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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 13 — Jun. 26, 2006
  • pp: 6226–6242
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Chromatic compensation of programmable Fresnel lenses

María S. Millán, Joaquín Otón, and Elisabet Pérez-Cabré  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 13, pp. 6226-6242 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.006226


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Abstract

Two proposals to compensate chromatic aberration of a programmable phase Fresnel lens displayed on a liquid crystal device and working under polychromatic illumination are presented. They are based on multiplexing a set of lenses, designed with a common focal length for different wavelengths, and a multicolor filter that makes each sublens work almost monochromatically. One proposal uses spatial multiplexing with mosaic aperture. The other uses a rotating scheme, a color filter against an array of lens sectors, and hybrid spatial-time integration. The central order focalization has a unique location at the focal plane. We have drastically reduced the transversal chromatic aberration of the polychromatic point spread function by properly adjusting the pupil size of each sublens. Depth of focus curves have been made coincident too for the selected wavelengths.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Phase Fresnel [1

1. K. Miyamoto, “The phase Fresnel lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 17–20 (1961). [CrossRef]

] or kinoform [2

2. J.A. Jordan, P.M. Hirsch, L.B. Lesem, and D.L. Van Rooy, “Kinoform lenses,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1883–1887 (1970). [PubMed]

] lenses are highly appreciated because of their well known properties of large collecting aperture, light weight, ease of replication, and additional degrees of freedom in correcting aberrations in comparison with equivalent conventional refractive lenses. A serious drawback, however, is their severe chromatic aberration caused by the large dispersion or wavelength dependence of the optical power. Phase Fresnel lenses have this characteristic in common with other diffractive elements and, in consequence, these optical components are used for narrow spectral bandwidth applications, power transmission, illumination, and optical communications, but they have been considered of little usefulness in broadband imaging applications. The focal length of the phase Fresnel lens is given by f(λ)=(λ 0/λ) f 0, where λ is the illumination wavelength and f 0 is the focal length for the design wavelength λ 0. Phase Fresnel lenses have been used to compensate for the secondary spectrum of a doublet lens [1

1. K. Miyamoto, “The phase Fresnel lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 17–20 (1961). [CrossRef]

]. As stated in Ref. 2, it is possible to bring two colors to a common focus using two properly spaced kinoform or phase Fresnel lenses, but only collection efficiencies of 5% are expected for bandwidths Δλ/λ 0≃0.01. An interesting solution for a broadband imaging system consists of a combination of two phase Fresnel lenses and refractive achromatic doublets properly spaced [3

3. D. Faklis and G.M. Morris, “Broadband imaging with holographic lenses,” Opt. Eng. 28, 592–598 (1989).

]. The resulting imaging system is well-corrected for paraxial chromatic aberration over an illumination bandwidth of approximately 50% in the visible. This solution provided the keys to design the Eyeglass [4

4. R.A. Hyde, “Eyeglass.1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4198–4212 (1999). [CrossRef]

], a very large aperture (25–100 meters) diffractive telescope. Other solutions, based on hybrid diffractive-refractive configurations consisting of a number of properly separated lenses, have been proposed to obtain a spatially incoherent, dispersion-compensated imaging systems and correlators [5

5. P. Andrés, V. Climent, J. Lancis, G. Mínguez-Vega, E. Tajahuerce, and A.W. Lohmann, “All-incoherent dispersion- compensated optical correlator,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1331–1333 (1999). [CrossRef]

].

For broadband optical processors with high demands of compactness or for applications where there is no possibility to use a combination of spaced elements, diffractive and refractive, it is interesting to investigate how to obtain an achromatic phase Fresnel lens.

Liquid-crystal displays, working as electronically addressed spatial light modulators (SLM), have been widely used to generate programmable diffractive Fresnel lenses. These diffractive optical components are capable of dynamically changing their focal length by addressing the proper phase function onto a well characterized display. From a very large number of papers, we mention a few examples that report on the principles of using SLM to implement phase Fresnel lenses in imaging systems [6

6. E. C. Tam, S. Zhou, and M. R. Feldman, “Spatial-light-modulator-based electro-optical imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 578–580 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, R. A. Lilly, and S. W. Connely, “Multiplexed phase-encoded lenses written on spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 14, 420–422 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], optical correlators [8

8. J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, J. E. Davis, and R. A. Lilly, “Fresnel lens-encoded binary phase-only filters for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Lett. 14, 659–661 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and multiple imaging systems [9

9. D. M. Cottrell, J. A. Davis, T. R. Hedman, and R. A. Lilly, “Multiple imaging phase-encoded optical elements, written as programmable spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2505–2509 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. M. Hain, W. von Spiegel, M. Schmiedchen, T. Tschudi, and B. Javidi, “3D integral imaging using diffractive Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Express 13, 315–326 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The mathematical models to encode a phase Fresnel lens function in a device constrained by its pixelated structure, phase quantization, amplitude and phase modulation coupling, and phase modulation depth, often below 2π, can be found in Refs. [12

12. E. Carcolé, J. Campos, and S. Bosch, “Diffraction theory of Fresnel lenses encoded in low-resolution devices,” Appl. Opt. 33, 162–174 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed in a restricted phase-mostly modulation display,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6278–6284 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A self-apodization effect of the Fresnel lens displayed on the SLM appears as an intrinsic consequence of its pixelated pupil [15

15. V. Arrizón, E. Carreón, and L. A. González, “Self-apodization of low-resolution pixelated lenses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5073–5077 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The advantages of being programmable permit to compensate for this effect as well as to encode a variety of non-uniform amplitude transmission filters jointly with a lens onto a single SLM [16

16. A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J.C. Escalera, J. Campos, S. Ledesma, J. A. Davis, and M.J. Yzuel, “Amplitude apodizers encoded onto Fresnel lenses implemented on a phase-only spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2316–2322 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. For polychromatic illumination, as obtained from a white-light source, the performance of a diffractive lens encoded on SLM shows the expected severe chromatic aberration [6

6. E. C. Tam, S. Zhou, and M. R. Feldman, “Spatial-light-modulator-based electro-optical imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 578–580 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. M. Hain, W. von Spiegel, M. Schmiedchen, T. Tschudi, and B. Javidi, “3D integral imaging using diffractive Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Express 13, 315–326 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. V. Laude, “Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixilated active lens,” Opt. Commun. 153, 134–152 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Following the analysis outlined in Ref. [13

13. V. Laude, “Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixilated active lens,” Opt. Commun. 153, 134–152 (1998). [CrossRef]

], three different chromatism effects can be identified, the refractive index chromatism, the diffraction chromatism, and the quantization chromatism. The first is the usual dispersion caused by the wavelength dependence of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the liquid-crystal. The second accounts for the dependence of the point spread function (PSF) with wavelength. The third is due to the modulo-2π definition of phase in the function displayed on the SLM that entails a reset to 0 when the function reaches 2π for the design wavelength λ 0. In such a case, another wavelength λ<λ 0 (λ>λ 0) reads a phase higher (lower) than the phase read by λ 0 when resetting the function. This problem also appears when the phase modulation depth does not reach 2π for the design wavelength. Under limited circumstances, the chromatic aberration of phase Fresnel lenses encoded on a SLM can be tolerated [11

11. M. Hain, W. von Spiegel, M. Schmiedchen, T. Tschudi, and B. Javidi, “3D integral imaging using diffractive Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Express 13, 315–326 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] but, in general, for broadband illumination, it deteriorates quickly the image. To the best of our knowledge, no filters or other optical components have been proposed yet to combine with the SLM encoded lens for chromatic compensation when the system works under broadband or white light illumination. It must be mentioned, however, a very recent paper by Márquez et al. [17

17. A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M.J. Yzuel, “Achromatic diffractive lens griten onto a liquid cristal display,” Opt. Lett. 31, 392–394 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] that can be considered the closest precedent to this work. They propose a spatial multiplexing scheme to design a diffractive lens with the same focal length at three discrete wavelengths in the R, G, and B regions of the visible spectrum. The resulting lens is programmed to be displayed on a liquid crystal device whose performance, in a phase-only regime, has been optimized for the three wavelengths. Under the illumination of the three wavelengths, the multiplexed lenses produce multiple monochromatic focalizations in the central order: each subaperture focuses each wavelength in a different location and with different PSF profile, although three of these focalizations are more efficient than others and coincide in the same plane, which is the focus plane of design. We think that some filtering of the spectral band that illuminates each subaperture becomes necessary to avoid such multiple focalizations that would worsen the situation in case of broadband or white light illumination. Another nondesired artifact is the potential presence of colored sidelobes in the focal plane that Márquez et al. reduce by using a random distribution of pixels [17

17. A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M.J. Yzuel, “Achromatic diffractive lens griten onto a liquid cristal display,” Opt. Lett. 31, 392–394 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. According to the idea proposed by Bescós et al. [18

18. J. Bescós, J. H. Altamirano, J. Santamaria, and A. Plaza, “Apodizing filters in colour imaging,” J. Optics (Paris) 17, 91–96 (1986). [CrossRef]

], we will show a way to have fine control of the transversal chromaticity of the PSF and depth of focus by acting on the pupil size of each particular lens.

In this work, we present two different ways to compensate the chromatic aberration of a programmable phase Fresnel lens working under broadband or white light illumination. More specifically, the chromatic aberration can be compensated for a set of N discrete wavelengths that are properly selected by a set of filters within the broadband spectrum of visible light in such a way that the color content of images can be suitably conveyed. To this end we take advantage of the properties of SLM as programmable devices to display space and time variant images that can be refreshed at frame rate. Our method is based on designing a multichannel phase Fresnel lens that works nearly monochromatically in each channel and has a common focal point where the different focusing wavefronts add with temporally incoherent superposition. We design a set of N different phase Fresnel lenses Li , with i=1..N, centered on a common optical axis, with their apertures placed at the same plane, and with the same focal length f 0 for the respective design wavelengths λ 1λ N . The lenses are then combined, or multiplexed, by carrying out some spatial integration or a hybrid spatial and time integration simultaneously as we describe in the following sections. Under broadband illumination, it must be ensured that only a narrow band of light centered on the wavelength λi will exclusively impinge the aperture of the lens Li , which was designed for such wavelength. This can be accomplished by placing a color filter with the proper spectral transmittance against the aperture of each lens. Such filters select the wavelengths that focalize in the focal plane and no additional monochromatic focalizations of other wavelengths of the spectrum are obtained spatially separated in the central order. Moreover, the pupil size of each lens needs to be calculated to produce an individual PSF with desired size in order to compensate for transversal dispersion [18

18. J. Bescós, J. H. Altamirano, J. Santamaria, and A. Plaza, “Apodizing filters in colour imaging,” J. Optics (Paris) 17, 91–96 (1986). [CrossRef]

]. By sampling appropriately the spectrum of visible light, and by obtaining the temporally incoherent superposition of all the wavefronts emerging from the multiplexed lenses on their common focal point, it is possible to obtain a novel phase Fresnel lens with its polychromatic PSF compensated for chromatic aberration both longitudinal (axial) and transversal. The fast development of SLM in the last decades to produce devices with smarter features and higher efficiency lead us to propose how to design a programmable diffractive lens compensated from chromatic aberration for high quality polychromatic imaging purposes. We explore two possibilities to design the multichannel phase Fresnel lens:

- Mosaic aperture (static in time, spatial integration only): it uses a mosaic color filter against multilens with mosaic aperture

- Rotating multisector aperture (spatial and time integration): it uses a color filter and a multilens aperture, both divided into multiple circular sectors. Color filter and multilens rotate synchronized.

In the following sections we analyze and compare these two possibilities. Although our method will be applied to design a focusing lens (f 0>0), it is also valid for a diverging lens (f 0<0). Simulation results are provided and discussed.

2. Mosaic aperture

Firstly we study the case of a single channel defined by the wavelength λi and later on, we will extend our study to all the channels λ 1λN . Let us consider a converging lens Li , placed at the plane of rectangular coordinates (x, y), with a quadratic phase function given by

Li(x,y)=exp{jπλif0(x2+y2)},
(1)

where f 0 is the focal length and λi the design wavelength. Let us consider that this lens function is sampled with a sampling period given by the pixel space (or pixel pitch). The lens is displayed on a M×M pixel array SLM, with square pixel pitch Δ and fill factor less than unity. We assume that the lens pattern reaches, at most, the Nyquist frequency at the circular contour of the aperture and, consequently, no secondary lenses appear. This implies that the focal length f 0 has to be longer than or equal to the reference focal fr (called critical distance in Ref. 9) that depends on the sampling period (Δ), the number of samples (M) and the wavelength λi ,

f0fr(λi)=MΔ2λi.
(2)

This condition sets the strongest constraint for the shortest wavelength. A circular aperture of maximum radius R=MΔ/2 is against the SLM screen. For the sake of simplicity, the active area of a pixel is represented by a rectangle of dimensions Δx’y’, that is, by rect (xΔx,yΔy) although other pixel shape function could be alternatively taken into consideration. Since the fill factor is less than unity, it follows that both Δx’y’<Δ(Fig. 1).

Let us define a set of N phase Fresnel lenses, Li,i=1…N that have the same focal length f 0 for the set of wavelengths λ 1λN . In this section we design a mosaic sampling function M(λ,x,y) to combine these Li lenses in the same aperture and analyze the polychromatic PSF of the resulting diffractive multichannel lens in the common focal plane. The mosaic sampling function for the wavelength λi is defined by

M(λi,x,y)=Mi(x,y)=τi(Δλ)circ(1Ri(x2+y2)12)n,mδ(x[nΔl+ai],y[mΔs+bi]),
(3)

where τiλ) is the amplitude transmittance of the quasimonochromatic filter that selects a narrow bandwidth centred in λi (consequently, τiλ)≈0 except for Δλ=|λ-λi |≈0); the circ function corresponds to a circular pupil of radius Ri (with RiR=MΔ/2) and the summation corresponds to a 2D-comb function that establishes the positions of the sampling points. The mosaic sampling function of Eq. (3) represents a quite common mosaic color filter like, for instance, a Bayer patterned filter stuck on the camera sensor in digital photography.

Fig. 1. (a) Mosaic color filter placed against the SLM. (b) Mosaic basic pattern consisting of N=6 cells with distances defined in the text. The i-cell, centred at the point (ai ,bi ) is characterized by its amplitude transmittance τiλ) with a very narrow bandwidth around λi .Behind the filter, the pixelated structure of the SLM with a fill factor less than unity is shown. The pixel size is Δ×Δ, but its active area is a smaller rectangle of size Δx’×Δy’.

The mosaic filter of Eq. (3) and Fig. 1 originates from a basic pattern that replicates throughout the filter aperture. We assume that this basic pattern consists of N similar elements of size Δ×Δ that coincides with the SLM pixel size. Moreover, the grid of the mosaic color filter is assumed to perfectly match the SLM grid (Fig. 1). The basic pattern has rectangular dimensions Δl×Δs with ΔlΔs=NΔ2. The point of coordinates (ai , bi ) gives the position of the i-cell containing the λi - quasimonochromatic filter inside the basic pattern.

If the phase Fresnel lens function of Eq. (1) is displayed on the SLM (phase quantization effects are not considered in this work) and a uniform plane wave of λi impinges the aperture, the amplitude distribution behind the lens is

Ti(x,y)=(Li(x,y)Mi(x,y))rect(xΔx,yΔy),
(4)

where symbol ⊗ indicates convolution. Because the sampling period is now given by ΔlandΔs, it is worth to point out that the reference focal length is no longer given by Eq. (2), but by the quantities (MΔlΔ/λi ) or (MΔsΔ/λi ). Thus, for any symmetrical spherical phase Fresnel lens encoded in the SLM with the mosaic aperture (Eq. 4), its focal length has to meet the modified condition f 0frmosaic (λi )=max{(MΔlΔ/λi ), (MΔsΔ/λi )}. Clearly, this condition limits the range of programmable focal lengths more than Eq. (2) does. Calculating the Fresnel propagation of the amplitude distribution of Eq. (4) in the focal plane [19

19. J. W. Goodmann, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

], it gives

Ui(u,v)=exp{j2πλif0}jλif0Ti(u,v)Zi(u,v),
(5)

where function Ti is convolved with a diverging wave Zi (x, y)=exp{(x 2+y 2)/λif 0}.

Introducing Eqs. (1), (3) in Eq. (4) and the result in Eq. (5), taking into account the associative and commutative properties of convolution, and the complex conjugate relationship between Li and Zi (Li (x, y)=Z* i (x, y)), we obtain

Ui(u,v)=exp{j2πλif0}jλif0Zi(u,v)M˜i(uλif0,vλif0)rect(uΔx,vΔy),
(6)

where i is the Fourier transform of the mosaic sampling function, that is,

M˜i(uλif0,vλif0)=τi(Δλ)ΔlΔs[exp{j2π(uaiλif0+vbiλif0)}n,mδ(uλif0nΔl,vλif0mΔs)]
πRi2[2J1(2πRiλif0(u2+v2)12)2πRiλif0(u2+v2)12].
(7)

The normalized version of the Bessel function, with value unity at the origin, has been used in Eq. (7). The last two equations represent a distribution of maxima separated a distance (λif 0l) in the u axis, and (λif 0s) in the v axis. The shape of each maximum is given by the convolution of Bessel J 1 function of Eq. (7) by the rectangle function of Eq. (6), and it can be approximated by the dimensions [Δx’+(1.22λif 0/Ri )], [Δy’+(1.22λif 0/Ri )] in the u,v axis of the focal plane. It can be assumed that these maxima will appear spatially separated because of the relative dimensions of Ri , Δl, Δs, Δ, Δx’, Δy’ involved.

We are clearly interested in the maximum of the central order. Following an analysis analogous to that carried out in Ref. [12

12. E. Carcolé, J. Campos, and S. Bosch, “Diffraction theory of Fresnel lenses encoded in low-resolution devices,” Appl. Opt. 33, 162–174 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], it is possible to simplify Eqs.(6) and (7) by neglecting the phase factors within the central order. The quadratic phase factor Zi varies less than either (πΔx’l)or(πΔy’s), which is less than a single half oscillation of the complex exponential inside the rectangle function and central lobe of the Bessel J 1 function. We have estimated the variation of the linear phase factor of Eq. (7) inside the rectangle function, for ai , bi ≈Δx’, Δy’≈10-5m; λi ≈10-6m, and f 0≈10-1 m and it yields a variation of ≈10-3×2π. Consequently, it can be considered constant too. Neglecting then the slow varying phase terms, the amplitude of the central order in the focal plane U 00i is

U00i(u,v)=τi(Δλ)πdiRiΔlΔs[2J1(2πdi(u2+v2)12)2πdi(u2+v2)12]rexct(uΔx,vΔy),
(8)

where di =Ri /λif 0. Eq. (8) is the convolution of a wavelength dependent term by a wavelength independent rectangle function. The variation of the central lobe of U 00i with λ can therefore be analyzed through the variation of the first term of Eq. (8) with λ. The width of the central lobe of the Bessel J 1 function in Eq. (8) is 0 1.22 λif 0/Ri and its height is weighted by the precedent factor. Although the focal plane is the same for all λi , the central lobe of U 00i shows different sizes and, as a result, transversal chromatism is produced unless the condition di =constant or, equivalently, Ri /λi =constant, is fulfilled. Since this condition leads to having a PSF of the same width for all the wavelengths λi of the set, hereafter we refer to it as the same size of the PSF condition or just the PSFS-condition. It implies that the pupil sizes of the lens apertures for different wavelengths have to be different. This result agrees with the result obtained by Bescós et al. [18

18. J. Bescós, J. H. Altamirano, J. Santamaria, and A. Plaza, “Apodizing filters in colour imaging,” J. Optics (Paris) 17, 91–96 (1986). [CrossRef]

]. Since we use a mosaic filter and a pixelated display of a programmable SLM, this condition will not be particularly difficult to meet in our case. Note that if the PSFS-condition is met, then PSF profiles of the same width are obtained for all the wavelengths λi even when the focal length of design is changed from the programmed f 0 to another value. This is a good property because it remains invariant under variations of the programmed focal length. On the other hand, the central order focalization of Eq.(8) shows different maximum intensity value with wavelength unless the multiplicative factor meets the condition τiλ)diRi =constant or, equivalently, τiλ)Ri2 /λi =constant, which hereafter we refer to as the same maximum intensity of the PSF condition or just the PSFI-condition. Note that, again, if the PSFI-condition is met, then PSF profiles of the same maximum height are obtained for all the wavelengths λi even if the focal length of design varies from the programmed f 0 to another value. This is a second good property of invariance against variations of the programmed focal length. Both the PSFS and the PSFI conditions can be simultaneously fulfilled if the amplitude transmittance of the quasimonochromatic filter τiλ) is taken as an additional degree of freedom for each focal length f 0. This is not the most general case and, in fact, we will see that if the system fulfils the PSFI condition, then PSF profiles of equal height and reasonably similar width can be obtained for the wavelengths of the set.

Under polychromatic illumination, the mosaic multichannel phase Fresnel lens ML(x, y) can be described as the multiplexing (or addition) of the different single λi -channel lenses

ML(x,y)=i=1NTi(x,y)=(i=1NLi(x,y)Mi(x,y))rect(xΔx,yΔy),
(9)

where Li , Mi functions are defined in Eq. (1) and Eq. (3), respectively. We have computed a lens for N=4, Δ=26µm, M=256, sampling period of the mosaic pattern Δls=2Δ, and wavelength λi range comprising red λ 1=632nm, green λ 2=543nm, blue λ 3=488nm, and violet λ 4=458nm. The focal length of design for all the wavelengths is f 0=frmosaic (λ 4)=2MΔ2/λ 4=2fr (λ 4)≈75cm. Figure 2 shows a simplified version of the lens for 64×64 pixels. Note that in all lenses Li , the centre has been set to the same phase value, corresponding to an extreme of the phase range of modulo-2π assumed in this example, in order to have the first discontinuity as far from the optical axis as possible. The multichannel lens of Fig. 2 meets the PSFS-condition (Ri /λi =constant). Pixels whose position in the mosaic pattern corresponds to the lens Li , but whose distance from the center is longer than the Ri value given by the PSFS-condition are assigned a constant phase value (CPV in Fig. 2(b)) which is equivalent to leave them blank. These pixels with constant phase value allow us to control the PSF diameter, but they also contribute with a background noise to the focal plane. We have estimated this noise for the lens of Fig. 2 and, in the worst case, represented by the sublens for the violet channel of λ 4=458nm, the background noise in the focal plane is less than 3%. Therefore, we consider it negligible in our approach.

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the mosaic multichannel phase Fresnel lens building. (a) Phase Fresnel lenses Li (partial) with i=1..4 (λ 1=632nm, λ 2=543nm, λ 3=488nm, λ 4=458nm). The radius Ri marked in each lens fulfils the PSFS-condition Ri /λi =constant. (b) λi -channels lenses, obtained from Li of (a), after a double discretization of pixelation and mosaic filtering. Pixels whose distance from the center is longer than Ri , are assigned a constant phase value (CPV). (c) Integration of λi -channels lenses by spatial multiplexing according to the basic pattern (magnified). The result is the mosaic multichannel Fresnel lens.

Figure 3 shows the intensity cross-section profiles of the central order in the focal plane. Profiles are plotted for the four wavelengths in three geometrical conditions of the pupil size: when all single λi -channel lenses have the same aperture (Ri =R, constant) (Fig. 3(a)), when the PSFS-condition (Ri /λi =constant) is fulfilled (Fig. 3(b)), and when the PSFI-condition is fulfilled (Fig. 3(c)). For simplicity, it has been assumed that all color filters have equally shaped spectral transmittance curves centered in their respective λi , that is, τiλ)=τλ). It can be seen that the transversal chromatic aberration of the PSF when all lenses Li have the same pupil size (Fig. 3(a)) is compensated when the PSFS-condition is fulfilled (Fig. 3(b)), and almost compensated when PSFI-condition is fulfilled (Fig. 3(c)).

On the other hand, these two kinds of compensation imply a noticeable decrease of the maximum intensity in comparison with that obtained in Fig. 3(a). Comparing Figs. 3(b) and 3(c), it becomes clear that fulfilling the PSFI-condition would be preferable in practice although a slight residual chromatism would also appear in such a case.

Figure 4 shows the intensity cross-section profiles of the central order along the optical axis. Profiles are plotted for the four wavelengths in the same three geometrical conditions of the pupil size as before. The graphs are approximately symmetrical around the best image plane (given by the focal length f 0), and their width along the axis represents the depth of focus in each case. Analogous comments to those of Fig. 3 can be made again for the three cases considered. It can be seen that Fig. 4(c), for which the PSFI-condition is fulfilled, represents a fully compensation of longitudinal chromatism, at least under paraxial approximation, because the axial scaling factor is proportional to λi /Ri2 . Consequently, if the PSFI-condition is met, then the depth of focus is invariant for the wavelengths considered.

Figure 5 shows the total intensity of the polychromatic PSF computed from the superposition of the intensity distributions obtained for the set of wavelengths in all the cases considered in Figs. 3 and 4. They are represented in the focal plane defined by f 0 (Fig. 5(a)) and along the optical axis (Fig. 5(b)). In both representations, the option Ri =R yields the most intense maximum, the option represented by fulfilling the PSFI-condition obtains the second intense maximum values and, finally, the option represented by fulfilling the PSFS-condition obtains the third intense maximum values. Regarding transversal resolution (Fig. 5(a)), the plots corresponding to Ri =R and PSFI-condition obtain total intensities of the PSF with very similar width, thus providing similar resolution. When PSFS-condition is fulfilled, however, the PSF slightly broadens transversally, consequently with a slight loss of transversal resolution. Regarding axial resolution (Fig. 5(b)), the smallest depth of focus is obtained for the Ri =R option, but it is very close to the depth of focus obtained when the PSFI-condition is fulfilled. The option represented by fulfilling the PSFS-condition obtains the longest depth of focus. As a conclusion from the analysis of Figs. 35, it appears that the aperture configuration of lenses Li whose pupils fulfill PSFI-condition would be the most advantageous for both transversal and axial chromatic compensation in most practical cases.

3. Rotating multisector aperture

In this section we use a rotating multisector color filter against the SLM and multiplexe the N phase Fresnel lenses Li by considering an array of circular sectors in the aperture plane. The focal length of design f 0 is common for all the wavelengths. As before, let us firstly consider a single lens Li , defined by the lens function of Eq. (1), in the channel defined by λi and then, we will extend the result to the rest of channels. All the SLM pixels belonging to a circular sector display a single lens function Li , which is now sampled with period Δ (pixel pitch) inside the sector. Consequently, the focal length f 0 has to meet the general condition of Eq. (2), which is less restrictive than the modified condition obtained in Section 2 for the mosaic aperture.

Fig. 3. Intensity distribution of the central order in the focal plane of the lens with mosaic aperture (Fig. 2) for λi , i=1..4 and (a) constant radius Ri =R (b) PSFS-condition, and (c) PSFI-condition.
Fig. 4. Intensity distribution of the central order along the optical axis of the lens with mosaic aperture (Fig. 2) for λi, i=1.. 4. (a) Constant radius Ri=R, (b) PSFS-condition, and (c) PSFI-condition. The four plots coincide in (c).
Fig. 5. Total intensity of the polychromatic PSF of the lens with mosaic aperture (Fig. 2), computed from the superposition of the intensities obtained in Figs. 3 and 4: (a) in the focal plane and (b), along the optical axis.

The pupil of lens Li is described by the circular sector function

S(λi,r,θ)=Si(r,θ)=τi(Δλ)circ(rRi)rect(θθiAi),
(10)

where (r,θ)represents the polar coordinates r=(x2+y2)12,θ=tan1(yx). Eq. (10) is a circular sector shaped pupil with vertex on the optical axis, in the coordinate origin, and angular extension Ai around the angle θi . It is assumed that sectors do not overlap between them and that they all complete the circle ( Ai =2π). Let us consider N=4 as in the example of Section 2. It represents a multicolor filter consisting of four sectors with equal angular amplitude Ai =π/2 and radius of at least R=MΔ/2 to cover the SLM size (Fig. 6(a)). The lens Li is centered in the optical axis, limited by a quadrant shaped pupil, and has a radial extension of RiR. The sector defined by RirR is left blank, or equivalently, it introduces a constant phase ϕ. The whole element could be mathematically described by

Qi(x,y)=τi(Δλ){Li(x,y)circ(rRi)+[circ(rR)circ(rRi)]exp{jϕ}}
H((1)i1x,(1)I(i12)y),
(11)

where H(x,y) is the 2D Heaviside step function and I(·) is the integer part of the argument. Eq. (11) can be rewritten as the addition of two terms corresponding to the lens and the blank subsectors,

Qi(x,y)=QiL(x,y)+QiB(x,y),
with
QiL(x,y)=τi(Δλ)Li(x,y)circ(rRi)H((1)i1x,(1)I(i12)y),
QiB(x,y)=τi(Δλ)[circ(rR)circ(rRi)]exp{jϕ}H((1)i1x,(1)I(i12)y),
(12)

When the element Qi (x, y) of Eq. (11) is sampled and displayed on the pixelated liquid crystal device (Fig. 6), it turns out

Ti(x,y)=[Qi(x,y)n,mδ(xnΔ,ymΔ)]rect(xΔx,yΔy).
(13)

Fresnel propagation leads us again to Eq. (5), but now with Ti (x, y) given by Eq. (13). The development of the resulting expression gives two added terms, UiL (u, v)+UiB (u, v), corresponding to the Fresnel propagation of the amplitudes transmitted by the lens and the blank subsectors, respectively. But only the first term UiL (u, v) becomes interesting in our analysis. The second term contributes with a slow varying noise in the area of focalization and, consequently, it will be neglected. Taking into account QiL (x, y) of Eq. (12), UiL (u, v) is

UiL(u,v)=exp{j2πλif0}jλif0Zi(u,v)FT{τi(Δλ)circ(rRi)H((1)i1x,(1)I(i12)y)
×n,mδ(xnΔ,ymΔ)}rect(uΔx,vΔy),
(14)

where FT indicates Fourier transform. Neglecting the slow varying phase terms inside function rect[(ux’),(vy’)], as we did in Section 2 (see also Ref. [12

12. E. Carcolé, J. Campos, and S. Bosch, “Diffraction theory of Fresnel lenses encoded in low-resolution devices,” Appl. Opt. 33, 162–174 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]), we obtain

UiL(u,v)=τi(Δλ)πRi2Δ2λif0[2J1(2πdi(u2+v2)12)2πdi(u2+v2)12]H˜((1)i1uλif0,(1)I(i12)vλif0)
n,mδ(uλif0nΔ,vλif0mΔ)rect(uΔx,vΔy).
(15)

Equation (15) represents a distribution of maxima separated a distance (λif 0/Δ) in both the u and v axis. Note that this distance is longer (a factor two in our example) than the distance between the diffraction orders originated by the mosaic pattern of Section 2. This is a clear advantage with respect to the mosaic multichannel lens because it allows an enlargement of the image field without overlapping with higher diffraction orders. The amplitude of the central order in the focal plane is given by

U00iL(u,v)=τi(Δλ)πRi2Δ2λif0[2J1(2πdi(u2+v2)12)2πdi(u2+v2)12]
H˜((1)i1uλif0,(1)I(i12)vλif0)rect(uΔx,vΔy),
(16)

which can be rewritten as

U00iL(u,v)=πΔ2f0W00iL(u,v)⊗rect(uΔx,vΔy),
(17)

where the term W00iL(u, v), defined by

W00iL(u,v)=τi(Δλ)Ri2λi[2J1(2πdi(u2+v2)12)2πdi(u2+v2)12]H˜((1)i1uλif0,(1)I(i12)vλif0),
(18)

concentrates the wavelength dependence of the central lobe U00iL(u, v). Let us analyze then the variation of W00iL(u, v) with wavelength. Firstly, the condition to fix the PSF width cannot be established just by taking di =constant, or equivalently Ri /λi =constant, as we did in Eq. (8) of Section 2, because now, in Eq. (18), the term with square brackets is additionally convolved by the Fourier transform of the Heaviside function whose variable is not scaled by di . We will see in the simulation results, however, that the effects of this additional convolution in broadening the term in brackets are insignificant and therefore, we will keep the PSFS-condition as Ri /λi =constant. Secondly, from Eq. (18), the condition to fix the same PSF maximum intensity for all the wavelengths of the set is τiλ)Ri2 /λi =onstant, which coincides with the PSFI-condition established in Section 2. Thirdly, W00iL(u, v) has not circular symmetry because of the Fourier transform of the Heaviside function, , which is not symmetric with circular symmetry. Figure 7(a) displays the intensity of the PSF corresponding to the sublens T 1(x,y) of the circular sector in the top right quadrant. This lack of circular symmetry can be compensated if W00iL(u, v) rotates around the optical axis (Fig. 7(b)). It can be accomplished by rotating the multisector color filter and, synchronized with it, the multilens array displayed on the SLM also rotates. Note that the programmable facilities of SLM allow us to rotate the addressed multilens array but there is no need to actually rotate the SLM screen (Fig. 6(b)). If the angular speed is high enough to have a time period shorter than the integration time of the sensor, then the intensity of the detected signal will be 〈|U00iL|2〉, that is, the time average of |U00iL|2. When polychromatic illumination is used, we build the multichannel lens ML(x, y) as the addition of the different single λi -channel diffractive lenses with rotating circular sector shaped pupils. At each instant of time the function is sampled according to the pixelization of the liquid crystal display, which does not rotate. The resulting multichannel phase Fresnel lens can be described by

ML(x,y)=i=1NTi(x,y)=i=1NQi(x,y)n,mδ(xnΔ,ymΔ)rect(xΔx,yΔy),
(19)

for a given instant of time. To include rotation, we write ML in polar coordinates

ML(x,ωt)=i=1NTi(r,ωt)=i=1NQi(r,ωt)n,mδ(xnΔ,ymΔ)rect(xΔx,yΔy),
(20)

where Ti is given by Eq. (13), ω is the angular speed, t is time, x=rcosθ, y=rsinθ, with θ=ωt. We assume that the rotation period is shorter than the integration time T 0of the system sensor, that is, (2π/ω)<T 0. Since rotation affects the color filter and the multilens, but it does not affect the sampling function nor the SLM pixel positions, the distribution of the different order focalizations is stationary in the focal plane.

Fig. 6. Scheme of the multichannel phase Fresnel lens with rotating aperture. (a) Color filter consisting of N=4 circular sectors with narrow band transmittance centered at the wavelengths λ 1=632nm, λ 2=543nm, λ 3=488nm, and λ 4=458nm. Each color filter is against the SLM that displays a part of the sublens Li with i=1..4. The radius of each lens fulfils the PSFS-condition (Ri /λi =constant). A constant phase value is assigned to pixels beyond Ri . (b) The λi -channel lenses are multiplexed using a hybrid spatial and time integration. The result is the multichannel Fresnel lens with rotating aperture. (604 KB).

For an easy comparison with the results obtained for the multichannel lens with mosaic aperture (Figs. 3–5 of Section 2) we show now the time-average cross-section intensity profiles of the central order focalization for the lens with the same focal length f 0 of Section 2 but with rotating aperture. Terms U00iB(u, v), which contain the contributions of the blank subsectors, have been estimated in our example and they would alter terms U00iL(u, v)less than 3% in the focalization area. This fact justifies we neglect them in our calculations. In Figs. 8 and 9 the profiles are plotted for the four wavelengths in three geometrical conditions of the pupil size: when all single λi -channel lenses have the same maximum aperture (Ri =R), when the PSFS-condition Ri /λi =constant is fulfilled, and when the PSFI-condition τiλ)Ri2 /λi =constant is fulfilled. As before, it has been also assumed that all color filters have a spectral transmittance curve with a common shape centered in their respective λi , that is, τiλ)=τλ). The results obtained in Fig. 8 for the transversal compensation of chromatism are similar to those shown in Fig. 3 except for the expected broadening of the PSF width caused by the circular quadrant shaped aperture of the rotating scheme. This decrease of resolution can be considered as the price to pay if we want to have the first diffraction orders more distant from the central order. Although the PSFs-condition does not make the central lobe width exactly equal for all the wavelengths of the set, the aforementioned effects introduced by the convolution with the Fourier transform of the Heaviside function are hardly appreciated (Fig. 8(b)). Consequently, it can be said that the transversal chromatic aberration of the PSF when all lenses Li have the same pupil (Fig. 8(a)) is compensated when the PSFS-condition is fulfilled (Fig. 8(b)), and almost compensated when PSFI-condition is fulfilled (Fig. 8(c)). Again, these two kinds of compensation imply a noticeable decrease of the maximum intensity in comparison with that obtained in Fig. 8(a). Comparing Figs. 8(b) and 8(c), it becomes clear that fulfilling the PSFI-condition would be preferable in practice although a slight residual chromatism would also appear in such a case.

Fig. 7. (a) Intensity of the PSF of the T 1(x,y) sublens, in the top right quadrant circular sector (Fig. 6). The lack of circular symmetry is compensated when W00iL(u, v) rotates around the optical axis (b).

Figure 9 shows the time-average cross-section intensity profiles of the central order focalization along the optical axis. They all are very similar to those profiles of Fig. 4 and then, the comments made there are still valid for Fig. 9. The graphs are approximately symmetrical around the best image plane (given by f 0), and their width along the axis represents the depth of focus in each case. When the PSFI-condition is fulfilled (Fig. 9(c)), a fully compensation of longitudinal chromatism is achieved.

Figures 10(a) and 10(b) show the total intensity of the polychromatic PSF computed from the superposition of the intensities in the cases considered in Figs. 8 and 9. As in the results obtained in Section 2 for the lens with mosaic aperture (Fig. 5), the option Ri =R yields the most intense maximum in both (a) transversal and (b) axial representations, the option represented by fulfilling the PSFI-condition is second intense, and the option represented by fulfilling the PSFS-condition is third intense. Regarding axial resolution (Fig. 10(b)), the smallest depth of focus is obtained for the Ri =R option, very close to the depth of focus obtained when the PSFI-condition is met. From the analysis of Figs. 810, lens pupils that fulfill the PSFI-condition would be the most advantageous for both transversal and axial chromatic compensations. This conclusion is the same as that we reached in Section 2 for the mosaic aperture. A joint representation of Figs. 5(a) and 10(a) allows us to compare the polychromatic PSF obtained for the mosaic and the rotating aperture schemes in the focal plane. Concerning efficiency, we appreciate that the maximum values reached by both schemes are very similar, but the energy concentrated in the central order focalization is greater for the rotating aperture scheme. It is also clear the transversal enlargement of the PSF for the rotating aperture with respect to that obtained for mosaic aperture.

Fig. 8. Intensity distribution of the central order in the focal plane of the lens with rotating aperture (Fig. 6) for λi , i=1..4 and (a) constant radius Ri =R(b) PSFS-condition, and (c) PSFI-condition.
Fig. 9. Intensity distribution of the central order of the lens with rotating aperture (Fig. 6) along the optical axis for λi , i=1.. 4 and (a) constant Ri =R(b) PSFS-condition, and (c) PSFI-condition. The four plots coincide in (c).
Fig. 10. Total intensity of the polychromatic PSF computed from the superposition of the intensity distributions of Figs. 8 and 9. (a) In the focal plane, (b) along the optical axis. (c) Joint representation of Figs. 5(a) and 10(a).

4. Conclusions

We have proposed two different ways to compensate the notorious chromatic aberration of a programmable diffractive phase Fresnel lens working under polychromatic illumination. Both proposals are based on a multiplexing of lenses, designed with the same focal length for a set of wavelengths, and a spectral filtering of the light that impinges each sublens. Since each sublens operates as a channel for a given wavelength, the combination of sublenses results in an achromatic multichannel phase Fresnel lens that would allow one to use such a diffractive lens for high quality polychromatic imaging purposes.

One of the proposals uses a spatial multiplexing with mosaic aperture. The other uses a rotating scheme with a filter of circular color sectors against an array of lens sectors displayed on the SLM. The second proposal applies a hybrid spatial and time integration. Both schemes achieve a common focal plane for all the wavelengths of the set. The focalization of the central order has a unique location at that plane. In addition to this, we have drastically reduced the transversal chromatic aberration of the PSF in the central order by properly adjusting the pupil size of each sublens. The axial distribution of energy in this order has been improved in the same way. Three conditions for the sublens pupil size have been considered: one, a constant radius for all sublenses (Ri =R to cover the addressable size of the display); two, a radius that fixes the same PSF size for all sublenses (PSFS-condition: Ri /λi =)constant, and three, a radius that fixes equal maximum intensities of the PSF for all sublenses (PSFI-condition: τiλ)Ri2 /λi =constant). For both the mosaic and the rotating aperture schemes, the PSF reaches its maximum intensity when all sublenses have the radius Ri =R, but a transversal dispersion and a variation in the depth of focus also appear for the wavelengths of the set. A very significant improvement is achieved when the PSFI-condition is fulfilled. In such a case, the dispersion is compensated along the optical axis, with depths of focus coincident for all the wavelengths, and the transversal dispersion is almost compensated in the focal plane. The PSFI-condition leads then to obtain the best results for both the mosaic and rotating aperture schemes and, consequently, it must be preferably met.

The multichannel phase Fresnel lens based on a mosaic aperture scheme allows one to have smaller PSF sizes than the rotating aperture scheme, thus contributing to a better resolution in an imaging system. On the other hand, the first diffraction orders are closer to the central order, thus limiting the extension of the image field more than the rotating scheme. Although the PSF maximum intensity value is similar for both schemes, the total energy in the central order focalization is highest for the rotating scheme. Concerning the range of programmable focal lengths, the rotating aperture has higher range. But, from the point of view of optomechanical requirements, the rotating aperture scheme could be more complex to implement than the static mosaic aperture.

Finally, although a significant improvement is expected with the two proposals, we point out several aspects that should be treated in future research if an experimental realization is pursued. It must be taken into account that SLMs are still devices with low efficiency in general, although their technical characteristics are improving, particularly for reflection-based liquid-crystal devices. Another important aspect is the spectral bandwidth of the color filters. It plays a key role to achieve good results. Their bandwidth must be narrow enough to make the secondary spectrum acceptable for a particular application. But the narrower the bandwidth transmittances, the lesser the efficiency of the resulting multichannel phase Fresnel lens. Another aspect is the choice of the wavelengths and the number of channels. We have done this choice arbitrarily in our examples, but it should be done carefully in order to optimize the white balance and the color content to convey in a given application. And, as Márquez et al. do in their work [17

17. A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M.J. Yzuel, “Achromatic diffractive lens griten onto a liquid cristal display,” Opt. Lett. 31, 392–394 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the configuration of the SLM (phase-only modulation) has to be optimized for the set of wavelengths. In terms of experimental implementation, it is not trivial to achieve a good synchronism between the rotating multisector filter and the time-variant distribution of phase displayed by the SLM. This difficulty also depends on the time integration of the detector and the capability of the SLM for a reliable display. All these aspects must be taken into consideration when implementing the proposals experimentally.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the reviewers for insightful comments and suggestions. This research has been funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia and FEDER (project DPI2003-03931).

References and Links

1.

K. Miyamoto, “The phase Fresnel lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 17–20 (1961). [CrossRef]

2.

J.A. Jordan, P.M. Hirsch, L.B. Lesem, and D.L. Van Rooy, “Kinoform lenses,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1883–1887 (1970). [PubMed]

3.

D. Faklis and G.M. Morris, “Broadband imaging with holographic lenses,” Opt. Eng. 28, 592–598 (1989).

4.

R.A. Hyde, “Eyeglass.1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4198–4212 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

P. Andrés, V. Climent, J. Lancis, G. Mínguez-Vega, E. Tajahuerce, and A.W. Lohmann, “All-incoherent dispersion- compensated optical correlator,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1331–1333 (1999). [CrossRef]

6.

E. C. Tam, S. Zhou, and M. R. Feldman, “Spatial-light-modulator-based electro-optical imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 578–580 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, R. A. Lilly, and S. W. Connely, “Multiplexed phase-encoded lenses written on spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 14, 420–422 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, J. E. Davis, and R. A. Lilly, “Fresnel lens-encoded binary phase-only filters for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Lett. 14, 659–661 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

D. M. Cottrell, J. A. Davis, T. R. Hedman, and R. A. Lilly, “Multiple imaging phase-encoded optical elements, written as programmable spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2505–2509 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

E. Carcolé, M.S. Millán, and J. Campos, “Derivation of weighting coefficients for multiplexed phase-diffractive elements,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2360–2362 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. Hain, W. von Spiegel, M. Schmiedchen, T. Tschudi, and B. Javidi, “3D integral imaging using diffractive Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Express 13, 315–326 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

E. Carcolé, J. Campos, and S. Bosch, “Diffraction theory of Fresnel lenses encoded in low-resolution devices,” Appl. Opt. 33, 162–174 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

V. Laude, “Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixilated active lens,” Opt. Commun. 153, 134–152 (1998). [CrossRef]

14.

I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed in a restricted phase-mostly modulation display,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6278–6284 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

V. Arrizón, E. Carreón, and L. A. González, “Self-apodization of low-resolution pixelated lenses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5073–5077 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J.C. Escalera, J. Campos, S. Ledesma, J. A. Davis, and M.J. Yzuel, “Amplitude apodizers encoded onto Fresnel lenses implemented on a phase-only spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2316–2322 (2001). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M.J. Yzuel, “Achromatic diffractive lens griten onto a liquid cristal display,” Opt. Lett. 31, 392–394 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. Bescós, J. H. Altamirano, J. Santamaria, and A. Plaza, “Apodizing filters in colour imaging,” J. Optics (Paris) 17, 91–96 (1986). [CrossRef]

19.

J. W. Goodmann, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(220.1000) Optical design and fabrication : Aberration compensation
(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices
(230.6120) Optical devices : Spatial light modulators

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: March 21, 2006
Revised Manuscript: June 16, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: June 18, 2006
Published: June 26, 2006

Citation
María S. Millán, Joaquín Otón, and Elisabet Pérez-Cabré, "Chromatic compensation of programmable Fresnel lenses," Opt. Express 14, 6226-6242 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-13-6226


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References

  1. K. Miyamoto, "The phase Fresnel lens," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 17-20 (1961). [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Jordan, P. M. Hirsch, L. B. Lesem, and D. L. Van Rooy, "Kinoform lenses," Appl. Opt. 9, 1883-1887 (1970). [PubMed]
  3. D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, "Broadband imaging with holographic lenses," Opt. Eng. 28, 592-598 (1989).
  4. R. A. Hyde, "Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes," Appl. Opt. 38, 4198-4212 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Andrés, V. Climent, J. Lancis, G. Mínguez-Vega, E. Tajahuerce, and A. W. Lohmann, "All-incoherent dispersion- compensated optical correlator," Opt. Lett. 24, 1331-1333 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. E. C. Tam, S. Zhou, and M. R. Feldman, "Spatial-light-modulator-based electro-optical imaging system," Appl. Opt. 31, 578-580 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, R. A. Lilly, and S. W. Connely, "Multiplexed phase-encoded lenses written on spatial light modulators," Opt. Lett. 14, 420-422 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, J. E. Davis, and R. A. Lilly, "Fresnel lens-encoded binary phase-only filters for optical pattern recognition," Opt. Lett. 14, 659-661 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. M. Cottrell, J. A. Davis, T. R. Hedman, and R. A. Lilly, "Multiple imaging phase-encoded optical elements, written as programmable spatial light modulators," Appl. Opt. 29, 2505-2509 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Carcolé, M. S. Millán, and J. Campos, "Derivation of weighting coefficients for multiplexed phase-diffractive elements," Opt. Lett. 20, 2360-2362 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Hain, W. von Spiegel, M. Schmiedchen, T. Tschudi, and B. Javidi, "3D integral imaging using diffractive Fresnel lens arrays," Opt. Express 13, 315-326 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Carcolé, J. Campos, and S. Bosch, "Diffraction theory of Fresnel lenses encoded in low-resolution devices," Appl. Opt. 33, 162-174 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. Laude, "Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixilated active lens," Opt. Commun. 153, 134-152 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed in a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. Arrizón, E. Carreón, and L. A. González, "Self-apodization of low-resolution pixelated lenses," Appl. Opt. 38, 5073-5077 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. C. Escalera, J. Campos, S. Ledesma, J. A. Davis, and M. J. Yzuel, "Amplitude apodizers encoded onto Fresnel lenses implemented on a phase-only spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 40, 2316-2322 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Achromatic diffractive lens griten onto a liquid cristal display," Opt. Lett. 31, 392-394 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Bescós, J. H. Altamirano, J. Santamaria, and A. Plaza, "Apodizing filters in colour imaging," J. Opt. (Paris) 17, 91-96 (1986). [CrossRef]
  19. J. W. Goodmann, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

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