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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 10 — May. 15, 2006
  • pp: 4494–4503
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Compact gradual bends for channel plasmon polaritons

Valentyn S. Volkov, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi, Eloïse Devaux, and Thomas W. Ebbesen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 10, pp. 4494-4503 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.004494


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Abstract

We report the design, fabrication and characterization of compact gradual bends for channel plasmon polaritons (CPPs) being excited at telecom wavelengths. We obtain high-quality near-field optical images of CPP modes propagating along a bent V-groove in gold, which indicate good CPP mode confinement in the groove and efficient guiding around the compact S-bend connecting two 5-µm-offset grooves over a distance of 5 µm. Using averaged cross sections of the CPP intensity distributions before and after the S-bend, the total bend loss is evaluated and found to be close to 2.3 dB for the wavelengths in the range of 1430-1640 nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Ever increasing pace of miniaturisation and integration in optics requires further progress in fabrication and integration of several photonic components on a common planar substrate with the purpose of realizing various functionalities such as guiding, bending, splitting, filtering, multiplexing and demultiplexing of optical signals. To support these functions, integrated optics involves a number of technologies with different technological platforms and material systems including semiconductors, silica, silica-on-silicon materials [1

1. Donald L. Lee, Electromagnetic principles of integrated optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1986).

], polymers [2

2. L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and organo-mineral materials [3

3. P. Coudray, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials,” Material Science in Semiconductor Processing 3, 331–341 (2000). [CrossRef]

] among others. The size and density of optical devices employing these technologies is nonetheless limited by the diffraction limit of light that does not allow localization of electromagnetic waves in regions noticeably smaller than half the wavelength in the structure [4

4. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1991). [CrossRef]

]. Another limitation is the typical guiding geometry (e.g., planar waveguides are limited in their geometry because of radiation leakage at sharp bends). These circumstances result in a much lower level of integration and miniaturization of optical devises, compared to that achieved in modern microelectronics. A new approach to circumvent this problem, which suggests employing surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) that are light waves coupled to oscillations of free electrons in a metal, meets the requirements of low-cost, simplicity of planar fabrication, combined with good performance. The SPP fields decay exponentially into both media and reach maximum at the interface, a circumstance that makes SPPs extremely sensitive to interface properties [5

5. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

]. The possibility of using SPPs for miniature photonic circuits has attracted a great deal of attention to the field of SPPs during the last years [6

6. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. So far, many different concepts have been suggested, including photonic bandgap structures [7

7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, “Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076–1078 (2001). [CrossRef]

], metal stripes in a dielectric environment [8

8. B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidji, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001). [CrossRef]

], nanorods [9

9. S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kirk, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Reguicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmons-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001). [CrossRef]

], metal particle waveguides [10

10. J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Surface plasmon micro-and nano-optics,” J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and the use of dielectric thin-film structures on top of a metal surface [11

11. A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberg, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Quite recently, SPP gap waveguides based on the SPP propagation between profiled metal surfaces have been suggested [12

12. K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158–1160 (2003). [CrossRef]

] and various nano-waveguide configurations have been considered [12

12. K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158–1160 (2003). [CrossRef]

14

14. H. Gao, H. Shi, C. Wang, C. Du, X. Luo, Q. Deng, Y. Lv, X. Lin, and H. Yao, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation and combination in Y-shaped metallic channels,” Opt. Express 13, 10795–10800 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The possibility of guiding of electromagnetic waves by a channel cut into an otherwise planar surface of a solid (metal or polar dielectric) characterized by a negative dielectric function was first considered by Maradudin and co-workers (more than 15 years ago) in the electrostatic limit [15

15. J. Q. Lu and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 11159–11165 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. After this initial paper, a number of publications discussing the channel guided waves propagation in triangular metallic grooves appeared [16

16. I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002). [CrossRef]

19

19. D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1186–1188 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Channel SPP modes, or channel plasmon polaritons (CPPs) [16

16. I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002). [CrossRef]

], where the electromagnetic radiation is concentrated at the bottom of V-shaped grooves milled in a metal film, have been predicted to have promising subwavelength confinement and relatively low propagation loss [17

17. D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1069–1071 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], single-mode operation [18

18. D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmonpolaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323–6325 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and efficient transmission around sharp bends [19

19. D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1186–1188 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Quite recently, we have employed a collection scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) for imaging of the CPP propagation at telecom wavelengths along straight subwavelength grooves milled in gold [20

20. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. High-quality SNOM images were obtained allowing us to directly demonstrate the CPP existence, evaluate the CPP propagation loss and characterize the CPP mode confinement.

In this work, we report the design, fabrication and characterization of compact gradual bends featuring the low-loss CPP guiding at telecom wavelengths. We present near-field optical images of CPP modes propagating along a bent V-groove in gold, which indicate good CPP mode confinement in the groove and efficient guiding around the compact S-bend connecting two 5-µm-offset grooves over a distance of 5 µm.

2. Experimental arrangement

Fig. 1. Schematic layout of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2. Scanning electron microscope images of groove (a) and S-bend (b). Optical microscope images of (c) the coupling arrangement and (d) the light propagation (λ=1.55 µm) along the groove.

We have found that the track of radiation propagating along the groove was visible only for TE polarization of incident light [Fig. 2(d)]. This track was clearly distinguishable for distances of up to~120 µm from the in-coupling groove edge and in the whole range of laser tunability. The far-field observations have confirmed the expected polarization properties of the guided radiation and demonstrated its (relatively) low dissipation. Following these experiments (that include also adjusting the in-coupling fiber position to maximize the coupling efficiency) we moved the whole fiber-sample arrangement under the SNOM head and mapped the intensity distribution near the surface of the groove with an uncoated sharp fiber tip of the SNOM. The near-field optical probe used in the experiment has been produced from a single-mode silica fiber by~120 min etching of a cleaved fiber in 40% hydrofluoric acid with a protective layer of olive oil. The resulting fiber tip has a cone-angle of~40° and curvature radius of less than 80 nm. The tip was scanned along the sample surface at a constant distance of a few nanometers maintained by shear force feedback. It should be borne in mind that this distance could not be maintained in the middle of the groove (given the groove dimensions and the tip size), a circumstance that might influence the characterization of CPP mode cross section. Near-field radiation scattered by the tip was partially collected by the fiber itself and propagated in the form of the fiber modes towards the other end of the fiber, where it was detected by a femtowatt InGaAs photo receiver.

3. Experimental results

Topographical and near-field optical images of CPP guiding by the groove containing the Sbend were recorded at the distance of ~120 µm from the in-coupling groove edge (to decrease the influence of stray light, i.e., the light that was not coupled into the CPP mode) and in the whole range of laser tunability (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Pseudo-color (a) topographical and near-field optical images (24×9 µm2) obtained at the wavelength λ≅(b) 1430, (c) 1500, (d) 1600, and (e) 1640 nm with the CPP propagating along the bent subwavelength groove.

Fig. 4. (a) The schematic of an S-bend. The magenta lines correspond to approximate positions of the lateral cross sections taken before “In” and after “Out” the S-bend. The red arrows indicate the CPP propagation direction. (b) Average cross sections of the intensity distributions in the bent groove before and after the S-bend corresponding to the optical images shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5. Total insertion loss determined from cross sections of the near-field optical images (see Fig. 3) together with the propagation loss calculated for the 12-µm-long groove region shown in Fig. 4(a) as a hatched groove area and corresponding bend loss as functions of the light wavelength

Figure 5 shows that the average bend loss of the S-bend is close to ~2.3 dB per double bend in the wavelength range 1430–1640 nm. However, it can be seen that the losses were increasing slightly at short wavelengths (1430–1460 nm). We would like to point out that the loss level attained already in these experiments indicates that the CPP waveguide circuits having relatively large (tens of degrees) bend angles can be realized with relatively small (<3dB) bend losses, allowing for high integration level. It should be noted that the CPP intensity distribution inside the groove was found to be noticeably varying for different adjustments of the in-coupling fiber with respect to the fiber displacement parallel to the surface plane. The typical SNOM images recorded at the wavelength λ≅1620 nm with the in-coupling fiber being moved along the sample facet (and displaced with respect to the central line of the groove) are shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Pseudo-color (a) topographical and (b-e) near-field optical images (24×9 µm2) obtained at the wavelength λ≅1620 nm for different adjustments of the in-coupling fiber (along the sample facet) with respect to the groove center. The in-coupling fiber was: (b) correctly aligned and centered to the groove; (c)~150 nm moved; (d)~250 nm moved; (e)~500 nm moved. The images are oriented in the way that the in-coupling fiber was moved upwards in the vertical direction.

For the case where the input fiber was correctly aligned and centered to the groove [Fig. 6(b)], the CPP propagation along the groove is clearly seen. The recorded intensity distribution is well confined to the groove area exhibiting efficient single-mode guiding around the S-bend. When the fiber was ~150 nm moved along the sample facet [Fig. 6(c)], the recorded SNOM image became perturbed displaying two distinct maxima (that correspond most probably to the fundamental CPP mode and/or other SPP modes propagating along the groove edge) as well as strong CPP scattering in the bend region. The contribution of the fundamental CPP mode decreased rapidly with further displacement of the in-coupling fiber [Fig. 6(d)]. At the same time, the additional SPP mode(s) was still observed in the groove area before and after the bend. Finally, when the fiber was not aligned to the groove, i.e., moved over ~500 nm along the sample facet [Fig. 6(e)], only some light scattering in the bend region was seen on the SNOM image without any sign of light coupled into the CPP mode. The evolution of the CPP mode intensity distribution across the groove before and after the S-bend (for different adjustments of the in-coupling fiber with respect to the groove center) is shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Average cross sections of the intensity distributions across the groove before and after the S-bend corresponding to the optical images shown in Fig. 6.

4. Conclusion

In this paper, using the collection SNOM we have directly observed the CPP propagation along the (triangular) 0.6-µm-wide and 1.1-µm-deep V-groove in gold containing the rather compact S-bend connecting two 5-µm-offset grooves over a distance of 5 µm (which is equivalent to a double 45° sharp bend). High-quality SNOM images of the groove excited at telecom wavelengths have been obtained and used to characterize the CPP waveguide structure studied. Thus, the bend loss has been directly evaluated using averaged cross sections of the intensity distributions before and after the S-bend and found to be close to 2.3 dB in the wavelength range of 1430–1640 nm. We have also identified the loss channels for the S-bend in question.

Finally, we believe that further investigations and optimization of the structural parameters (in the first place the grooves quality) will allow us to decrease the level of bend loss in the CPP waveguide components and thereby optimize their performance.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the European Network of Excellence, PLASMO-NANODEVICES (FP6-2002-IST-1-507879).

References and links

1.

Donald L. Lee, Electromagnetic principles of integrated optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1986).

2.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, “Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials,” Material Science in Semiconductor Processing 3, 331–341 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1991). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

6.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, “Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076–1078 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidji, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kirk, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Reguicha, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmons-a route to nanoscale optical devices,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1501–1505 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Surface plasmon micro-and nano-optics,” J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberg, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158–1160 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13, 6645–6650 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

H. Gao, H. Shi, C. Wang, C. Du, X. Luo, Q. Deng, Y. Lv, X. Lin, and H. Yao, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation and combination in Y-shaped metallic channels,” Opt. Express 13, 10795–10800 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

J. Q. Lu and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 11159–11165 (1990). [CrossRef]

16.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1069–1071 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmonpolaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323–6325 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1186–1188 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

V.S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P.I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, and M. Kristensen, “Near-field characterization of low-loss photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B , 72, 035118 (2005). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Kumar and S. Aditya, “Performance of S-bends for integrated-optic waveguides,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 19, 289–292 (1998). [CrossRef]

23.

I. Bozhevolnyi, V.S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P.I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, “Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: Explicit role of Bloch harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B , 66, 235204 (2002). [CrossRef]

24.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Transfer functions in collection scanning nearfield optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 172, 171–179 (1999). [CrossRef]

25.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 1–3 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: March 13, 2006
Revised Manuscript: April 25, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: April 26, 2006
Published: May 15, 2006

Citation
Valentyn S. Volkov, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi, Eloïse Devaux, and Thomas W. Ebbesen, "Compact gradual bends for channel plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 14, 4494-4503 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4494


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References

  1. D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic principles of integrated optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1986).
  2. L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. P. Coudray, P. Etienne, and Y. Moreau, "Integrated optics based on organo-mineral materials," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3, 331-341 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1991). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  6. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, "Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076-1078 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidji, A. Leitner. F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kirk, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Reguicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmons - a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon micro- and nano-optics," J. Microsc. 209, 167 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberg, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Tanaka, and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, "Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration," Opt. Express 13, 6645-6650 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Gao, H. Shi, C. Wang, C. Du, X. Luo, Q. Deng, Y. Lv, X. Lin, and H. Yao, "Surface plasmon polariton propagation and combination in Y-shaped metallic channels," Opt. Express 13, 10795-10800 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Q. Lu, and A. A. Maradudin, "Channel plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 42, 11159-11165 (1990). [CrossRef]
  16. I. V. Novikov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Channel polaritons," Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. D. F. P. Pile, and D. K. Gramotnev, "Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface," Opt. Lett. 29, 1069-1071 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, "Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323-6325 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. D. F. P. Pile, and D. K. Gramotnev, "Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends," Opt. Lett. 30, 1186-1188 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Bozhevolnyi, S. I. , Volkov, V. S. , Devaux, E.  & Ebbesen, T. W.  "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. V.S.  Volkov, S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, P.I.  Borel, L. H.  Frandsen, and M.  Kristensen, "Near-field characterization of low-loss photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B,  72, 035118 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. A. Kumar, and S. Aditya, "Performance of S-bends for integrated-optic waveguides," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 19, 289-292 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. I.  Bozhevolnyi, V.S.  Volkov, T.  Søndergaard, A.  Boltasseva, P.I.  Borel and M.  Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: Explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B,  66, 235204 (2002). [CrossRef]
  24. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, "Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 172, 171-179 (1999). [CrossRef]
  25. D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 1-3 (2005). [CrossRef]

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