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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 6 — Mar. 21, 2005
  • pp: 1833–1838
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Broadband optical limiting and two-photon absorption properties of colloidal GaAs nanocrystals

Quanshui Li, Chunling Liu, Zhengang Liu, and Qihuang Gong  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 6, pp. 1833-1838 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.001833


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Abstract

GaAs nanocrystals have been prepared by a mechanical ball milling technique. The optical limiting properties of colloidal ethanol suspensions of these crystals were investigated by use of a nanosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Nd:YAG system. Not only at a wavelength of 1064 nm but also in the 490–670 nm visible region, colloidal GaAs nanocrystals with a concentration of 0.023 mg/mL exhibit strong optical limiting performance, which is better than that of C60 in toluene with the same linear transmittance at a wavelength of 532 nm. Two-photon absorption is regarded as the dominant mechanism for this technique, and the two-photon absorption coefficients of GaAs nanocrystals are estimated to be 5.6 and 21.1–37.0 cm/GW in the near-infrared and visible regions, respectively.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Optical limiting [1

1. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993). [CrossRef]

3

3. I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, and J. W. Ding, “Nonlinear-absorbing fiber array for large-dynamic-range optical limiting application against intense short laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1234–1240 (2004). [CrossRef]

] is a field of growing interest owing to its application for the protection of eyes and sensors from intense laser pulses. Candidates for optical limiting materials should have high transmittance for weak incident light, low transmittance for strong incident light, and instantaneous response over a broad spectral range. Of many mechanisms for optical limiting, two photon absorption [4

4. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995). [CrossRef]

7

7. Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, and C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001). [CrossRef]

] (TPA) and reverse saturable absorption [8

8. L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356, 225–266 (1992). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-Y. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorption response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996). [CrossRef]

] are promising and have been studied intensively. Reverse saturable absorption is one kind of sequential single-photon absorptive process in which the absorption cross section of an excited state is larger than that of the ground state. The linear transmittance cannot be high because there must be a certain amount of linear absorption to produce population of the excited state. TPA materials used for optical limiting have the desirable feature of high linear transmittance for low incident intensities. In the past decade, some organic molecules [10

10. J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, and N. Y. Prasad, “Nonlinear multiphoton processes in organic and polymeric materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1041–1070 (1996). [CrossRef]

12

12. B. J. Zhang and S.-J. Jeon, “Two-photon properties of bis-1,4-(p-diarylaminostyryl)-2,5-dicyanobenzene derivatives: two-photon cross-section tendency in multi-branched structures,”Chem. Phys. Lett. 377, 210–216 (2003). [CrossRef]

] were found to have exceptionally large TPA cross sections, which could be enhanced by increasing the length of the conjugated chain and the extent of the charge transfer. However, the linear absorption is redshifted simultaneously, which makes TPA lose its property of exhibiting little linear absorption in the visible region. Bulk semiconductor materials [1

1. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. Y. P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43–90 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985). [CrossRef]

15

15. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992). [CrossRef]

] exhibit a wide range of TPA that has been exploited for applications in optical limiting for the achievement of picosecond laser pulses in the infrared region. Recently semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted attention for their unique linear and nonlinear optical characteristics [2

2. Y. P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43–90 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. B. A. Smith, D. M. Waters, A. E. Faulhaber, M. A. Kreger, T. W. Roberti, and J. Z. Zhang, “Preparation and ultrafast optical characterization of metal and semiconductor colloidal nano-particles,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 9, 125–137 (1997). [CrossRef]

18

18. S. Creekmore, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, Q. Wang, J. Anderson, C. Pompey, D. Temple, X. Peng, J. L. Qu, W. Yu, A. Wang, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S. S. Jung, and J. H. Kim, “Nonlinear optical properties of cadmium telluride semiconductor nanocrystals for optical power-limiting application,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 42, S143–S148 (2003).

] that arise from their quantum size effects. In this paper we describe the preparation of GaAs nanocrystals dispersed into ethanol. Their linear absorption is obviously blueshifted relative to that of bulk GaAs. The optical limiting and TPA properties of nanosecond lasers in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regions are studied.

2. Experiment

The GaAs nanocrystals were prepared by a mechanical grinding method that uses a ball milling technique. This method is simple and introduces no by-products. The purity of the product is dependent only on that of the bulk GaAs (charge carrier concentration, <3×1016 cm-3). Details of the preparation and a full characterization of the technique will be reported elsewhere [19

19. Z. G. Liu, C. L. Liu, Q. S. Li, Z. J. Chen, and Q. H. Gong, “Synthesis, characterization and nonlinear optical properties of colloidal gallium arsenide nanocrystals,” submitted to Nanotechnology.

]. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the average size of a single particle is 7.6 nm. The prepared GaAs nanocrystals can be well dispersed in ethanol and form a brown suspension with concentration of 0.023 mg/mL. Imaged by a transmission electron microscope, aggregations can be observed; the GaAs nanoclusters have diameters of approximately 30–150 nm. The linear absorbance and transmittance spectra were recorded by an Agilent 8453 UV-visible photodiode array spectrophotometer at wavelengths of 190–1100 nm. Relative to that of bulk GaAs (1.43-eV bandgap), the linear absorption of GaAs nanoclusters exhibits a blueshift of 0.48 eV.

3. Results and discussion

For measurement of its optical properties, we placed the sample in a 5-mm-thick glass cell. The linear transmittance spectrum is shown in Fig. 1. As shown in Table 1, the sample is transparent and the transmittance is 98% at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Because of the blueshift of the bandgap, the average transmittance of colloidal GaAs nanocrystals is greater than 70% over the visible region. The optical limiting property was first measured at a wavelength of 1064 nm with the fundamental output of YAG used as the laser source. The transmitted intensity increases nonlinearly with the incident intensity, and the experimental result is shown in Fig. 2. We performed optical limiting measurements every 30 nm from 490 to 670 nm, using the optical parameter oscillator as the laser source. Over the visible region of 490–670 nm, obvious optical limiting phenomena were observed. Taking the wavelengths of 490 and 670 nm as examples, we show the experimental results in Fig. 3.

Fig. 1. Linear transmittance spectrum of colloidal GaAs nanocrystals in ethanol.
Fig. 2. Optical limiting properties of colloidal GaAs nanocrystals in ethanol at a wavelength of 1064 nm.
Fig. 3. Optical limiting properties of colloidal GaAs nanocrystals in ethanol at wavelength of 490 nm and 670 nm

Table 1. Linear Transmittance and TPA Coefficients of GaAs Nanocrystals

table-icon
View This Table

For comparison, the optical limiting properties of a C60 toluene solution (the benchmark material for optical limiting) with the same linear transmittance of 65% was measured under the same experimental conditions at a wavelength of 532 nm. The experimental result is represented by open circles in Fig. 4. It is clear that the optical limiting capability of the colloidal GaAs nanocrystals is stronger than that of C60. As an important parameter characterizing the optical limiting capability of the material, the optical limiting threshold, defined as the input intensity at which the transmittance falls to 50% of the linear transmittance, is approximately 87 MW/cm2 for GaAs nanocrystals and approximately 157 MW/cm2 for C60.

Fig. 4. Comparison of optical limiting properties of colloidal GaAs nanocrystals (∙) in ethanol and C60 in toluene (Ο) at a wavelength of 532 nm.

As a direct bandgap semiconductor, bulk GaAs exhibits TPA in the near-infrared wavelength region [1

1. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. Y. P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43–90 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985). [CrossRef]

]. According to the theory of TPA, transmitted intensity Io can be expressed as

Io=αIiαexp(αl)+[exp(αl)1]βIi,
(1)

where Ii is the input intensity, l is the thickness of the sample, α is the linear absorption coefficient, and β is the TPA coefficient. As the solid curves in Figs. 2 and 3 show, the experimental results can be well fitted by use of Eq. (1). It can be concluded that the mechanism of optical limiting for colloidal GaAs is TPA; the corresponding values of β are listed in Table 1. At 1064 nm the value of β for GaAs nanocrystals is 5.6 cm/GW, which is smaller than the reported value of 26 cm/GW for bulk GaAs [13

13. T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. But when the small amount of GaAs nanocrystals in the solution is considered, the TPA coefficient for a single molecule of GaAs in nanocrystal form is several orders higher than that in bulk material. More importantly, the TPA coefficient of GaAs nanocrystals can be greater than 20 cm/GW at an average linear transmittance of >70% at wavelengths of 490–670 nm, a property that makes it also effective for nanosecond optical limiting in the visible region.

Quantum size effects evidently occur when the particle size is similar to the Bohr radius of an exciton [21

21. L. Banyai, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Two-photon absorption and third-order nonlinearities in GaAs quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 13, 212–214 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The relationship between bandgap Eg and the particle size can be expressed as [22

22. M. A. Olshavsky, A. N. Goldstein, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Organometallic synthesis of GaAs crystallites exhibiting quantum confinement,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9438–9439 (1990). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. L. Butler, G. Redmond, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Preparation and spectroscopic characterization of highly confined nanocrystallites of gallium arsenide in decane,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 10,750–10,755 (1993). [CrossRef]

]

Eg=Egb+2π22R2(1me+1mh)1.8e24πεε0R,
(2)

where Egb is the bandgap for bulk material, R is the particle radius, ε(10.9) is the high-frequency dielectric constant, and me(0.07) and mh(0.68) are the effective mass of the electron and of the hole, respectively. From Eq. (2) it can be seen that the bandgap will be broadened when the particle size decreases, which corresponds to the blueshift of linear absorption. In addition, with decreasing particle size the conduction and the valence bands will be split into a series of discrete energy levels [24

24. S. Schmitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, “Theory of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 8113–8125 (1987). [CrossRef]

], which is beneficial in enhancing nonlinear optical properties. With GaAs nanocrystals of smaller average sizes, even weaker linear absorption and stronger TPA might be obtained, which would result in better optical limiting performance.

4. Summary

In conclusion, GaAs nanocrystals with high purity have been successfully prepared by a simple and effective mechanical grinding method. Dispersed in ethanol, the colloidal GaAs nanocrystals are transparent at a wavelength of 1064 nm and have an average linear transmittance of >70% in the visible region. This technique produced excellent optical limiting effects for nanosecond lasers at wavelengths of 1064 and 490–670 nm. In particular, under the same experimental conditions GaAs nanocrystals exhibit stronger optical limiting than C60 with the same linear transmittance. The principal mechanism for optical limiting for GaAs nanocrystals is TPA, and the values of the TPA coefficients are estimated to be 5.6 and 21.1–37.0 cm/GW in the near-infrared and visible regions, respectively. All those linear and nonlinear optical properties make GaAs nanocystals a promising new candidate for broadband optical limiting applications.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation under grant TG1999075207 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under grants 10204003, 10434020, 90206003, 10328407, and 90101027.

References

1.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, “Organic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43–90 (1999). [CrossRef]

3.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, and J. W. Ding, “Nonlinear-absorbing fiber array for large-dynamic-range optical limiting application against intense short laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1234–1240 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995). [CrossRef]

5.

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845(1997). [CrossRef]

6.

C. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013–2020 (1999). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, and C. Andraud, “Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391–5396 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356, 225–266 (1992). [CrossRef]

9.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-Y. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorption response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996). [CrossRef]

10.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, and N. Y. Prasad, “Nonlinear multiphoton processes in organic and polymeric materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1041–1070 (1996). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

B. J. Zhang and S.-J. Jeon, “Two-photon properties of bis-1,4-(p-diarylaminostyryl)-2,5-dicyanobenzene derivatives: two-photon cross-section tendency in multi-branched structures,”Chem. Phys. Lett. 377, 210–216 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985). [CrossRef]

14.

E. W. Van Stryland, Y. Y. Wu, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Soileau, and K. Mansour, “Optical limiting with semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1980–1988 (1988). [CrossRef]

15.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992). [CrossRef]

16.

B. A. Smith, D. M. Waters, A. E. Faulhaber, M. A. Kreger, T. W. Roberti, and J. Z. Zhang, “Preparation and ultrafast optical characterization of metal and semiconductor colloidal nano-particles,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 9, 125–137 (1997). [CrossRef]

17.

J. F. Xu, R. Czerw, S. Webster, D. L. Carroll, J. Ballato, and R. Nesper, “Nonlinear optical transmission in VOx nanotubes and VOx nanotube composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1711–1713 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

S. Creekmore, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, Q. Wang, J. Anderson, C. Pompey, D. Temple, X. Peng, J. L. Qu, W. Yu, A. Wang, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S. S. Jung, and J. H. Kim, “Nonlinear optical properties of cadmium telluride semiconductor nanocrystals for optical power-limiting application,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 42, S143–S148 (2003).

19.

Z. G. Liu, C. L. Liu, Q. S. Li, Z. J. Chen, and Q. H. Gong, “Synthesis, characterization and nonlinear optical properties of colloidal gallium arsenide nanocrystals,” submitted to Nanotechnology.

20.

C. Li, C. L. Liu, F. S. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “Optical limiting performance of two soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 201–205 (2003). [CrossRef]

21.

L. Banyai, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, “Two-photon absorption and third-order nonlinearities in GaAs quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 13, 212–214 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. A. Olshavsky, A. N. Goldstein, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Organometallic synthesis of GaAs crystallites exhibiting quantum confinement,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9438–9439 (1990). [CrossRef]

23.

L. Butler, G. Redmond, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Preparation and spectroscopic characterization of highly confined nanocrystallites of gallium arsenide in decane,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 10,750–10,755 (1993). [CrossRef]

24.

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, “Theory of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 8113–8125 (1987). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: January 25, 2005
Revised Manuscript: February 18, 2005
Published: March 21, 2005

Citation
Quanshui Li, Chunling Liu, Zhengang Liu, and Qihuang Gong, "Broadband optical limiting and two-photon absorption properties of colloidal GaAs nanocrystals," Opt. Express 13, 1833-1838 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-6-1833


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References

  1. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, �??A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,�?? Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. P. Sun and J. E. Riggs, �??Organic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,�?? Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43-90 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, and J. W. Ding, �??Nonlinear-absorbing fiber array for large-dynamic-range optical limiting application against intense short laser pulses,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1234-1240 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, �??Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433-2435 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, �??Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,�?? Opt. Lett. 22, 1843-1845(1997). [CrossRef]
  6. C. W. Spangler, �??Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,�?? J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013-2020 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Morel, A. Irimia, P. Najechalski, Y. Kervella, O. Stephan, P. L. Baldeck, and C. Andraud, �??Two-photon absorption and optical power limiting of bifluorene molecule,�?? J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5391-5396 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, �??Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,�?? Nature 356, 225-266 (1992). [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I.-Y. S. Lee, X.-Y. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C.-T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, �??Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorption response,�?? Science 273, 1533-1536 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, and N. Y. Prasad, �??Nonlinear multiphoton processes in organic and polymeric materials,�?? Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1041-1070 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J .L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, �??Design of of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,�?? Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. J. Zhang and S.-J. Jeon, �??Two-photon properties of bis-1,4-(p-diarylaminostyryl)-2,5-dicyanobenzene derivatives: two-photon cross-section tendency in multi-branched structures,�?? Chem. Phys. Lett. 377, 210-216 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, �??Optical limiting in GaAs,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488-494 (1985). [CrossRef]
  14. E. W. Van Stryland, Y. Y. Wu, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Soileau, and K. Mansour, �??Optical limiting with semiconductors,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1980-1988 (1988). [CrossRef]
  15. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, �??Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992). [CrossRef]
  16. B. A. Smith, D. M. Waters, A. E. Faulhaber, M. A. Kreger, T. W. Roberti, and J. Z. Zhang, �??Preparation and ultrafast optical characterization of metal and semiconductor colloidal nano-particles,�?? J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 9, 125-137 (1997). [CrossRef]
  17. J. F. Xu, R. Czerw, S. Webster, D. L. Carroll, J. Ballato, and R. Nesper, �??Nonlinear optical transmission in VOx nanotubes and VOx nanotube composites,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1711-1713 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Creekmore, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, Q. Wang, J. Anderson, C. Pompey, D. Temple, X. Peng, J. L. Qu, W. Yu, A. Wang, A. Mott, M. Namkung, S. S. Jung, and J. H. Kim, �??Nonlinear optical properties of cadmium telluride semiconductor nanocrystals for optical power-limiting application,�?? J. Korean Phys. Soc. 42, S143-S148 (2003).
  19. Z. G. Liu, C. L. Liu, Q. S. Li, Z. J. Chen, and Q. H. Gong, �??Synthesis, characterization and nonlinear optical properties of colloidal gallium arsenide nanocrystals,�?? submitted to Nanotechnology.
  20. C. Li, C. L. Liu, F. S. Li, and Q. H. Gong, �??Optical limiting performance of two soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes,�?? Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 201-205 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. L. Banyai, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, �??Two-photon absorption and third-order nonlinearities in GaAs quantum dots,�?? Opt. Lett. 13, 212-214 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. A. Olshavsky, A. N. Goldstein, and A. P. Alivisatos, �??Organometallic synthesis of GaAs crystallites exhibiting quantum confinement,�?? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9438-9439 (1990). [CrossRef]
  23. L. Butler, G. Redmond, and D. Fitzmaurice, �??Preparation and spectroscopic characterization of highly confined nanocrystallites of gallium arsenide in decane,�?? J. Phys. Chem. 97, 10, 750-10,755 (1993). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Schmitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, �??Theory of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor microcrystallites,�?? Phys. Rev. B 35, 8113-8125 (1987). [CrossRef]

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Figures

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
 
Fig. 4.
 

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