). [CrossRef]

34.

S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, S. Berleb, A. G. Mückl, W. Brütting, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, “Very compact tunable solid-state laser utilizing a thin-film organic semiconductor,” Opt. Lett. 26, 593 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.3060) Integrated optics : Infrared
(140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
(160.6060) Materials : Solgel
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: February 2, 2005
Revised Manuscript: February 22, 2005
Published: March 7, 2005

Citation
Fei Chen, Jun Wang, Chao Ye, Weihai Ni, Jacklynn Chan, Yu Yang, and Dennis Lo, "Near infrared distributed feedback lasers based on LDS dye-doped zirconia-organically modified silicate channel waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 1643-1650 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1643


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