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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 16 — Aug. 7, 2006
  • pp: 7291–7298
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Efficient simulation of subwavelength plasmonic waveguides using implicitly restarted Arnoldi

Amir Hosseini, Arthur Nieuwoudt, and Yehia Massoud  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 16, pp. 7291-7298 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.007291


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Abstract

In this paper, we present a full-vector finite difference method to solve for optical modes in one and two dimensional subwavelength plasmonic waveguides. We have used the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi method to directly calculate the propagation constants of the dominant modes. The method has low computational complexity and can be applied to accurately model complex geometries and structures with fast-varying field profiles. When applied to solve for purely bounded modes, our method automatically separates evanescent and low-loss guided modes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The interface between two materials with dielectric constants of opposite signs can support propagation of surface electromagnetic modes known as surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs). Unlike the conventional dielectric waveguides that confine electromagnetic waves to an optically dense core, SPPs are localized at the interfaces between dielectric materials and metals or ionic solids that support charge density oscillation. Energy and information can be transmitted in through plasmonic waveguides beyond the diffraction limit in highly integrated devices [1

1. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “Integrated plasmon and dielectric waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 5481–5486, (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 2

2. K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, and T. Sugiyama, “Simulation of practical nanometric circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 256–266, (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The most commonly used method to excite SPPs has been prism coupling through attenuated total reflection which in fact matches the SPP wave vector parallel to the metal-dielectric surface to that of the incident radiation.

Two important considerations for utilizing plasmonic waveguides as optical nanowires in future optical integrated circuits are the light confinement and the propagation loss. A significant limitation of SPP waveguides is the propagation loss, which originates from resistive heating losses in the metal. As a result, SPPs cannot travel more than a few micrometers before experiencing a high degree of attenuation. However, these distances are sufficient for many applications nanoscale optical integrated circuits. Although the bounded modes of plasmonic waveguides are mainly concentrated at the interfaces between the metal and dielectric materials, the electromagnetic field spreads into both media. Therefore, the light is less confined to the waveguide structure, which may produce undesired coupling between adjacent waveguides.

In this paper, we present a fast and accurate full-vector finite difference analysis method to simulate 2D plasmonic waveguides by efficiently solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the formulation. The method does not generate spurious modes. Furthermore, the evanescent modes are well-separated from the propagating modes. We show that this method can be easily applied to 1D structures. We validated the method against one of the most established and accurate numerical approaches for modeling 1D planar waveguides [10

10. C. Chen, P. Berini, D. Feng, S. Tanev, and V. Tzolov, “Efficient and accurate numerical analysis of multilayer planar optical waveguides in lossy anisotropic media,” Opt. Express 7, 260–272, (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The method calculates the field profile directly and can be applied to model any 1D and 2D structure. The simulation results for metallic strips embedded in dielectric medium are presented. These results will be a step toward generalizing one-dimensional plasmonic structures [5

5. R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442–2446, (2004). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” J. Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405, (2005). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelength,” J. Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299–15302, (2000). [CrossRef]

] to practical two-dimensional cases.

2. Numerical solution approach

2.1. Theory

In [13

13. P. Lusse, P. Stuwe, J. Schule, and H.-G. Unger, “ Analysis of vectorial mode fields in optical waveguides by new finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 487–494, (1994). [CrossRef]

], an accurate and numerically stable finite difference method was proposed for the vectorial analysis of optical waveguides. The method is based on transverse magnetic field components to prevent spurious modes and was applied to solve for the optical modes of subwave-length 2D plasmonic waveguides [6

6. S. J. Al-Bader, “Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 325–329, (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The absence of spurious modes is beneficial in the simulation of realistic plasmonic structures where the large imaginary part of the dielectric constant of metals at optical frequencies results in numerous unbounded and dissipative modes.

In this method, the homogeneous Helmholtz equations for transverse H-field, Eqs. (1) and (2), and the continuity of the longitudinal field components, Eqs. (3) and (4), are

2Hxx2+2Hxy2+k02(ε(x,y)neff2)Hx=0
(1)
2Hyx2+2Hyy2+k02(ε(x,y)neff2)Hy=0
(2)
Hz=1iβ(Hxx+Hyy)
(3)
Ez=iωε0ε(HyxHyy)
(4)

where β is the propagation constant assuming a functional form of exp(i(βz - ωt)) for the steady state modes, k 0 is the wave number in the free space, ε is the dielectric constant, and neff = β/k 0 is the effective index. If the derivatives in these equations are approximated with their equivalent finite differences, all the discrete equations can be arranged into a linear system

LH¯ =[LxxLxyLyxLyy][H¯xH¯y]=β2[H¯xH¯y]
(5)

where is a vector containing field values at all the points on the mesh [13

13. P. Lusse, P. Stuwe, J. Schule, and H.-G. Unger, “ Analysis of vectorial mode fields in optical waveguides by new finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 487–494, (1994). [CrossRef]

]. All material interfaces fall on the grid points. The computational window must be large enough to ensure zero field values at its boundaries. We have chosen even meshing to discretize the main structure and uneven meshing for the rest of the computational window. If the eigenvalue problem in Eq. (5) is solved using the algorithm proposed in [13

13. P. Lusse, P. Stuwe, J. Schule, and H.-G. Unger, “ Analysis of vectorial mode fields in optical waveguides by new finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 487–494, (1994). [CrossRef]

], its solution requires an intractable period of time. This is also a limiting factor for the simulation of complex structures, where a large number of points are present in the computational mesh. Furthermore, when solving Eq. (5) using direct eigenvalue decomposition techniques, the number of the calculated eigenvalues equals twice the number of the total points in the computational window. However, most of the eigenvalues have large imaginary parts, and therefore, correspond to evanescent modes. Therefore, the small number of propagating modes coupled with the sparse nature of L motivate the use of the Arnoldi method to iteratively calculate the eigenvalues. Alternative iterative eigenvalue algorithms such as [14

14. K. Ramm, P. Lusse, and H.-G. Unger, “Multigrid Eigenvalue Solver for Mode Calculation of Planar Optical Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 967–969, (1997). [CrossRef]

] that are based on the subspace iteration method are significantly less efficient since they only calculate one eigenvalue at a time and require the direct computation of the system’s eigenvectors [15

15. V. Hernandez, J. E. Roman, A. Tomas, and V. Vidal, “A Survey of Software for Sparse Eigenvalue Problems,” Technical report, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, (2005).

]. In contrast, using techniques based on the Arnoldi iteration, we can simultaneously solve for all the propagating modes.

2.2. Eigenvalue computation

Even for modest problems sizes with uneven 2-D meshing, the order of L in Eq. (5) can exceed 10000. Direct methods for solving the eigenvalue decomposition problem typically require O(n 2) storage and O(n 3) operations. Therefore, solving eigenvalue problems for matrices with order n larger than several thousand elements is intractable. Since we are interested in the dominant resonant modes of the simulated structure, we only need to calculate a few eigenvalues (β 2) that meet the following criteria: (a) Re(β 2) > 0, (b) Im(β 2) > 0, and (c) Re(β 2) >> Im(β 2).

Iterative eigenvalue decomposition methods based on the Arnoldi iteration have the capability to calculate a small number of eigenvalues near a desired value. To motivate the use of the Arnoldi iteration, we first discuss the power method, which is a traditional technique for iterative eigenvalue computation. In its simplest implementation, the power method successively multiplies a random vector b by powers of a given matrix L in order to find the largest eigenvalue of L. The power method explicitly forms the Krylov Subspace (Kn ), which is defined as

Kn=[b,Lb,L2b,,Ln1b].
(6)

The power method has several drawbacks. First, it cannot locate multiple eigenvalues without employing block decomposition methods, which have significant computational overhead [16

16. W. J. Stewart and A. Jennings, “Algorithm 570: LOPSI: A Simultaneous Iteration Method for Real Matrices [F2],” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 7, 230–232, (1981). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, as higher powers of L are explicitly generated, the resulting basis vectors that span Kn become numerically ill-conditioned, which can ultimately lead to inaccurate results. In contrast to the power method, the Arnoldi iteration projects- the matrix L onto the Krylov Subspace (Kn ) iteratively forming a set of orthogonal basis vectors (Vm )

LVm=VmHm+fmemT
(7)

where Vm* Vm = I and fmemT is the residual error at each step of the iteration. The set of basis vectors generated by the Arnoldi iteration forms an upper Hessenberg matrix (Hm ) of order m where m << n,

Hm=Vm*LVm,
(8)

Figure 1 displays the eigenvalues of a 1680×1680 L matrix and the 13 eigenvalues of largest real part calculated using Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi. It is apparent that only a few of the calculated eigenvalues correspond to bounded propagation modes. Therefore, we signifcantly reduce the computational complexity by calculating only the eigenvalues that satisfy the criteria. For the 1680×1680 matrix, the solution to the eigenvalue problem using direct methods requires approximately 86.8 seconds of CPU time while the iterative eigenvalue computation only needs 1.1 seconds. As the order of L is increased, the computational savings provided by the iterative method becomes even more significant. For a 2100×2100 L matrix, the direct eigenvalue solution requires 677.8 seconds while the iterative method only needs 2.25 seconds to calculate 20 eigenvalues. Given the efficiency of iterative eigenvalue computation using Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi, we are able to calculate the desired eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors for matrices with n greater than 100,000, which are required for complex structures.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Planar multilayered waveguide

We have validated our numerical technique and implementation against a well-established and accurate numerical method for computing the electromagnetic modes supported by multilayered planar optical waveguides constructed from lossy media [10

10. C. Chen, P. Berini, D. Feng, S. Tanev, and V. Tzolov, “Efficient and accurate numerical analysis of multilayer planar optical waveguides in lossy anisotropic media,” Opt. Express 7, 260–272, (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The results are obtained for the wavelength λ = 1.55 μm. The metal is silver with a dielectric constant of εm = -125.72 + i3.23. A dielectric constant of εd = 12.25 is assumed for the dielectric material. In order to solve for the bounded electromagnetic modes, zero boundary conditions are applied to the points lying on the boundary of the computational window. Also, as described in the left inset of Fig. 2, if periodic boundary conditions are imposed, a 1D waveguide with infinite width can be modeled. The dispersion curves for the slab fundamental (symmetric bound Sb ) mode of a 1D metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with a dielectric region thickness of 100 nm is calculated using our method and the method proposed in [10

10. C. Chen, P. Berini, D. Feng, S. Tanev, and V. Tzolov, “Efficient and accurate numerical analysis of multilayer planar optical waveguides in lossy anisotropic media,” Opt. Express 7, 260–272, (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which are compared in Fig. 2. Our results are in excellent agreement the standard 1d method from [10

10. C. Chen, P. Berini, D. Feng, S. Tanev, and V. Tzolov, “Efficient and accurate numerical analysis of multilayer planar optical waveguides in lossy anisotropic media,” Opt. Express 7, 260–272, (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The maximum error of the calculated neff values using our modeling technique with a moderate resolution of 20 is less than 0.3% with respect to the values obtained using [10

10. C. Chen, P. Berini, D. Feng, S. Tanev, and V. Tzolov, “Efficient and accurate numerical analysis of multilayer planar optical waveguides in lossy anisotropic media,” Opt. Express 7, 260–272, (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We define the resolution as the number of points in the computational mesh on the shortest dimension of th waveguide.

Furthermore, when applied to 1D structures, the method still provides an efficient modeling solution because the computational complexity of solving the eigenvalue problem has been greatly reduced. In addition, for 1D structures, typically fewer eigenvalues are needed. Therefore, in these cases, the simulation is significantly faster than 2D ones. Table 1 summarizes the size of L, the required CPU time, the neff values obtained from our simulation method for an MIM waveguide of 100 nm thickness with different resolutions. With a resolution of 10, the error is less than 0.5%, and the waveguide is simulated in 26 seconds.

Fig. 1. Comparison between the neff values computed using direct eigenvalue decomposition and the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi method. In this example, we calculate the 13 eigenvalues with the largest real component.

3.2. Subwavelength metallic strip in a dielectric medium

We model a metallic strip embedded in dielectric medium and compare the results with the method in [6

6. S. J. Al-Bader, “Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 325–329, (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The dispersion relation curves of this waveguide structure are shown in Fig. 3. For λ = 1.55 μm, εm = -125.72+i3.23, εd = 12.25, we calculate the neff values of the first three guided modes, M 00 (Fig. 4), M 01 (Fig. 5), and M 10 (Fig. 6), for a single metallic strip of fixed width w = 1 μm and varying thickness. Two almost degenerate corner modes are represented by curve MC . This degeneracy originates from the fact that the absolute value of the field profiles of these two modes are almost the same. These modes are concentrated at the four corners and are highly lossy [6

6. S. J. Al-Bader, “Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 325–329, (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The symmetric (Sb ) and antisymmetric (Ab ) slab modes shown in Fig. 3 correspond to the guided modes of an insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) planar waveguide.

Table 1. Simulation of a 1D MIM waveguide with t = 100nm

table-icon
View This Table
Fig. 2. Complex propagation constants of SPP between two metallic plates with varying gap width. The solid and the dashed lines are the real and 100x the imaginary parts of the effective index calculated using the method in [10]. Circles and squares shows the calculated real and 100x the imaginary parts of the effective index using the proposed method with periodic boundary conditions.

In Fig. 3, the M 00 and M 10 dispersion diagrams are the same as those obtained in [6

6. S. J. Al-Bader, “Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 325–329, (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In contrast, the y-antisymmetric M 01 mode and the corner modes curves are slightly different. However, M 01 shown in this figure is well predicted by the dielectric model for guided surface polaritons that use the effective index of a planar IMI waveguide to predict the effective indices of the guided modes for a 2D metallic strip waveguide of the same thickness [20

20. R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “ Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475, (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This discrepancy may be due to the discretization error introduced by modeling the fast varying fields of the y-antisymmetric modes with a finite-difference scheme [20

20. R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “ Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475, (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Using the iterative eigenvalue solver introduced in Section 2.2, we can reduce the grid size in order to decrease the discretization error while simulating the structure in a reasonable time. Also, more complex structures can be characterized. For a waveguide consisting of two parallel metallic strips of t = 100 nm and w = 1 μm with a separation of 100 nm, we found that the fundamental mode has an effective index of neff = 4.24+i0.012. The field profile associated with this mode is shown in Fig. 7. Interestingly, the field profile and effective index of this mode are similar to those of the fundamental mode of a single dielectric strip in a metallic medium [5

5. R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442–2446, (2004). [CrossRef]

]. This indicates that multiple-strip metallic waveguides can be used to effectively confine the light to subwavelength area.

4. Conclusion

In this paper, we presented a full-vector finite difference method to solve for propagating modes supported by plasmonic waveguides of subwavelength size. We have used the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi method to calculate the propagation constants for guided SPP modes. By directly solving for the dominant modes, the computational cost of the simulations has been dramatically reduced. The method can be applied to accurately model complex geometries and structures with fast varying field profiles. When applied to solve for purely bounded modes of plasmodic waveguide, our method automatically separates evanescent and low-loss propagating modes.

Fig. 3. Variation of the Real(neff ) with t. The corner modes (MC ), slab symmetric mode (Sb ), slab antisymmetric mode (Ab ), slab symmetric mode (Sa ), fundamental upper branch strip mode (M 01), fundamental lower branch strip mode (M 00) and second lowest-order lower branch strip mode (M 10) are shown. The inset shows the geometry of the waveguide and defines the x and y directions.

References and links

1.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “Integrated plasmon and dielectric waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 5481–5486, (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, and T. Sugiyama, “Simulation of practical nanometric circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 256–266, (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

G. I. Stegeman, R. F. Wallias, and A. Maradudin, “Excitation of surface polaritons by end-fire coupling,” Opt. Lett. 8, 386-(1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, “Experimental observation of plasmon-polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width,” Opt. Lett. 25, 844–846, (2000). [CrossRef]

5.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442–2446, (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

S. J. Al-Bader, “Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 325–329, (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric strucutres,” J. Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503, (2000). [CrossRef]

8.

P. Berini, A. Stohr, K. Wu, and D. Jager, “Normal mode analysis and characterization of an InGaAs/GaAs MQW field-induced optical waveguide including electrode effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2422–2435, (1996). [CrossRef]

9.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and Bound Modes of Surface Plasmon Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431, (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

C. Chen, P. Berini, D. Feng, S. Tanev, and V. Tzolov, “Efficient and accurate numerical analysis of multilayer planar optical waveguides in lossy anisotropic media,” Opt. Express 7, 260–272, (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” J. Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405, (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelength,” J. Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299–15302, (2000). [CrossRef]

13.

P. Lusse, P. Stuwe, J. Schule, and H.-G. Unger, “ Analysis of vectorial mode fields in optical waveguides by new finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 487–494, (1994). [CrossRef]

14.

K. Ramm, P. Lusse, and H.-G. Unger, “Multigrid Eigenvalue Solver for Mode Calculation of Planar Optical Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 967–969, (1997). [CrossRef]

15.

V. Hernandez, J. E. Roman, A. Tomas, and V. Vidal, “A Survey of Software for Sparse Eigenvalue Problems,” Technical report, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, (2005).

16.

W. J. Stewart and A. Jennings, “Algorithm 570: LOPSI: A Simultaneous Iteration Method for Real Matrices [F2],” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 7, 230–232, (1981). [CrossRef]

17.

R. B. Lehoucq and D. C. Sorensen, “Deflation techniques within an implicitly restarted iteration,” SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications 17, 789–821, (1996). [CrossRef]

18.

D. C. Sorensen, “Implicit application of polynomial filters in a K-step Arnoldi method,” SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications 13, 357–385, (1992). [CrossRef]

19.

R. Radke, “A MATLAB implementation of the implicitly restarted Arnoldi method for solving large scale eigenvalue problems,” Technical report, Dept. of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, TX, (1996).

20.

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “ Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1473–1475, (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(240.0310) Optics at surfaces : Thin films
(240.5420) Optics at surfaces : Polaritons
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: June 5, 2006
Revised Manuscript: July 20, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: July 20, 2006
Published: August 7, 2006

Citation
Amir Hosseini, Arthur Nieuwoudt, and Yehia Massoud, "Efficient simulation of subwavelength plasmonic waveguides using implicitly restarted Arnoldi," Opt. Express 14, 7291-7298 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7291


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References

  1. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "Integrated plasmon and dielectric waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5481-5486 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, and T. Sugiyama, "Simulation of practical nanometric circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 256-266 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. I. Stegeman, R. F. Wallias, and A. Maradudin, "Excitation of surface polaritons by end-fire coupling," Opt. Lett. 8, 386 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon-polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Zia,M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, andM. L. Brongersma, "Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442-2446 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. S. J. Al-Bader, "Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 325-329 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric strucutres," J. Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Berini, A. Stohr, K. Wu, D. Jager, "Normal mode analysis and characterization of an InGaAs/GaAs MQW field-induced optical waveguide including electrode effects," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2422-2435 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, "Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Chen, P. Berini, D. Feng, S. Tanev, and V. Tzolov, "Efficient and accurate numerical analysis of multilayer planar optical waveguides in lossy anisotropic media," Opt. Express 7, 260-272 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, "Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model," J. Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Metallic photonic crystals at optical wavelength," J. Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299-15302 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Lusse, P. Stuwe, J. Schule, and H.-G. Unger, "Analysis of vectorial mode fields in optical waveguides by new finite difference method," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 487-494 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. K. Ramm, P. Lusse, and H.-G. Unger, "Multigrid eigenvalue solver for mode calculation of planar optical waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 967-969 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. V. Hernandez, J. E. Roman, A. Tomas, and V. Vidal, "A Survey of Software for Sparse Eigenvalue Problems," Technical report, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, (2005).
  16. W. J. Stewart and A. Jennings, "Algorithm 570: LOPSI: A Simultaneous Iteration Method for Real Matrices [F2]," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 7, 230-232 (1981). [CrossRef]
  17. R. B. Lehoucq and D. C. Sorensen, "Deflation techniques within an implicitly restarted iteration," SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 17, 789-821 (1996). [CrossRef]
  18. D. C. Sorensen, "Implicit application of polynomial filters in a K-step Arnoldi method," SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 13, 357-385, (1992). [CrossRef]
  19. R. Radke, "A MATLAB implementation of the implicitly restarted Arnoldi method for solving large scale eigenvalue problems," Technical report, Dept. of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, TX, (1996).
  20. R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 1473-1475 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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