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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 19 — Sep. 18, 2006
  • pp: 8498–8505
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Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp

Avi Zadok, Avishay Eyal, and Moshe Tur  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 19, pp. 8498-8505 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.008498


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Abstract

Judicious chirping of a directly modulated pump laser is used to broaden the intrinsic linewidth of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber. The modulation waveform is designed to obtain a spectrum with sharp edges, resulting in phase gradients stronger that those obtained for random pump modulation. The gain and phase frequency response of the slow light process are measured by a vector network analyzer, and the delays obtained for our tailored modulation are compared with the case of random direct modulation. For equal pump powers and gain bandwidths (FWHM), the tailored modulation waveform introduces 30–40% longer delays. Using this technique, pseudo random bit sequences of 5 Gb/s were successfully delayed by up to 120 ps (BER<10-5) and 80 ps (BER<10-9).

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Tunable optical delays, based on the ability to control the group velocity of signals propagating through an optical medium, have been at the focus of extensive research recently. Such tunable delays should prove important for applications such as clock alignment of optical communication signals, optical signal processing and microwave photonics [1

1. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “Slow and fast light,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002), Vol. 43 pp. 497–530.

3

3. M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, “Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay,” Opt. Express 139995–10002 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Controllable delays may be achieved in the vicinity of gain or absorption peaks, introduced by a variety of non-linear mechanisms [1

1. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “Slow and fast light,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002), Vol. 43 pp. 497–530.

, 2

2. R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Slow-light optical buffers: capabilities and fundamental limitations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046–4066 (2005). [CrossRef]

], which are accompanied by large spectral gradients of the optical phase. These phase delay gradients modify the group velocity, which can be made slower than that of the linear medium [4

4. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and in some cases even faster [6

6. M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, “The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium,” Nature 425, 695–698 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These conditions are often referred to as “slow light” and “fast light”, respectively. The group velocity of light was reduced by orders of magnitude using electromagnetically-induced transparency in cold atomic gas [4

4. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], population oscillations in quantum well material [7

7. P. C. Ku, F. Sedgwich, C. Chang-Hasnain, P. Palinginis, T. Li, H. Wang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Slow light in semiconductor quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 292291–2293 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and photonic crystal structures [8

8. H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.. 94, 073903 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Realizations of slow and fast light in optical fibers, operating at room temperature, are particularly attractive for optical communication and signal processing applications. Numerous physical mechanisms have been successfully utilized, including Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) [3

3. M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, “Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay,” Opt. Express 139995–10002 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. K.-Y. Song, M. González-Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Long optically controlled delays in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1782–1784 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Raman scattering [12

12. J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 13, 6092–6098 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Raman-assisted parametric amplification [13

13. D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 136234–6249 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and a combination of four-wave mixing and dispersion [14

14. J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, J. van Howe, C. Xu, and A. Gaeta, “All-optical tunable, nanosecond delay using wavelength conversion and fiber dispersion,” in proceedings of CLEO 2005, Long Beach, Ca, 2005, paper CTuT1.

]. For narrowband signals, SBS offers relatively long delays, robustness, implementation simplicity, and relatively low threshold power in standard fibers.

However, most applications of slow-light-based time delays would require a usable bandwidth of several GHz, compatible with the data rates of current optical communication systems. While early demonstrations of SBS-induced slow light used a continuous wave (CW) pump laser to obtain only 30MHz-wide SBS gain curve [3

3. M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, “Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay,” Opt. Express 139995–10002 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. K.-Y. Song, M. González-Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Long optically controlled delays in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1782–1784 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “Distortion effects on data pulses in a slow light tunable delay line due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in proceedings of ECOC 2005, Glasgow, UK, 2006, paper Mo 4.5.2.

], recently this spectral width was successfully broadened through modulation of the pump laser [3

3. M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, “Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay,” Opt. Express 139995–10002 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, “Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 1395–1400 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18

18. A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “Low distortion Brillouin slow light in optical fibers using AM modulation,” Opt. Express 14, 5866–5876 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], culminating in the delay of a single 75ps pulse by 47 ps [19

19. Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “12-GHz-Bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers,” in proceedings of OFC/NFOES 2006, Anaheim, Ca, 2006, paper PDP1.

]. The pump modulation can be either external [3

3. M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, “Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay,” Opt. Express 139995–10002 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, “On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 5877–5884 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “Low distortion Brillouin slow light in optical fibers using AM modulation,” Opt. Express 14, 5866–5876 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or direct [16

16. M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, “Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 1395–1400 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “12-GHz-Bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers,” in proceedings of OFC/NFOES 2006, Anaheim, Ca, 2006, paper PDP1.

], where a relatively narrowband amplitude modulation of the injection current gives rise to frequency chirp in the laser output [20

20. B. W. Hakki, “Evaluation of transmission characteristics of chirped DFB lasers in dispersive optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. , 10964–970 (1992) [CrossRef]

]. The increased bandwidth is achieved at the expense of a higher pump power and reduced delay [21

21. R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, “Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow light medium,” Phys. Rev. A. 71, 023801 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. J. B. Khurgin, “Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 948–950 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition, when the signal bandwidth approaches the spectral width of the SBS process gain curve, considerable distortion and pattern dependence may occur [15

15. C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “Distortion effects on data pulses in a slow light tunable delay line due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in proceedings of ECOC 2005, Glasgow, UK, 2006, paper Mo 4.5.2.

, 17

17. E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, “On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 5877–5884 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “12-GHz-Bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers,” in proceedings of OFC/NFOES 2006, Anaheim, Ca, 2006, paper PDP1.

]. With available pump power often limited, careful trade-offs among delay, bandwidth and signal fidelity are essential [15

15. C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “Distortion effects on data pulses in a slow light tunable delay line due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in proceedings of ECOC 2005, Glasgow, UK, 2006, paper Mo 4.5.2.

, 17

17. E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, “On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 5877–5884 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 22

22. J. B. Khurgin, “Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 948–950 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Previously reported schemes for broadband SBS slow light had relied on stochastic direct modulation of the pump signal, using either a noise source [19

19. Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “12-GHz-Bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers,” in proceedings of OFC/NFOES 2006, Anaheim, Ca, 2006, paper PDP1.

], or a Pseudo-Random Bit Sequence (PRBS) [16

16. M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, “Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 1395–1400 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Although a large bandwidth has been achieved, it is tempting to examine the role played by the waveform of the modulating pump current on the SBS process. It was previously shown theoretically that a judicious choice of the spectral line shape of the SBS gain could lead to better performance [22

22. J. B. Khurgin, “Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 948–950 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this paper, we use both current-induced and thermally-induced chirp, [23

23. H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, “On the Various Time Constants of Wavelength Changes of a DFB Laser under Direct Modulation”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34,1816–1824 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, “Spectral Shift and Broadening of DFB Lasers under Direct Modulation”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. , 10, 1709–1711 (1998). [CrossRef]

], to tailor the optical pump spectrum of a semiconductor laser using a combination of a deterministic, periodic current modulation together with a small random component. The optical spectrum of the pump laser is synthesized to a specific shape, using a previously established model of chirp dynamics [23

23. H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, “On the Various Time Constants of Wavelength Changes of a DFB Laser under Direct Modulation”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34,1816–1824 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, “Spectral Shift and Broadening of DFB Lasers under Direct Modulation”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. , 10, 1709–1711 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Adjustment of the modulating waveform provides extra degrees of freedom for control of the gain and phase response of the SBS process. The gain and phase response of broadband SBS are measured experimentally, using different pump modulation parameters. We show that when compared with random noise pump modulation, a properly chosen periodic waveform increases the group delay by 30–40%, for the same pump power and gain bandwidth. The broadened SBS process was successfully applied in delaying 270 ps wide isolated pulses and 5 Gb/s Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) patterns. Using this novel technique, PRBS data of 5 Gb/s were successfully delayed by up to 120 ps with a BER<10-5, a result we could not obtain using random pump modulation of equal bandwidth and optical power.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 briefly describes the chirp dynamics of a Distributed Feed-Back (DFB) laser, and the synthesis of the optical spectrum of the modulated pump laser. Measurements of the gain and phase response of broadband SBS are reported in Section 3, and the corresponding delay of pulses and PRBS signals is detailed in Section 4. Finally, a discussion of the results and future work is given in Section 5.

2. Optical spectrum of directly modulated DFB lasers.

ν(t)=i(t)h(t);h(t)=n=1NΔνnexp(tτn)
(1)

These time constants correspond to the thermal properties of different layers, and they range from tens of ns to several ms [25

25. M. Ito and T. Kimura, “Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 787–795 (1981). [CrossRef]

]. With prior knowledge of the adiabatic and thermal chirp parameters, the instantaneous optical frequency of a DFB laser subjected to arbitrary direct modulation can be determined, and the optical spectrum may be synthesized [24

24. A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, “Spectral Shift and Broadening of DFB Lasers under Direct Modulation”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. , 10, 1709–1711 (1998). [CrossRef]

].

Im[g(ω)2]=2π0Re[g(ω')2]ω'2ω2dω'
(2)

Fig. 1. (a): Gaussian and truncated Gaussian spectral gain curves Re[g(ω)]. (b): Corresponding spectral phase responses Im[g(ω)], calculated using the Kramers-Kronig relations.

Following the discussion of the last paragraph and using our model for the laser chirp, we found that a periodic modulation waveform of the form:

i(t)=i0+Δi[1(tmodTT)1.5],
(3)

Fig. 2. (a): Dashed line: simulated optical spectrum of DFB laser periodically modulated by the waveform of Eq. (3) with the following parameters: adiabatic chirp coefficient 0.33 GHz/mA, τ1,2=20, 200 ns and Δν1,2=0.15, 0.48 GHz/mA [22]; Solid line: corresponding measured spectrum. (b): Dashed line: measured optical spectrum for a directly modulated DFB laser, using the waveform of Eq. (3) together with a 20 MHz random component of 2mA (rms); Solid line: measured optical spectrum for a directly modulated DFB laser, using 200 MHz random modulation of 20mA (rms).

3. Gain and phase response of SBS with directly modulated pump

Fig. 3. Setup for the measurements of the SBS slow light gain and phase response. BPF: band pass filter. EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Examples of the SBS power gain curves obtained for synthesized and random direct pump modulation are shown in Fig. 4(a–b), using pump power levels of 19–22 dBm. The Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the gain curves are approximately 3 GHz for both modulation formats. The corresponding phase response curves are displayed in Fig. 4(c–d). As anticipated, the steep spectral transitions of the gain curve observed for the tailored modulation are accompanied by stronger gradients of the phase response. The response also shows a phase delay offset, which does not affect the group delay. The calculated group delays τ, determined by the slope of a linear fit to the phase response within the FWHM of the gain curve, are shown in Fig. 5 as a function of the maximum SBS power gain. For equal maximum gain of the probe signal, the calculated group delay obtained with synthesized modulation is 30–40% longer.

Fig. 4. Measured gain curves of SBS using synthesized (a) and random (b) direct pump modulation. The pump power levels are (top to bottom): 22 dBm, 21 dBm, 20 dBm, 19 dBm. Measured phase response curves of SBS using synthesized (c) and random (d) direct pump modulation. The pump power levels are: 22 dBm (blue), 21 dBm (green), 20 dBm (red).
Fig. 5. Calculated group delays as a function of maximum SBS power gain, using synthesized (asterisk signs) and random (plus signs) direct pump modulation.

4. Delay of broadband pulses and PRBS data.

The broadened SBS process was used to delay short pulses and high rate PRBS signals. The output of the probe tunable laser was connected to a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator, driven by a PRBS generator. The delayed, amplified signal at the DSF output was detected by a sampling oscilloscope. In the first set of measurements, isolated pulses with a FWHM of 270 ps were used. Figure 6(a) shows the normalized output pulses for synthesized pump modulation and pump power levels of 18 and 22 dBm, alongside the original pulse. Also shown are the calculated output pulses, based on the gain and phase response measured by the VNA. The delay and broadening of the pulses are well accounted for by the complex SBS response [17

17. E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, “On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 5877–5884 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with some differences at the tails of the pulse for 22 dBm pump power.

Fig. 6. (a): SBS induced delays of 270 ps pulses using synthesized pump modulation. Solid lines, left to right: input pulse, output pulse for pump power of 18 dBm, output pulse for pump power of 22 dBm. Dashed lines: calculated output pulses for pump power of 18 dBm (left) and 22 dBm (right). (b): Measured delays of 5 Gb/s NRZ PRBS as a function of power gain, using synthesized (asterisk signs) and random (plus signs) direct modulations.

An example of the output eye diagram, delayed by 120 ps using synthesized pump modulation, is given in Fig. 7. The BER for delays of 80, 100 and 120 ps using synthesized modulation were <10-9, 10-8 and 4·10-6, respectively. The product of error free delay and bit rate was 0.4, achieved with pump power of 20 dBm. This is a novel demonstration of high bit rate, error free SBS-induced delay.

Fig. 7. Output eye diagram of a 5 Gb/s NRZ PRBS, delayed by 120 ps using SBS with synthesized, direct pump modulation.

5. Summary

In summary, the delay obtained in broadband SBS slow light in fiber was extended using direct modulation of the pump laser with pre-designed chirp. Manipulating the modulation waveform provides extra degrees of freedom for adjustment of the SBS gain and phase response. The chosen modulation waveform generates a tailored pump spectrum with sharp spectral edges, leading to stronger gradients in the SBS phase response. A delay extension of 30–40% was observed, when the novel, synthesized modulation had replaced random direct modulation of equal FWHM bandwidth and pump power. Using this novel technique, PRBS data of 5 Gb/s were successfully delayed by up to 120 ps with a BER<10-5. While the obtained extended delay is still only a fraction of a bit period, it may prove useful in data synchronization and microwave photonics.

A more comprehensive study is under way to theoretically evaluate the relation between the spectrum of a broadband, non-stationary pump and the optical phase response of the probe signal, including pump depletion, aiming at optimizing the modulation waveform.

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to thank G. Eisenstein and E. Shumakher of the Technion, Haifa, Israel, for sharing their advice and experience. Avi Zadok acknowledges the support of the Israeli Clore Foundation for his Ph.D. studies scholarship. The research was supported in part by the Israeli Science Foundation.

References and links

1.

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “Slow and fast light,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002), Vol. 43 pp. 497–530.

2.

R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Slow-light optical buffers: capabilities and fundamental limitations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046–4066 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, “Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay,” Opt. Express 139995–10002 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, “The speed of information in a ‘fast-light’ optical medium,” Nature 425, 695–698 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

P. C. Ku, F. Sedgwich, C. Chang-Hasnain, P. Palinginis, T. Li, H. Wang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Slow light in semiconductor quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 292291–2293 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.. 94, 073903 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, “Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

K.-Y. Song, M. González-Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Long optically controlled delays in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1782–1784 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 13, 6092–6098 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 136234–6249 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, J. van Howe, C. Xu, and A. Gaeta, “All-optical tunable, nanosecond delay using wavelength conversion and fiber dispersion,” in proceedings of CLEO 2005, Long Beach, Ca, 2005, paper CTuT1.

15.

C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “Distortion effects on data pulses in a slow light tunable delay line due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in proceedings of ECOC 2005, Glasgow, UK, 2006, paper Mo 4.5.2.

16.

M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, “Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 1395–1400 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, “On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 5877–5884 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “Low distortion Brillouin slow light in optical fibers using AM modulation,” Opt. Express 14, 5866–5876 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “12-GHz-Bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers,” in proceedings of OFC/NFOES 2006, Anaheim, Ca, 2006, paper PDP1.

20.

B. W. Hakki, “Evaluation of transmission characteristics of chirped DFB lasers in dispersive optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. , 10964–970 (1992) [CrossRef]

21.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, “Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow light medium,” Phys. Rev. A. 71, 023801 (2005). [CrossRef]

22.

J. B. Khurgin, “Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 948–950 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, “On the Various Time Constants of Wavelength Changes of a DFB Laser under Direct Modulation”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34,1816–1824 (1998). [CrossRef]

24.

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, “Spectral Shift and Broadening of DFB Lasers under Direct Modulation”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. , 10, 1709–1711 (1998). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Ito and T. Kimura, “Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 787–795 (1981). [CrossRef]

26.

G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Long-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers, (Van Nostrand, New York, NY, 1986).

27.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Grade, “High resolution measurement of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra in single-mode fibers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 143–148 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(290.5900) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Brillouin
(350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: July 21, 2006
Revised Manuscript: August 24, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: August 29, 2006
Published: September 18, 2006

Citation
Avi Zadok, Avishay Eyal, and Moshe Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8498


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References

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