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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 8 — Apr. 18, 2005
  • pp: 3144–3149
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All-fiber 80-Gbit/s wavelength converter using 1-m-long Bismuth Oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber with a nonlinearity γ of 1100 W-1km-1

Ju Han Lee, Kazuro Kikuchi, Tatsuo Nagashima, Tomoharu Hasegawa, Seiki Ohara, and Naoki Sugimoto  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 8, pp. 3144-3149 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.003144


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Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the use of our fabricated 1-mlong Bi2O3 optical fiber (Bi-NLF) with an ultra-high nonlinearity of ~1100 W-1km-1 for wavelength conversion of OTDM signals. With successfully-performed fusion splicing of the Bi-NLF to conventional silica fibers an all-fiber wavelength converter is readily implemented by use of a conventional Kerr shutter configuration. Owing to the extremely short fiber length, no additional scheme was employed for suppression of signal polarization fluctuation induced by local birefringence fluctuation, which is usually observed in a long-fiber Kerr shutter. The wavelength converter, composed of the 1-m Bi-NLF readily achieves error-free wavelength conversion of an 80-Gbit/s input signal

© 2005 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

A number of researches have been performed so far for developing high-performance all-fiber wavelength converters using the nonlinear effects such as four-wave mixing (FWM) [4

4. K. Inoue and H. Toba, “Wavelength conversion experiment using fiber four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69–72 (1992). [CrossRef]

] and cross-phase modulation (XPM) [5

5. Y. Jianjun, Q. Yujun, P. Jeppesen, and S. N. Knudsen, “Broad-band and pulsewidth-maintained wavelength conversion based on a high-nonlinearity DSF nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 344–346 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. In the previous-demonstrations of fiber-based wavelength converters, generally speaking in any fiber-based nonlinear signal-processing devices, one of main drawbacks was the compactness and stability issue originating from the long fiber length. A number of researches have thus been performed to overcome the issue by developing new types of novel highly-nonlinear fiber; for example, highly-nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber (HNL-DSF) [6

6. T. Okuno, M. Tanaka, M. Hirano, T. Kato, M. Shigematsu, and M. Onishi, “Highly nonlinear and perfectly dispersion-flattened fibers for quasi-tunable wavelength conversion,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2003), Rimini Italy, 3, 614–615 (2003).

] and holey fiber (HF) [7

7. J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “Fourwave mixing based, 10Gbit/s tuneable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Although a variety of types of wavelength converters using those fibers have been successfully demonstrated, those fibers still require lengths of tens of meters for the implementation of wavelength converters, prohibiting their practical applications.

Recently, we demonstrated the fabrication of a novel optical fiber with an ultra-high nonlinearity using a Bi2O3 material [8

8. N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1.km-1,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC’2004), Paper PDP26 (2004).

]. Owing to both the high material nonlinear coefficient and the small mode field area, such a high nonlinearity of γ~1360 W-1.km-1 was successfully obtained. This means that only a meter or less in length would be long enough to generate nonlinear optical phase shift sufficient for obtaining various signal-processing functions [9

9. J. H. Lee, T. Tanemura, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, “Use of 1-m Bi2O3 nonlinear fiber for 160-Gbit/s optical-time division demultiplexing based on polarization rotation and wavelength shift induced by cross-phase modulation,” Opt. Lett.30, No.11 (2005). [PubMed]

].

In this paper we go on to perform a research on the application of the developed Bismuth nonlinear optical fiber (Bi-NLF) technology for the implementation of high-speed nonlinear signal-processing devices. More specifically, we provide what we believe to be the shortest all-fiber high-speed wavelength converter ever demonstrated that uses an only 1-m-long Bi-NLF with a normal group-velocity dispersion (GVD). The 1-m Bi-NLF is fusion-spliced to standard single mode fibers (SMF’s) and its nonlinearity is ~1100 W-1km-1. The length of the whole device is almost comparable to that of fiber-pigtailed semiconductor devices.

Our wavelength converter is based on the conventional Kerr shutter principle using nonlinear birefringence and its performance is evaluated at a data rate of 80 Gbit/s. One noticeable point in the use of such a short length of nonlinear fiber in the Kerr shutter is that we do not need any special scheme for suppression of signal polarization instability caused by temperature-dependent local birefringence fluctuation within a long length of the conventional optical fiber [10

10. T. Morioka, H. Takara, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “Ultrafast reflective optical Kerr demultiplexer using polarization rotation mirror,” Electron. Lett. 28, 521–522 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. So far the optical fiber based Kerr shutter approach has not attracted so much attention for high-speed nonlinear signal-processing applications mainly due to the polarization instability problem despite a range of practical benefits such as simple implementation, no wavelength shift, and good temporal resolution [11

11. S. Watanabe, R. Okabe, F. Futami, R. Hainberger, C. Schumidt-Langhorst, C. Schubert, and H. G. Weber, “Novel fiber Kerr-switch with parametric gain: demonstration of optical demultiplexing and sampling up to 640 Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2004), Stockholm Sweden, Postdeadline paper Th4.1.6 (2004).

]. The 1-m-long Bi-NLF solves this instability problem and enables error-free wavelength conversion of an 80-Gbit/s input signal.

2. Bi-NLF fabrication and optical property characterization

Fig. 1. (a) Measured optical spectrum for nonlinear four-wave mixing in the Bi-NLF fabricated. (b) Measured nonlinear phase shift versus input signal power (The dashed line is a linear fit).

In order to obtain a Bi2O3-based optical fiber with an ultra-high nonlinearity for this experiment, an optical fiber with a step-index structure was designed and fabricated. Note that GVD property of the fiber is also a very important parameter to take into account for its successful application to nonlinear optical signal-processing devices. In designing an optical fiber for all-optical nonlinear signal processing, a normal GVD is essentially required at the signal wavelength since the use of an anomalous dispersion fiber inevitably results in signal coherence degradation induced by modulation instability [12

12. J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, W. Belardi, M. Ibsen, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A tuneable WDM wavelength converter based on cross phase modulation effects in holey fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 437–439 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Due to very high normal dispersion characteristic of the Bi2O3 materials at a wavelength band of ~1550 nm, the GVD requirement was automatically satisfied without using any special waveguide design. The refractive indices (n) of the core and the cladding glasses were 2.22 and 2.13, respectively. We could easily ensure the sufficient thermal stability during the fiber drawing process since the core and the cladding glasses possess the same softening temperature and thermal expansion coefficient. The measured numerical aperture (NA) and the cut-off wavelength of the fabricated fiber were 0.64 and 1380 nm, respectively. The mode field diameter of this fiber was measured to be 1.98 µm and the fiber propagation loss at 1550 nm was 0.8 dB/m. The GVD at a wavelength of 1550 nm was measured to be -260 ps/nm-km. Note that only one meter piece of the fiber was used in this experiment and the overall GVD was just -0.26 ps/nm. No birefringence was observed in this particular 1-m-long fiber. Further details of the fabrication process are fully described in Ref. [8

8. N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1.km-1,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC’2004), Paper PDP26 (2004).

].

Fusion splicing of newly-developed optical fibers to conventional standard single mode fibers (SMF) is another important procedure from a perspective of practical implementation of fiber-based devices. Special care was taken of controlling arc strength and time due to the material discrepancy between Bi2O3 and Silica, and a high NA silica fiber (NA~0.35) was employed between them to achieve good intermediate mode matching. We define the splicing loss as the overall loss from the Bi-NLF to the SMF including the loss between the high NA fiber and the SMF. The input and output splicing losses were measured to be 2.6 dB and 3.2 dB, respectively, which are acceptable for this experiment although more efforts are required for their further reduction.

3. Experimental results

Fig. 2. Experimental setup for the 80-Gbit/s wavelength converter using a 1-m-long Bi-NLF.

Figure 2 shows the experimental setup for our proposed 80-Gbit/s wavelength converter using a 1-m-long Bi-NLF. 3-ps soliton pulses at a wavelength of 1550 nm were first generated from a 10-GHz harmonically, regeneratively mode-locked erbium-fiber ring laser (EFRL) and subsequently modulated to provide a 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) at 10 Gbit/s by use of a high-speed LiNbO3 modulator. This 10-Gbit/s pseudorandom data stream was then amplified to a 15-dBm average power and multiplexed to an aggregate bit rate of 80 Gbit/s using a commercially-available three-stage passive multiplexer (MUX). The multiplexed data pulse stream was then amplified to an average power of ~25 dBm (after the 3-nm bandpass filter) and served as a control beam for wavelength conversion. A probe beam was generated from a CW external cavity laser tunable in a range from 1530 nm to 1580 nm and amplified to an 18-dBm optical power. The 80-Gbit/s control data stream and the probe beam were combined by a 50:50 coupler and launched into the 1-m-long Bi-NLF. Polarization controllers (PC’s) were included on both the control and the probe launching paths into the Bi-NLF so that they were polarized at the fiber output end at a 45° angle of their polarization directions. In order to ensure the 45° angle, a fiberized polarizer attached with a degree-scaled half-wave plate at the front end was employed. The procedure for ensuring the 45° is as follows. We first adjusted the polarization of the probe beam to exhibit the maximum power at the polarizer output and then rotate the half-wave plate attached to the polarizer by 45°. We then launched the pump beam and adjusted its polarization to exhibit the maximum power at the polarizer output. In this adjustment the relative polarization direction of the two beams was assumed to maintain along such a short length of the Bi-NLF since the polarizer was located at the output end of the Bi-NLF. The polarizer was operating as a probe beam blocker without control pulses. A 3-nm bandpass filter was employed at the output of the polarizer to filter out residual control beam components.

Our wavelength converter is based on the conventional Kerr shutter using nonlinear birefringence. XPM between the control and the CW probe beams results in nonlinear birefringence for the CW beam where these beams overlap temporally within the fiber. This nonlinearly-polarization-rotated signal can then be converted to a wavelength-converted signal by passing it through a polarizer, which serves to eliminate the residual CW beam with no polarization rotation [14

14. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic Press, 2001), 210–216.

]. In order to implement a stable and high-performance Kerr shutter using a conventional optical fiber an additional scheme for suppression of signal polarization instability induced by temperature-dependent local birefringence fluctuation owing to its long fiber length is essentially required [10

10. T. Morioka, H. Takara, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “Ultrafast reflective optical Kerr demultiplexer using polarization rotation mirror,” Electron. Lett. 28, 521–522 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. However, the use of a very short, ultra-high nonlinearity fiber could significantly reduce the polarization instability problem [15

15. G.-W. Lu, L.-K. Chen, C.-K. Chan, and C. Lin, “All-optical tunable wavelength conversion based on cross-polarisation modulation in nonlinear photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 55–56 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

We then constructed an 80-to-10-Gbit/s data-demultiplexing switch to assess the wavelength conversion performance in terms of bit error rate (BER). The 80-to-10-Gbit/s demultiplexing switch is also based on a 2-m-long Bi-NLF. Our demultiplexing switch basically uses the principle of the Kerr shutter and its switching performance is further enhanced by the additional use of the wavelength blueshift of data pulses, which is induced by cross-phase modulation from the trailing edge of the control pulse. Further details of our demultiplexing switch are fully described in Ref. [9

9. J. H. Lee, T. Tanemura, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, “Use of 1-m Bi2O3 nonlinear fiber for 160-Gbit/s optical-time division demultiplexing based on polarization rotation and wavelength shift induced by cross-phase modulation,” Opt. Lett.30, No.11 (2005). [PubMed]

]. The demultiplexed signal was then fed into a receiver module with no optical preamplifier to measure BER performance.

Fig. 3. Measured output optical spectrum after the polarizer together with that after the filter.

First, we characterized our wavelength converter in the spectral domain. The measured output optical spectrum after the polarizer is shown in Fig. 3. The CW probe beam is readily converted into an 80-Gbit/s signal due to nonlinear birefringence induced by the control signal. It is clearly evident that high spectral quality beam is successfully obtained at the output with such a short length of Bi-NLF

Fig. 4. (a) Measured autocorrelation traces of the 1555-nm original data pulses and the 1545-nm wavelength-converted pulses. (b) Measured temporal width of the wavelength-converted pulses as a function of probe beam wavelength.

We then performed the autocorrelation measurement of the wavelength-converted pulses. Figure 4(a) shows autocorrelation traces of the 1555-nm original data pulses and the 1545-nm wavelength-converted pulses. A Gaussian wavelength-converted pulse of 3.3-ps temporal width was obtained and the calculated time-bandwidth product was ~0.37. We then measured the temporal width of the wavelength-converted pulses as a function of probe beam wavelength for the purpose of confirming the wavelength tunability and the results are plotted in Fig. 4(b). The temporal width of the converted pulses was observed to linearly increase from ~3 to ~4 ps as the probe wavelength decreases from 1550 to 1530 nm. The walk-off between the control and the probe beams is believed to lead to the uneven output pulse widths over the 20-nm bandwidth.

Finally, we performed the BER measurement on one wavelength-converted signal at 1545 nm to assess the system impact of using our proposed wavelength converter. Figure 5(a) shows measured eye diagrams for the input control and the wavelength converted 80-Gbit/s pulses together with those of the 10-Gbit/s back-to-back and the 10-Gbit/s demultiplexed signals. High quality of wavelength conversion and subsequent demultiplexing is clearly evident from the graph. The conversion performance was quantified with BER, and error-free operation was readily achieved with a power penalty of ~2 dB relative to the 10-Gbit/s back-to- back, as shown in Fig. 5(b). The power penalty is believed to be associated with multi-path interference of the probe beam due to reflection at the splicing points between the Bi-NLF and the high NA silica fibers. Owing to the material refractive index discrepancy at the splicing points, some degree of light reflection was observed. Note that the 2-dB penalty includes the penalty induced by the 80-to-10-Gbit/s demultiplexer, and thus the penalty associated with wavelength conversion should be less than 2 dB.

Fig. 5. (a) Measured eye diagrams for the 80-Gbit/s input control and the 80-Gbit/s wavelength-converted signals together with those of the 10-Gbit/s back-to-back and the 10-Gbit/s demultiplexed signals (input pulses: 1555 nm, wavelength-converted pulses: 1545nm). (b) Measured BER’s for the 80-to-10-Gbit/s demultiplexed wavelength-converted signal and the 10-Gbit/s back-to-back signal.

4. Conclusion

We have experimentally demonstrated the use of our fabricated 1-m-long Bi2O3-based stepindex type optical fiber with an ultra-high nonlinearity of ~1100 W-1km-1 at 1550 nm for wavelength conversion of high-speed OTDM signals. The Kerr-shutter-based wavelength converter showed stable operation without signal polarization instability. Error-free wavelength conversion of an 80-Gbit/s data signal was readily achieved and wavelength tuning over a 20-nm range was also obtained. The application of the proposed wavelength converter for over 160-Gbit/s systems should be possible with both further increase in the control pulse power and the use of stable 160-Gbit/s multiplexed data pulses. More efforts are also required to reduce both splicing loss and GVD of Bi-NLF’s. The Bi-NLF has been investigated as a strong candidate for practical implementation of a range of nonlinear optical signal processing devices, and further applications are certain to be found in the near future.

References and links

1.

L. R. Rau, W. Wang, S. Camatel, H. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, “All-optical 160-Gb/s phase reconstructing wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation (XPM) in dispersion-shifted fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2520–2522 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

A. Suzuki, X. Wang, Y. Ogawa, and S. Nakamura, “10×320 Gb/s (3.2 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM transmission in C-band by semiconductor-based devices,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2004), Stockholm Sweden, Th4.1.7 (2004).

3.

A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashap, “Error free 100 Gbit/s wavelength conversion using grating assisted cross-gain modulation in 2mm long semiconductor amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1958–1959 (1998). [CrossRef]

4.

K. Inoue and H. Toba, “Wavelength conversion experiment using fiber four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69–72 (1992). [CrossRef]

5.

Y. Jianjun, Q. Yujun, P. Jeppesen, and S. N. Knudsen, “Broad-band and pulsewidth-maintained wavelength conversion based on a high-nonlinearity DSF nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 344–346 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

T. Okuno, M. Tanaka, M. Hirano, T. Kato, M. Shigematsu, and M. Onishi, “Highly nonlinear and perfectly dispersion-flattened fibers for quasi-tunable wavelength conversion,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2003), Rimini Italy, 3, 614–615 (2003).

7.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “Fourwave mixing based, 10Gbit/s tuneable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440–442 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, “Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1.km-1,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC’2004), Paper PDP26 (2004).

9.

J. H. Lee, T. Tanemura, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, “Use of 1-m Bi2O3 nonlinear fiber for 160-Gbit/s optical-time division demultiplexing based on polarization rotation and wavelength shift induced by cross-phase modulation,” Opt. Lett.30, No.11 (2005). [PubMed]

10.

T. Morioka, H. Takara, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “Ultrafast reflective optical Kerr demultiplexer using polarization rotation mirror,” Electron. Lett. 28, 521–522 (1992). [CrossRef]

11.

S. Watanabe, R. Okabe, F. Futami, R. Hainberger, C. Schumidt-Langhorst, C. Schubert, and H. G. Weber, “Novel fiber Kerr-switch with parametric gain: demonstration of optical demultiplexing and sampling up to 640 Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2004), Stockholm Sweden, Postdeadline paper Th4.1.6 (2004).

12.

J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, W. Belardi, M. Ibsen, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “A tuneable WDM wavelength converter based on cross phase modulation effects in holey fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 437–439 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and O. A. Levring, “Direct continuous-wave measurement of n2 in various types of telecommunication fiber at 1.55 µm,” Optics Lett. 21, 1966–1968 (1996). [CrossRef]

14.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic Press, 2001), 210–216.

15.

G.-W. Lu, L.-K. Chen, C.-K. Chan, and C. Lin, “All-optical tunable wavelength conversion based on cross-polarisation modulation in nonlinear photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 55–56 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(060.7140) Fiber optics and optical communications : Ultrafast processes in fibers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: February 17, 2005
Revised Manuscript: April 10, 2005
Published: April 18, 2005

Citation
Ju Han Lee, Kazuro Kikuchi, Tatsuo Nagashima, Tomoharu Hasegawa, Seiki Ohara, and Naoki Sugimoto, "All-fiber 80-Gbit/s wavelength converter using 1-m-long Bismuth Oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber with a nonlinearity γ of 1100 W-1km-1," Opt. Express 13, 3144-3149 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3144


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References

  1. L. R. Rau, W. Wang, S. Camatel, H. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, �??All-optical 160-Gb/s phase reconstructing wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation (XPM) in dispersion-shifted fiber,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2520-2522 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Suzuki, X. Wang, Y. Ogawa, and S. Nakamura, �??10�?320 Gb/s (3.2 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM transmission in C-band by semiconductor-based devices,�?? in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2004), Stockholm Sweden, Th4.1.7 (2004).
  3. A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, D. Pitcher, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashap, �??Error free 100 Gbit/s wavelength conversion using grating assisted cross-gain modulation in 2mm long semiconductor amplifier,�?? Electron. Lett. 34, 1958-1959 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Inoue, and H. Toba, �??Wavelength conversion experiment using fiber four-wave mixing,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69-72 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Jianjun, Q. Yujun, P. Jeppesen, and S. N. Knudsen, �??Broad-band and pulsewidth-maintained wavelength conversion based on a high-nonlinearity DSF nonlinear optical loop mirror,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 344-346 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Okuno, M. Tanaka, M. Hirano, T. Kato, M. Shigematsu, and M. Onishi, �??Highly nonlinear and perfectly dispersion-flattened fibers for quasi-tunable wavelength conversion,�?? in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2003), Rimini Italy, 3, 614-615 (2003).
  7. J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, �??Four-wave mixing based, 10Gbit/s tuneable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, and K. Kikuchi, �??Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 W-1.km-1,�?? in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2004), Paper PDP26 (2004).
  9. J. H. Lee, T. Tanemura, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, �??Use of 1-m Bi2O3 nonlinear fiber for 160-Gbit/s optical-time division demultiplexing based on polarization rotation and wavelength shift induced by cross-phase modulation,�?? Opt. Lett. 30, No.11 (2005). [PubMed]
  10. T. Morioka, H. Takara, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, �??Ultrafast reflective optical Kerr demultiplexer using polarization rotation mirror,�?? Electron. Lett. 28, 521-522 (1992). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Watanabe, R. Okabe, F. Futami, R. Hainberger, C. Schumidt-Langhorst, C. Schubert, and H. G. Weber, �??Novel fiber Kerr-switch with parametric gain: demonstration of optical demultiplexing and sampling up to 640 Gb/s,�?? in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2004), Stockholm Sweden, Postdeadline paper Th4.1.6 (2004).
  12. J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, W. Belardi, M. Ibsen, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, �??A tuneable WDM wavelength converter based on cross phase modulation effects in holey fiber,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 437-439 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and O. A. Levring, �??Direct continuous-wave measurement of n2 in various types of telecommunication fiber at 1.55 m,�?? Optics Lett. 21, 1966-1968 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic Press, 2001), 210-216.
  15. G.-W. Lu, L.-K. Chen, C.-K. Chan, and C. Lin, �??All-optical tunable wavelength conversion based on cross-polarisation modulation in nonlinear photonic crystal fibre,�?? Electron. Lett. 41, 55-56 (2005). [CrossRef]

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